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details about them.-93. Constr.: Quem fugimus sic ulti (nos) ut nihil &c., avenging ourselves in this way, viz., by touching nothing whatever of this course.-94. Velut ac si, just as if.—95. Canidia afflasset, had breathed upon them; see Epod. v. Sat. i. 8. Pejor, more noxious.

THE EPISTLES.

ALTHOUGH the Satire and the Ode are entirely different orders of poetry, they often meet in Horace upon the common ground of Moral Teaching. In the Odes, the Poet does not always confine himself to the incidental delivery of moral precepts, but sometimes even formally reasons them out, so far as such a process is possible in Lyric Poetry. This philosophic turn of mind shows itself in all his works; but it characterizes more especially the compositions of the last ten years of his life, viz. his Epistles. The principal difference between the Satires and Epistles consists perhaps in this,—that the Satires are all directed against the vices and follies of the day; whereas the Epistles, when they touch directly upon similar subjects, treat the moral question more generally. But whatever be the subjects handled in them, whether those of daily practical life, or such as relate to matters of taste and criticism, they come recommended to us by the charming language in which they are couched, as well as by the wit and wisdom of the writer, an acute and judicious observer himself, and one who had drunk deep of the beautiful revelations of the thinkers of Greece. No one doubts,' says the same writer, from whose life of the Poet we have already quoted, 'but that these delightful compositions are the most perfect works of Horace.'

BOOK I.

EPISTLE I.

TO MECENAS.

MECENAS was desirous that Horace should continue to write Lyric poetry. But the Poet, in the opening of the First Epistle, addressed

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to Mæcenas, and probably written a.u. 734, in alluding to this wish, expresses his intention to devote his pen for the future to the discussion of questions in morality, as more befitting his years, and of more importance to his conduct and happiness in life. Then -after first declaring that he had commenced this study without being attached to any particular school, or any one master exclusively he enters thus upon the subject generally. "However imperfect," he says, "the natural disposition may be, it will be always possible, where there is a willing mind, for a man to attain to such a degree of proficiency in Moral Philosophy as will materially assist him in controlling the baser affections of his nature. How great are the efforts that men make to escape from what they consider to be the worst of evils-poverty! Half these efforts made in the pursuit of virtue would insure the happiness so eagerly sought for. The popular cry is, Money, money!' 'Money first, and money last!' As if money were the universal good. Moral wisdom says, 'Shake off the hold of vice; cease to be a slave in heart and mind, and you will be the equal of kings.' Am I asked why I take Philosophy for my guide in my path through life, rather than follow the multitude in its opinions and pursuits? My answer is, because I see how miserable the consequences are of following the multitude. This 'general opinion,' what is it? To what is it ever constant? In what is it ever consistent? Where or how is this Proteus to be seized? If in my dress I should by chance betray an eccentric taste, or any want of proper care in my person, you notice it, it is matter for ridicule. But if you find me unstable in mind, capricious, varying in opinion from hour to hour, you consider me merely like the rest of the world, and in no need of a keeper." He then concludes with a little raillery at the expense of the Stoics and their extravagancies, but conveying, at least, as effectually as if he had gravely enunciated it, the great truth, that it is to Moral Wisdom alone, that we owe the real dignity of man, and all life's best blessings.

1. Camœna carmine; Horace is not to be understood here as alluding so much to any one of his published poems in particular, as speaking generally of Mæcenas, as of one whom it was his pleasure and pride to associate in honour with the Essays of his Muse. He speaks, most probably, of his Lyric poems only.-2 &c. The Poet compares himself to a popular gladiator, who, after a long time of service, had at last obtained his discharge by the favour of the people. The gladiator, when thus discharged, received a ticket, or medal, with his name upon it, the letters SP. (spectatus), and the date of his PART II.

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discharge. He had also a rudis, or wooden sword, given him ; hence donatus rude. Horace pleads his SP., and his rudis, and complains that Mæcenas should wish him to return to the lists again.— 3. Ludus (gladiatorius); the school where the master (lanista) prepared the gladiators for the public combats.-4. Veianius; 'nobilis gladiator, post multas palmas, consecratis Herculi Fundano (of Fondi, a town of Latium) armis, tandem in agellum se contulit.' Schol. Armis Herculis &c.; Hercules being the gladiator's god. See O. iii. 23. 3.- 6. Extrema arena, from the end of the arena ; the arena was separated from the seats by a, wall; to this wall (extrema arena) the gladiator approached whenever he begged the people for his discharge. -7. Est mihi, qui personet some moni

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tor whispers in my ear. Purgatam aurem; i. e. an ear no longer filled with the noisy cries of the passions, but cleared of them, and open to hear the voice of reason.-8. Sanus, if you are wise. The poet compares himself to a race-horse in the public games.-9. Ilia ducat become broken-winded.-10. Pono depono.-11. To ảλnès, and τὸ καλὸν (or τὸ πρέπον); the great objects of Philosophical inquiry. Curo, I think out for myself; rogo, I learn by inquiry from others.-12. Condere and promere; terms proper of provisions stored up, and produced when wanted; hence the name of condus promus, given to the person of the household charged with this care.-13. Quo lare = qua domo, of what family = of what school, or sect of Philosophers. See O. i. 28. 1. 14. But as the gladiators, who formed one school, were called a familia, dux and lar most probably refer, in their literal acceptation, to the lanista and his familia.-14. Addictus is a law term, implying assigned over to a person as a slave' by order of the court; it was in frequent use in the case of the insolvent debtor. Jurare in verba magistri; see Epode v. 25. This is said generally, rather than with reference to the gladiator's oath. Addictus jurare (Gr.) = non (ita) addictus, ut in cerba ullius magistri jurem.—15. Whatever port I am carried to by the prevailing wind, I enter it, but not to stay (hospes).'-16. Agilis (paкTIKòs), I engage in active life; according to the doctrine of the Stoics, who required their disciples to take part in political life; but contrary to that of Epicurus. Mersor, I plunge myself.-18. Furtim, insensibly, scarcely avowing it to myself. Aristippus of Cyrene was, says Cicero, eorum philosophorum qui voluptatem finem bonorum esse voluerunt, princeps. It was the doctrine they taught that procured the Cyrenaic philosophers the name of 'Hdovicoì, from dový.-19. Et mihi res &c. ; ' and, in accordance with Aristippus' philosophy, I endeavour to make all things that occur minister to my will and pleasure, instead of submitting myself to them, as a slave, on the Stoics' principle.' Subjungere; prop. of putting an animal to the yoke.-20. Restat &c. ; little more, however, is in my power than to guide and comfort myself by the elementary principles of the science.'-21 &c. 'If a high degree of attainment is denied you, you are not on that account to desist from all effort, and deprive yourself of the benefit unto which you may attain.' Lynceus; see S. i. 2. 90.-22. Contemnas, disdain.— Inungi; see S. i. 3. 1, 24.–23. Glycon of Pergamos, a celebrated

athlete.-24. Nodosa; the gout gives rise to what are called chalkstones, in the knuckle-joints; see S. ii. 7. n. 15.-25. EstεOTI. Quadam....tenus = quadamtenus; so hactenus, quatenus. -26 &c. All vicious inclinations can be weakened, if not entirely removed, by moral instruction, and by the serious application of ourselves to their amendment.'-26. Cupido; always masculine in Horace.-27. Verba et voces, word-charms, magic incantations; indai, by which certain maladies were believed to be cured. Observe in fervet, lenire dolorem, tumes &c., the language of bodily disease, used of the mind. -29. Piacula, remedies; prop. expiatory sacrifices, кalápμаra; because diseases were supposed to be the visitation of the offended gods. ―30. Ter pure; alluding to the prescribed lustrations and ablutions that accompany all piacula. Libello; used in a double sense, of the moral treatise that is to effect the moral cure, and of the book containing the carmina for the cure of disease.-33. Cultura animi Philosophia est; hæc extrahit vitia radicitus, et præparat animos ad satus accipiendos. Cic. Tusc. ii. ch. 5. · - 36. Repulsa; see O. iii. 2. 17.-40. Constr. Non vis discere &c.; ne cures ea (so as no more to value) &c. -41. Audire, to obey.-42-44. 'Who would not prefer a certain, easy, and yet glorious victory, to combats, where success is without fame, however painfully obtained. Such is the victory moral wisdom offers its disciples; and such necessarily the fruitless contests in which the man of the world is constantly engaged.'-43. A Greek construction, στεφανοῦσθαι Ολύμπια τὰ μεγάλα ; i. e. at the great games celebrated at Olympia, in Elis; magna emphatically, above all other such public games.-44. Sine pulvere, Gr. ȧxoviri, without a struggle for it; without raising the dust in the arena.-45. Vilius &c., says true Philosophy; but this is met by a very different cry.-47. Janus summus ab imo the whole Forum; see Š. ii. 3. n. 28. Janus is supposed to deliver himself of this noble sentiment, as a master to his scholars around him, who, both young and old, repeat it ;—they are all, senes juvenesque, made to appear as at school with Janus, by Horace's humorous application to them of the line by this time perhaps become famous, with which he had described the children of the magni centuriones going to school at Venusia. See S. i. 6. n. 74. -50. Est animus tibi, you are not, we will suppose, deficient in mental endowments.-51. According to the law of Roscius Otho (see Ep. iv. n. 16), no man worth less than 400,000 sesterces was admitted to the privilege of sitting as a Roman knight in the seats assigned to the equites near the orchestra; if he was not worth that sum, he dropped into the plebs. Horace here cleverly applies to his purpose terms used by children in one of their games; Plebs eris, says Otho and the world; (no) Rex eris (says the mouth of the child at his play), si recte facies; giving to Rex and recte facies the Stoics' meaning. At a certain game of ball, he who missed was called ovos; he who hit or won (recte fecit), Baσıλevç.—53. Hic murus &c.; (and they are right) this be your &c.-56. Nenia, this game-cry.-57. M. Curius Dentatus and M. Furius Camillus were favourite examples of old Roman virtue. Decantata; i. e. the noble Romans of old ever had this cry in their mouth, and exemplified it in their deeds.-58. Qui

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(hortatur ut) rem, money (ever), money!-60. Propius; in one of the first fourteen tiers near the orchestra, assigned to the Equites and their 400,000 sesterces. Pupius; no doubt a most sorry tragic writer.-61. An (melius tibi suadet is) qui responsare, meet the insults. See S. i. 7. n. 59.-62. Præsens, at your side, and ready to help. Aptat = aptum reddit (ad responsandum). — 64. Porticibus ; covered works; of which there were many in Rome, attached both to public and private buildings. Judiciis fruar, partake also in their views, and appreciation of things.-67. Referam, I will make answer, as once (olim) upon a time; the Fable is Esop's. Horace's answer is, that he finds that those, who have followed the multitude in their pursuits and opinions have suffered for it; have gone on to their ruin; and that the instinct of self-preservation therefore prevents his following them.-70. Conducere publica, to farm the public revenues; they paid a certain sum to the State, and took the actual income on their own risk.-71. These are legacy-hunters; see S. ii. 5. 10 &c.— 72. Excipere, to catch (fishing, or hunting). Virarium; is used of any place where game of any kind was preserved alive and fattened.-73. Occulto; i. e. beyond the legal and_permitted interest (12 per cent.), and therefore kept secret.-74. Esto, Gr. elev, be it so, grant; is a formula of passing from further pursuit of one subject to another.76 &c. The same passion is here referred to of building villas out into the sea, as is noticed in the Odes. See O. ii. 14. 17.—77. Lacus (Lucrinus); near Baiæ.-78. Festinantis, impatient.-79. Fecerit auspicium = has bid him do it. Facere alicui auspicium, is said of the god, who, when consulted on any project, makes the auspices favourable to the projector. In this case the god is the man's libido. Teanum Sidicinum; an inland town, thirty miles from Baiæ.-80. Lectus genialis &c.; (Suppose) he is a married man.' In aula; i. e. in the atrium opposite the entrance-door; there, near the Lares, stood a symbolical nuptial couch the whole time that the union lasted; it was taken away in case of a divorce, or at the death of either the husband or wife. 82. Si non est (lectus genialis).· ·84. Quid pauper? but what of the poor man? (is his love of change less?) Conacula, their garrets; the homes of the poor, and of the slaves in rich men's houses.-86. Nauseat, gets as sick; with a double meaning.-87. Horace here addresses Mæcenas. Curatus capillos, dressed as to my hair = having just had my hair cut. Inæquali, who had not cut it even. -88. Subucula; a sort of linen, or cotton shirt, worn next the skin. Pexa tunica = a new tunic; it was made of wool: perc implying that the nap was good upon it.-89. Dissidet, sits awkwardly, or unevenly. The Romans were particularly careful about the set of the toga. 92. Estuat, is backwards and forwards. Disconvenit is in disagreement with itself.-93. Mutat quadrata rotundis; probably a proverbial way of saying, 'changes every thing.'-94. Insanire solemnia, Gr. insanire solemniter, i. e. after the approved fashion of all the world; or, insanire insanias solemnes (see S. ii. 3. n. 63), that I do but labour under the universal madness.-96. It was the Prætor's duty to assign a guardian to persons out of their mind.-97. Quum sis, though you are. Sectum ob unguem; this was the barber's office; and the

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