Obrazy na stronie
PDF
ePub

=

6

also quæstus.-20. Libentius; see Car. Sæc. n. 15. Horace, on beginning an account of the manner in which the whole day, from the early morning, is passed at Rome, calls, in all propriety, upon Janus as 'matutinus pater.' He was the deity presiding over opening life, the opening year, month, and day, &c. ; hence matutinus pater.'21. Unde a quo, by prayer to whom.-23. Roma, when I am at Rome. Rapis (in Forum), you hurry me off (to the Forum) to be bail for a friend; a service which it was almost impossible to refuse. Eia, off with you; the Poet supposes Janus to say to him.-24. Urge, quick, quick. Cic. to Att.: Quamobrem, ut facis, urge, insta, perfice. - 25, 26. Radit, scours. Constr. Sive bruma trahit diem nivalem interiore gyro = or winter brings its days of snow with its inner orbits of motion. The daily motion (as supposed) of the sun round the earth was thought to be in concentric circles, of which the inner circles were therefore the smallest; and thus the days the shortest.-27. Constr.: Postmodo luctandum est (mihi) locuto &c. thus I have to force my way &c., after having pronounced (locuto) the formula of suretyship, that may one day be my bane (quod mî obsit).—30. Iratæ preces = curses; in his rage at being shoved against. Tu pulses & c.; What, must you thus drive against every thing in your way if you happen to be in haste to get back to Mæcenas?'-31. Recurras; as if he were domiciled there.-32. Hoc; this mention of Mæcenas, and my intimacy with him. At simul atras &c. Horace, as well as Mæcenas and Virgil, lived in the Esquiliæ; the burial ground for the slaves and the poor, that used to be here before Mæcenas' improvements (see Sat. 1. 8. INTR.) had given the quarter the epithet atras, which it probably long retained.-34. Per caput &c. = din through my head, and play about both ears; he finds persons waiting for him with business at Mæcenas. 35. Constr. Roscius orabat (te, ut) sibi adesses cras ante secundam (horam = before six, seven, or eight o'clock, according to the season) ad Puteal. These are the words of Roscius' slave, who brings his master's message, as it would have been expected, in writing; orabat, i. e. at the moment when he gave the message. Puteal was the name of a building in the Forum, like a well in appearance, where the Prætor sometimes sat; it was a usual place of meeting for the transaction of business.-36, 37. Another messenger from the college of Scribes, to which Horace had belonged for some years, i. e. from his return to Rome after the battle of Philippi, till about A.U. 717.—38. A third importunate applicant. During part of A.U. 723 (that of the battle of Actium), Mæcenas, in Augustus' absence, held his seal of state.-39. Dixeris = should you say. -40. Septimus &c.; Horace modestly makes less of his intimacy with Mæcenas than was the fact. The seventh year, almost the eighth (= nearly eight years) must probably have passed (fugerit as diff. from fugit).'-42. (Sed) dumtaxat. Tollere curru (rheda), or in currum, or in navem, &c., is the term for taking a person with you for a drive, sai!, &c.-44. Hoc genus, id genus, in prose also for hujus generis. Gallina and Syrus were two gladiators; the arms they fought with were different; the Threx fought with a crooked sword, and small round shield, used in Thrace. hence called Threx; which word, as

·

--

distinguished from Thrax, referred to the class of gladiators, not to his country. Syrus was most likely of the class of mirmillones, as the mirmillo, armed Gallic-fashion, was usually opposed to the Threx.-45. Mordent, nip, bite.-46. Bene, safely. Rimosa aure, in an ear that is sure to let it out again. Thus Ter. Eun. i. 2. 25, Plenus sum rimarum; hac atque illac perfluo. - 47. Subjectior, I am more and more exposed.-48. Noster, our man; jocularly for himself; and borrowed perhaps from slaves, who, in speaking to one another, designated their master as noster. Spectaverat, luserat I had our friend, for instance, &c.; this subjunctive use of the indicative is not uncommon. Una in company (with Maecenas). 49. Omnes (dicunt).-50. A Rostris = from the Forum; where there was always a great assemblage of people. Frigidus rumor = a disheartening, alarming rumour. 52. Deos; i. e. Augustus, Mæcenas, &c.-53. The Dacians were long troublesome, and had sided with Antony.54. Derisor, how you always will play the fool!-55. Si quidquam (audivi). Constr. Cæsar daturus est militibus promissa prædia (utrum in) Triquetra an (in) Itala tellure? Augustus had promised lands to his veterans upon the termination of the contest with Sextus Pompeius; but the war with Antony had intervened; and whilst Augustus was in Asia, the veterans mutinied. Augustus landed at Brundusium to satisfy them; and during his stay in that town, question was made at Rome whether he would assign them lands in Italy, or in Sicily. Triquetra, Sicily, as of triangular (triquetra) form, called also Trinacria, from its three promontories (arpov), Pachynus, Lilybæum, Pelorus.-58. Scilicet, it is plain.-59. Lux dies. Votis ; of the kind following. 62. Ducere, to drink in. -63. Cognata, Pythagoras' relation; jocularly, because Pythagoras extended the doctrine of the metempsychosis even to plants; and therefore any faba might possibly contain the soul of one of his own near relations.-64. Satis uncta; being boiled with a piece of fat bacon. Ponentur, served at table.-65. Cœnæque Deûm = beatissimæ.-66. Ante L. proprium = ante focum meum, by which the Lar was placed. Procaces, saucy; their usual character. — 67. Libatis = (here) of which we have first taken what we pleased. Cuique, each guest.-69. Legibus; those of the symposiarch at formal banquets. See i. 4. n. 18. Acria pocula, cups of strong wine; i. e. but little diluted with water.-70. Urescit, moistens; see O. iv. 5. 1. 39.-72. Lepos; 'insignis saltator, archimimus, Octaviano gratus, qui lepide semper saltabat, unde ei nomen inditum.' Schol.-75. Usus rectumne = self-interest, as the Epicurean taught; or right principle, as the Stoic.—76. The definition of the summum bonum, rò TEλos Twν ảуalwv,-that was to be sought after for its own sake, as the one end and object of all human actions-was one of the principal theses of the heathen philosophy. The two great sects-the Stoics and the Epicureans-came to directly opposite decisions on the question.—77. Cervius, a neighbour. Aniles &c. folk-lore.-78. Ex re, i. e. à propos to the subject of conversation. Arellius; a miser, here only mentioned.-79. The now well-known fable follows of The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse. Olim, once upon a time.-82. Asper = a close, rigid liver. Attentus

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

quæsitis (= acquisitis), with an eye to his stores. Ut tamen &c. = attentus (sic) tamen, ut. yet so as to be ready to relax his close ( = saring) disposition in a host's offices for a friend.-84. Invidit, did not grudge his friend; the gen. is after the Gr. plovɛiv tivi tivos; understand (a share of) his hoard of vetches.-84. Longæ avenœ; from the shape of the oat compared with the pea.-85. Aridum acinum, a raisin.-86. Varia cœna = varietate ciborum.-87. Male (= vix) tangentis = scarcely deigning to touch; as became a city mouse of taste. 88. Pater domus = paterfamilias, i. e. the host-mouse. Horna, fresh of this year.-89. Esset ederet. Ador loliumque, spelt and darnel; the coarser food.-93. Terrestria, since all that inhabits the earth. The town mouse in this speech, shows he was of the Epicurean school, as became his breeding.-95. Leti fuga; a means of escaping death. Quocirca, O bone...-96 &c. Horace's own favourite doctrine; see the Odes passim. -98. Pepulere, induced.-100. Jamque tenebat; in mock heroic. -102. Coccus; the cochineal insect, yielding a scarlet dye, which word scarlet is supposed to be a corruption of Galaticus, the coccus coming in large quantities from Galatia.-103. Canderet, glowed; is rarely said of any colour but white, but used of the glow that succeeds the red heat of fire.-105. Procul = some little way off. So serta procul capiti jacebant, Virg. Ecl. vi. 16. Hesterna, belonging to yesterday's banquet.— 107. Veluti succinctus &c., the host hurries about (cursitat), like the tucked up slave (on such occasions).—108. Continuatque dapes = brings up dish upon dish to table; i. e. waited like the slave. Nec non verniliter &c., and in true slave style goes through his duties; prælambens &c.; licking off first a taste of every dish he sets on table.'-110. Bonisque rebus, and with the good things before him. Agere convivam, magistrum, principem to be &c. as well as to sustain the part of &c.-112. Valcarum strepitus &c.; upon the slaves coming in to arrange the apartment.-113. Currere &c. ; elliptic infinitive; sc. cœperunt currere &c.-114. Simul simulac. The Molossi canesdogs from Molossia, in Epirus-were of great size and strength.— 117. Tutus ab insidiis in its security from unexpected dangers. Solabitur &c., will console me even with its poor tares (for the want of dainties).

[ocr errors]

SATIRE VII.

THIS Satire is a companion to the Third; the doctrines of the Stoics are the subject handled in both; and in both Horace himself is attacked by a disciple of a Stoic aretalogus. In the Third Satire it is the trader and curiosity-dealer, Damasippus, whose own affairs have gone to ruin, who, in his character of convert to Stoicism, takes those of humanity at large in hand, and makes an essay upon Horace, showing him that he was no better than mad, according to the true doctrine. In this Satire it is Horace's own slave, who, having been converted to the philosophy of the Stoics by the porter

of the aretalogus Crispinus, engages to open the eyes of his master to his real state. He takes advantage of the Saturnalia to do this, during which, according to an ancient custom, slaves enjoyed a brief period of unrestrained liberty. All men (so taught the Stoics),

who are subject to any passion whatever, whether it be a passion for pleasure, or for money, or for the fine arts, &c., are slaves; just as much as those who are by condition such; the wise man (of the Stoics) excepted, all the rest of mankind are slaves.' From this Davus' conclusion is easily drawn; viz. that it is a simple absurdity on his master's part, to consider himself less a slave than he (Davus) was. It is plain that much of the piquant effect, which this Satire must have had upon Roman ears, is lost upon us; as it is impossible for us fully to realize their view of the difference between the Roman slave and his master; which difference, however, the Stoic Davus, here gravely proves not to exist.

1. Jamdudum ausculto; we must suppose Horace to have been reading or composing aloud; and that Davus, notwithstanding the liberty of the Saturnalia, unwilling to interrupt him, waits for a moment of silence to begin.-3. Frugi &c., a careful and faithful one. 'Xpnoròs, sæpe de servis,' 0. Quod sit satis, without being too much so. 4. Ut vitale putes, so that you need not fear I shall die soon; an allusion to the popular feeling and saying every where, that those who are too gifted, too good, &c., do not live long. Decembri, adj. ; see S. 3. n. 5.-6. Here Davus begins in the tone &c. of a Stoic aretalogus; we learn from whom his lesson was learnt at 1. 45. Urget propositum, and unceasingly pursue the course they hare chosen.-7. Natat, float about (between right and wrong).9. Priscus; a man of senatorial rank, otherwise unknown. Sometimes wearing three rings (a piece of foppish vanity); sometimes none.'-10. Vixit inæqualis = he lived so capriciously, that at one hour of the day he would be the senator with his laticlavus, and in the next appear in the angusticlavus, as an eques.-11. Edibus ex magnis after living for some time in a large mansion. Se conderet, he would hide himself (in some hole).-12. Mundior = a libertinus of better bearing. 13. Doctus, a philosopher. — 14. Vertumnis &c. = born under the baneful influence of every Vertumnus in the world. Vertumnus was an ancient deity presiding over the change of seasons; afterwards regarded as the god of all changes: all the Vertumni must have conspired against Priscus to have endowed him with such excessive fickleness.-15. Justa; having brought it upon himself.'-16. Qui &c. Constr.: Parit conductum qui, hired and kept a man to...-17. Phimus, pipós, a dice-box.-19. Levius (= minus), miser. Prior illo, better than the man who &c.-20. Jam contento, who draws first with a tight cord, and then again with a slack; a saying derived possibly from many different sources, and differently explained by commentators. Towing by a river-side may have sug

=

[ocr errors]

gested it; but it was generally applied at last to inconsistent people.21. Hodie = at once; without keeping me till to-morrow. Putida, inanities.-22. Furcifer, you rascal; from the furca, a sort of wooden horse-collar, fastened round the necks of delinquent slaves. — 25. Quod clamas, what you cry out so much about.-30. Securum olus = a quiet country dinner, subject to no interruption. Velut ac si.-31. Vinctus eas, you went about bound_(to another's will in the matter). Amasque, and hug yourself.-32. Jusserit &c. but (to show your consistency) should M. bid you to his house &c.-33. Sub 1. prima, Gr. Tepi λuxvwv àpáç.-34. Nemon' &c. = will nobody be speedy with the lantern ?-36. After Horace is off, certain diners-out' drop in, and are obliged to go their way, re infecta; leaving sundry good wishes of a peculiar kind behind them, which,' says Davus, 'it is not for me to repeat.'-37. Etenim, fateor me &c.; and he might well say in his defence, 'I confess my love for good cheer &c. ; but are you the man to attack me, you, who thus rush on Mæcenas' good cheer, when you are lucky enough to be invited?' Mulvius' character as a parasite, imbecillus, &c., we must suppose to have been pretty well known.-38. Nasum supinor, Gr. for nasus mihi supinatur = I up with my nose at a savoury smell: supinor, describing the laying-back of the head in the act.-39. Imbecillus, iners = a weak man, and passice (unable to resist temptations). Si quid vis, if you like. Popino, a tavern hunter.-40 &c. Ultro insectere, are you the man to begin the attack?-verbisque decoris obrolvas vitium,-and disguise your own fault in seemly phrases? e. g. What is love of eating and drinking in you, is love of Mæcenas' society in me.'-42 &c. Here Davus pits himself against his master for worth.-43. Quingentis &c.; at about £18 of our money (the drachma = 8d.). Deprenderis = found out to be, caught in the fact. Aufer =away with that threatening look. Horace looks alarming; he cannot stomach easily the liberty taken with him.-44. Stomachum, anger.-45 &c. Crispinus' teaching retailed by his 'janitor,' one of the lowest of the household slaves. In this consists part of the fun of the Satire; these important truths come from Crispinus to his 'janitor ;' from the 'janitor' to Davus ; and from Davus to Q. H. Flaccus. See S. i. 1. n. 120.-46. Fur (sum). -47. Sapiens, prudently; i. e. not from principle.-48. Natura, the natural inclination.-49. Tune (es).. what are you? Minor imperiis = a slave at the bidding of &c. (while I have but one master).-50. You whom no number of manumissions will ever &c.' When a slave was made free, his master took him before the Prætor, and struck him with a rod (vindicta), in proof of his power over him, and property in him, which he was about to give up; after some other forms he was declared free: this was called manumissio per vindictam.-51. Privare dolore, exilio, to deliver from ....; is found also in Cicero.-52. Insuper adde (his) dictis-53. A slave might, out of his savings, purchase another slave to help him in his particular duties, called vicarius; but the slave's property being totally his master's, the vicarius was a conservus.-54. Tibi quid sum ego? How will you style me? am I your vicarius, or conservus ?'- 56. Mobile lignum, a wooden puppet, Gr. vevрóσπ aσrov.-57. Sibi qui imperiosus,

[ocr errors]
« PoprzedniaDalej »