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he who is always master of himself.-59. Responsare = to repel these temptations. — 60. In se ipso totus, complete. Teres atque rotundus; the spherical form, as the most perfect, and as affording nothing for extraneous matter to catch by (externi ne quid caleat per læve morari), was emblematic with the Stoic of the soul of the wise man. 62. Manca, powerless; prop. maimed. Potesne &c.; in this description of the wise man (asks Davus saucily) do you find any resemblance to yourself?'-65. Gelida (aqua).-66. Quis, from queo = non potes.-67. Dominus &c. (your passions) no gentle master. 68. Negantem, who says no to him; resists him.-69. Pausias of Sicyon, a famous painter, lived about B.C. 370; one of his works, the repavолλóкоç, was purchased by Lucullus for two talents. Torpes, you stand struck at the sight; stronger than stupet.-70. Famous gladiators of the day are here named. -71 &c. Constr.: Prolia (quæ fiunt) contento poplite, with strained ham with foot set firmly in advance.-72. Some of these coarse sketches, serving as public advertisments, have been found at Pompeii. Velut si = just as if they were really alive, fighting &c. 74. Nequam, et cessator Davus (audio, you call me); if I waste my time in looking at these pictures. At ipse &c., but you are called &c. -75. Callidus; see Sat. 3. 1. 23.-76. Nil ego (sum), I am a goodfor-nothing fellow.-77. Responsat, refuse; see 1. 59.-79. Tergo plector enim = simply because I get flogged for it. Qui impunitior &c. = how are you less punished than I am for your greediness? Davus then shows how H. was punished.-81. Nempe why this is your less punishment. Inamarescunt = amaræ fiunt (in ventriculo).—82. Illusi, mistaking their strength tottering.-84. Mutat, changes for; see O. i. 17. n. 2. Štrigil; a sort of rasp used for the skin, after the warm-bath. Furtiva, stolen. -85. Gulæ parens, to serve his love of eating and drinking-86. Otia recte ponere = make a right use of your leisure time.-87. Fugitivus et erro; terms that designated the runaway-slave, and the idle truant; both, observe, applied to Horace by his own slave.-89. Comes atra = So post equitem cedet atra cura, O. iii. 1. 1. 40.-90. Unde mihi lapidem? where can I find a stone?-says H., unable any longer to restrain himself-Unde sagittas? where arrows-any thing?-91. Aut insanit &c. Davus, in true Stoic, cannot, or will not, suppose that the truth has enraged his master; hence his 'quorsum est opus?' and, at last, aut insanit homo, aut (what was much the same thing to Davus) versus facit.'-92. Rapis = proripis te unless you get out of my sight instantly; accedes opera nona, I will send you off into the country, to work in the fields with my eight other slaves there (a small number at that time) this would have been both a degradation and a punishment. Such a slave, as Davus, at Rome, was 'my gentleman's gentleman,' and looked down upon those employed on the farm as mere country bumpkins.


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FUNDANIUS, a Comic Poet after the manner of Terence, is supposed, in this Satire, to give Horace, in a conversation with him, the

following amusing account of a dinner given by Nasidienus to Mæcenas, and some of his friends. After the many reverses of fortune consequent upon the civil wars, Rome swarmed with parcenus, persons who had neither birth, education, nor knowledge of the world to recommend them, but whose wealth, gathered out of the troubles of the country, was very large. When peace was firmly established, and a court formed about Augustus, these millionaires were ambitious to figure among the élite of the day; but their original condition constantly betrayed itself, to the no small amusement of the witty aristocracy, whose company they affected. Nasidienus was one of this class; a real person, we can scarcely doubt, under a fictitious name. It appears he had invited Maecenas, with several of his friends, Varius and Fundanius among the rest, to dinner; but in his ambition to make his banquet surpass all banquets, he succeeds only in making himself ludicrous, astonishing his guests at the novelty as well as bad cookery of his dishes, and tiring them out at last by his endless discussions on their nature and recommendations. It is a most comically graphic picture throughout. The dinner was one of great pretensions, in which the guest could scarcely recognize a single dish; such was the variety, vulgarity, want of tact, and want of good breeding, that presided throughout.


1. Nasidieni; scan Nasidyeni. Horace thus begins the dialogue with Fundanius. Beatus, rich.-2. Here = heri. Dictus (es).-3. The usual hour of the cœna was the ninth or tenth (three or four o'clock). To invite persons of quality for an earlier hour (de medio die between twelve and three), was unknowing. Sic (me juvit ea cœna). —4. Da = dic.-5. Iratum ventrem, famished, calling out for food; so latrantem stomachum, S. 2. 1. 18-6. Lucanus; the best sort; see S. 3. 1. 234. Leni Austro; whence it became tender.-7. Cœnæ pater, the host.-9. Pervellunt, provoke. Facula Coa; the lees, or rather the tartar, of the wine of Cos, prepared at the fire; the fox of Sat. 4. 1. 73. These pungents were served up on little dishes (catilli), and placed round the boar, for stimulants as well as correctives; but usually they were not brought to table till stimulants were required for further eating.-10. Succinctus is used thus Sat. 6. 107. It was usual for the attendants at table to have their tunics girded up; he was probably altius cinctus, and therefore it is noticed by Fundanius ; and 1. 70 seems to confirm this. Acernam; tables of maple (acer) were next in value to those of citron-wood.-11. Gausape purpureo; there was something perhaps unusual to eyes polite in the colour of this cloth, or napkin.-13. Attica virgo cum sacris Cereris; alluding to the cavηpópos, who, at the festival of Ceres, carried on her head a basket (kavour) containing the sacred symbols, moving slowly and

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solemnly on.-14. Fuscus Hydaspes, a swarth Indian slave; having his name from the river.-15 &c. Cacuba vina; one of the best. The wines of Chios, and the Greek wines in general, were exported from Greece, mingled with sea-water; but they could be procured undiluted, maris expertia, at a much greater price, however, and they were therefore rare in that state at Rome.-16. (Si) Albanum.-17. Appositis (his vinis).-18. "Poor riches!" says H., which only caused their possessor to expose himself. Vulgar ostentation is the character of the feast and its host.-20 &c. The next lines will be best understood by consulting the plan of the Triclinium here given, and the position of the guests.


The table was square. The attendants approached by the fourth side. The names of the couches are given in the plan; the place of honour was called the locus consularis, and is that which Mæcenas occupied; viz., the lowest on the 'Medius lectus.' The host's place was ordinarily the Locus summus' on the Imus lectus; though not so in this instance; the 'Imus lectus' was usually occupied by the master of the house, and one or more of his family. The posture in eating was that of leaning on the left elbow, the right hand being thus at liberty.-20. Viscus Thurinus; of Thurii, in Calabria; to

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distinguish him from those mentioned S. i. 10. 83.-21. Varius, the poet; see S. i. 5. 40. Servilio; scan Servilyo. Balatro; his surname, but jester, buffoon.-22. Vibidius; unknown. Umbra; a name given to persons, who, uninvited themselves, accompanied an invited guest to the banquets, as if the shadows' of a more important person.-23. Nomentanus; see S. i. 1. 102. Ipsum, Gr. avròv, the host. Porcius was one of the 'publicani' of the day; but both he and Nomentanus appear here simply as 'led captains' of the host.-24. Placenta; a wafer-cake, made of flour, cheese, and honey.-25. Ad hoc (aderat) &c., was present for this purpose-to point out (qui monstraret). Lateret (nos), should escape us; if we should not be aware ourselves of the nature of the dainties before us.'-26. Cetera turba; all of us, except Nomentanus, ignoramus' in the dishes before us.-28. 'Very different in flavour from what we had been accustomed to;' probably from the sauces employed.-29. Ut vel continuo, as forthwith appeared. Passeris (marini), a plaice.-30. Ingustata = quæ nunquam ante gustareram; the liver not being usually eaten.-31. Minorem, waning.-32. Quid hoc &c. = what difference this makes you will learn better from him.— 34. Damnose bibimus = unless we make him suffer in wine. Moriemur inulti (in the mock heroic) = we shall die (from this eating) unavenged.-36. Parochus; a term explained S. i. 5. n. 46, and which is humorously applied here to the host.-38. Exsurdant = blunt, deaden; applied from the ear to the taste.-39. Invertere= (here) to pour out, so as quite to empty. Allifanis (scyphis); large cups from Allifæ, in Samnium. Vinaria (vasa); the lagena,' or amphora,' in which the wine was kept, is intended.-41. Nasidienus' two hangerson, i. e. Nomentanus and Porcius (imi lecti) were careful not to displease him by such free use of his wine.-42. Murana, a lamprey; natantes; i. e. in the sauce.-43. Sub hoc, upon this. Gravida, with roe in it.-44. Post partum, after spawning. The fun here probably consists in his gravely giving his guests this piece of information.45. His mistum jus est; the host now enters into a minute description of the sauce he used with this fish, and his own meritorious part in the compound. Venafri; see O. ii. 5. n. 16. Prima cella; the first division of the cella olearia, where stood the first vat, in which the oil of the first pressing, and best quality therefore, was kept.—46. Garum was a sort of anchovy-sauce. Piscis Hiberus is the scomber, or mackerel, taken off the coast of Carthagena.-47. Citra mare nato = made in Italy.-48. Dum coquitur, while the sauce is on the fire: cocto, when it has done boiling.—49. Aceto, quod &c., vinegar, which, by its sharpness, has changed the grape of Methymna (= Lesbian wine): Methymna being the capital of the island of Lesbos.-51 &c. Erucas v'rides; the green plant, or at least the leaf, chopped in (the seed was commonly used as a stimulant). Inulas ego primus amaras &c. ; the herb is our elecampane. See Sat. 2. 44. I was the first,' says N. with great dignity, &c.-52. Illotos &c. ; to the sauce thus far described Curtillus (an unknown epicure) first added sea-urchins-unwashed that they might retain the taste of the sea-water-instead of the usual shell-fish pickle (muria).—53. Ut melius = Gr. ὡς κρεῖσσον ὄν. Quam testa; quod is sometimes read, and is the reading of the best

MSS., though not that commonly received; with quod translate 'as that which (the juice which) the testa marina (= echinus) yields, is better than the usual muria.'-54. Aulaa; the draperies with which the ceiling was decorated, in the form of a canopy.-55. In patinam; upon the great dish of the day, in which the notable fish and its sauce were.-57. Nos majus veriti; viz., that the house might be falling in.-58. Erigimur (animis) = recover, revive. Rufus, i. e. Nasidienus. Posito cap., with his head on the couch.-61. Tollere = to raise the spirits.-64. Suspendens o. naso = omnia irridens, ridiculing everything. See S. i. 6. n. 5. Servilius, i. e. catches the grave tone of Nomentanus, and continues it as gravely; a gravity, however, well understood by his friends.-67. Tene torquerier (= torqueri) ! the interjectional infinitive, expressive of strong feeling: ('what a hard condition!) that you should be tormented &c.' Ut ego accipiar; half the fun lies in the fact that Servilius was not asked at all.-69. Conditum ; from condire.-70. Præcincti recte comptique; gives the meaning of altius recto to the alte cinctus of 1. 10.-72. Agaso = a stable boy; Servilius would insinuate that a slave had been brought out of the stable for the day, to add to the show; and possibly betrayed himself to Servilius by bringing some of the stable with him.-74. Nudare to manifest, to bring to light.-75. Mæcenas and his friends must have been not a little amused at finding Nasidienus so entirely taken in, and thanking Servilius for what he said.-77. Every body put off their sandals when they took their places on the couches. Nasidienus asks for his again, in order, probably, to see matters re-arranged after the late mishap. -79. Nullos ludos = no play. These are Horace's words to Fundanius.-81. Lagena; that held the wine a patina probably had been broken, 1. 72. The friends of Mæcenas were quite in a laughing vein; but, in courtesy, pretended (fingebant) other subjects for laughter than the real.—82. Dumque ridetur (de rebus) fictis; see Sat. ii. 1. 1. 25.-83. Secundo with Balatro's aid.-84. Nasidiene; this apostrophe to Nasidienus is in the mock heroic tone.-86. Malovóuos; a great tray (something like those on which refreshments are served up), and used originally for handing bread (μála) round. Discerpta; rather than dissecta = plucked asunder.-87. Gruis, a crane; about in the same estimate to the stork, a usual dish at this time, as the plaice of our day is to the turbot.-88. Pinguibus ficis; this jecur anseris is something extraordinary,' says N.; being the liver of a goose (not a gander), and of a white goose, and of one fattened upon rich (fresh) figs. To assure his guests that it was not a gander's liver, was to take credit for not imposing upon them; and the pinguibus ficis was all ostentation.— 89. Et leporum avulsos; all contrary to the taste of the connoisseur of the day, and, indeed, to that of our day; the loin is the best part of the hare; the wing, or shoulder, the worst: utter ignorance of the science of good cookery is therefore here supposed. See Sat. 4. 44.-90. Both the merula and palumbes were obviously either spoilt in the cooking, or cooked contrary to the best taste; the rump being a favourite part; but such as they were, and they were not to be despised (suaves res)-all was spoilt by the host's interminable

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