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by the authority only of an Order of the King in Council, dated November 3, 1715. The following words, which originally formed part of the commencement of the other prayer, "by Whose will, providence, and Spirit powers are ordained, governments established, and diversities of administrations are dispensed," are found omitted in Prayer Books printed in 1700 and 1710, as well as in all later editions; an omission which probably commenced at the accession of William III.

A "praier for the Lord Deputie" is found in the earliest Irish Prayer Book, printed at Dublin in 1551, and is said to have continued in use, but with several variations, until the passing of the Act of Uniformity in 1666.

III. Another form peculiar to the Irish book is that "For the Visitation of Prisoners," consisting of three prayers, one to be used when "a prisoner. is confined for some great or capital crime," another when "a criminal is under sentence of death," and a third "for imprisoned debtors." These were prepared in the Convocation held in Dublin in 1711, and were printed and annexed to the Prayer Book, "pursuant to Her Majesty's directions," by a warrant of the Lord Lieutenant and Council, dated April 13, 1714.

IV. "A Form of Consecration, or Dedication of Churches and Chapels, according to the use of the Church of Ireland," followed

by "An Office to be used in the Restauration of a Church,” and "A Short Office for Expiation and Illustration of a Church desecrated or prophan'd" appears in the quarto edition of the Prayer Book printed by John Crook in 1700, and in subsequent folio editions printed by Grierson. These forms were reprinted from an edition printed separately by the former printer in 1666, but it is not known by whom they were prepared, or by what authority they were annexed to the Prayer Book. Although not now attached to the Book, the Form of Consecration is that which is still in use.

V. In the quarto edition of 1700 and the folio of 1721, the following unauthorized additions are also found: 1. "A Form for receiving lapsed Protestants, or reconciling converted Papists to our Church," which is said to have been written by Anthony Dopping, Bishop of Meath, and which was first printed separately in 1690; and 2. the Commemoration " Prayers for the use of Trinity College, Dublin." A Form of Bidding Prayer was prepared and enjoined by decree of Convocation of February 5, 1662; but it is not known how far its use was observed, or when it was discontinued. W. D. M.

1 Printed in Irish Ecc. Journ., ubi supra, p. 291, and Brit. Mag. xxx. 6.3.



By an unfortunate oversight there is no reference at page xcix to a valuable Latin Version of our present Prayer Book, which was made by the learned and orthodox Dean Durel shortly after its settlement in 1662. The title-page of this Latin Prayer Book is as follows: "Liturgia, seu Liber Precum Communium, et administrationis Sacramentorum, aliorumque Rituum atque Ceremoniarum Ecclesiæ, juxta Usum Ecclesiæ Anglicana: unà cum Psalterio seu Psalmis Davidis, ea punctatione distinctis, qua Cantari aut Recitari debent in Ecclesiis. Itemque Forma et Modus Faciendi, Ordinandi et Consecrandi Episcopos, Presbyteros, Dia


Londini, excudit Rogerus Nortonus, Regius in Latinis, Græcis et Hebraicis typographus; væneuntque apud Sam. Mearne, Regium Bibliopolarum in vico vulgariter dicto LittleBritaine, 1670."

There is some reason for supposing that this version was intended to be authorized as the standard Latin Book of

Common Prayer, although no record remains of its being placed before the Convocation. Durel was Canon of Durham when he published it, having been appointed to his stall by Cosin, the principal Reviser of the Prayer Book, who had probably made his acquaintance during their exile when both were living at Paris. But for some years after the Restoration, Durel was Chaplain of the Savoy and Dean of Windsor, the one post

It was probably his connexion with the French chapel of the Savoy which led Durel to translate the Prayer Book into French. This version has been used ever since in the Channel Islands, though others of a Protestant character have also been introduced in modern times. The follow

seeming to associate him officially with the proceedings connected with the Restoration of the Church, and the other (as Confessor to the Sovereign) with King Charles II. Among Archbishop Sancroft's papers in the Bodleian Library there is also a letter from Durel submitting a specimen of his Latin version to the Primate for approval, and it is dedicated to the King in a very similar tone to that adopted by the last translators of the Holy Bible in their dedication of it to James I. These circumstances do not prove that Durel's Version had any actual authority given to it, but they seem to indicate that it was undertaken at the suggestion of men in high office and having great influence in ecclesiastical affairs; and it is not unlikely that further evidence may be discovered on the subject.

Dean Durel's Latin Version is a most excellent one, whether it is viewed as to scholarship, theology, or loyalty to the Church of England. The Psalms, Canticles, Epistles, and Gospels, are all printed from the ancient Salisbury Use; and the expressions of the latter are often followed, and even retained, in the Prayers, although most of these have been re-translated from the English.

ing is its title :-"La Liturgie, c'est à dire, Le Formulaire des Prières Publiques, de l'Administration des Sacrements, et des autres Cérémonies et Coutumes de l'Eglise, selon l'usage de l'Eglise Anglicane, avec le Pseautier ou les Psaumes de David, Ponctuez selon qu'ils doivent estre ou chantez ou leûs dans les Eglises. A Londres: Pour Jean Dunmore et Octavien Pulleyn le Jeune à l'Enseigne du Roy en la petite Bretagne, 1667." Durel wrote several learned works, explaining the position, doetrines, and worship of the Church of England.



At page 60, a suggestion is mentioned that "Son of David" was substituted for "Son of the Living God," in the latter part of the Litany, through some misunderstanding of the contracted form in which "Fili Dei vivi" was written. It has since been observed by Mr. Bright that "Jesu Fili David, miserere. ...” was a not uncommon expression in mediæval devotion.

In the book of records of University College, Oxford, there is

an entry to the following effect. "A composition twixt K. Henry VII. and ye College concerning Dame Anne late Countess of Warwick, 8 H. 7. ... and that the said Master, or any other Fellows of the said place that so shall sing the said high Masse in his stede that daye, shall devoutly remembre in his Masse these words in his second Memento: Jesu Fili David miserere anima Famulæ tuæ Anne nuper Countesse Warwick'.... and that

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the Salisbury Hours of the Blessed Virgin, published at Paris in 1530. The following Suffrage is there directed to be used at tho elevation of the Blessed Sacrament. 'Sanguis tuus, Domine Jesu Christe, pro nobis effusum sit mihi in remissionem omnium pecca. torum, negligentiarum, et ignorantiarum mearum." For this and one or two other additional illustrations of the Litany which are printed in the second edition of Part I., the Editor is indebted to the Rev. HENRY PHILIPPS, of Cheltenham, who has also contributed several valuable suggestions respecting the originals in some of the Occasional Offices.



In the Ritual Introduction to this Volume, Section III., a description is given of the Material and Colour of the "Ornaments of the Ministers" as anciently used by the Church of England in common, for the most part, with the Eastern and Western Communions. A few observations are here added as to their Form, in order to give a more distinct idea of their character than is conveyed by the mere names which designated them in the various documents there referred to, and to furnish an explanation of the Illustrations given in the accompanying Plates. As, also, the restoration of these Ornaments in many churches is constantly giving rise to inquiries about their signification, it is desirable to state the symbolical meaning involved in their use. The latter was done by authority so late as the year 1541-2 (only seven years before the publication of the First Prayer Book of K. Edward VI., and at the very time when the Convocation of Canterbury was revising the old Service Books) when there was drawn up, by Archbishop Cranmer or under his direction, a "RATIONALE” of the "Ceremonies to be used in the Church of England, together with an Explanation of the Meaning and Significancy of them." [Collier, Eccl. Hist. vol. v. pp. 104-122, ed. 1852.] descriptions given of the Vestments in this document are limited to those worn by the Celebrant himself, but they sufficiently indicate the importance attached to the Ministerial Ornaments; for the Rationale says that "The Priest . . . . .. puts upon him clean and hallowed Vestments, partly representing the Mysteries which were done at the Passion; party representing the Virtues which he himself ought to have that celebrates the Mass."


The Vestments mentioned in the Rationale are the following:1. the Amice; 2. the Albe; 3. the Girdle; 4. the Stole; 5. the Phanon, i. e. the Maniple or Sudarium as it was also called; 6. the Chasuble. The Rubric in the Prayer Book of 1549 specifics only, 1. the Albe; 2. the Vestment or Cope; 3. the Tunicle; but, of course, it does not exclude the others named in the Rationale, and in fact the whole were in use under the First Prayer Book. These two lists, then, comprise eight Ornaments which are now to be described.

1. The AMICE, Amictus (the Armenian Vakass and, perhaps, the Eastern Omophórion seem to correspond to this, especially the former). This is a broad and oblong piece of Linen with two strings to fasten it: in its more ornate form it is embroidered on the outer edge with a rich fillet or otherwise adorned. When used it is first placed on the head, then slipped down to and worn Or the shoulders beneath the Albe; so that, when left somewhat loose, it has the appearance of an ornamental collar as shown in the drawing, Plate II.

The Rationale says-"He putteth on the Amice, which, as touching the Mystery, signifies the veil with the which the Jews covered the face of Christ, when they buffeted Him in the time of His Passion. And as touching the Minister, it signifies faith, which is the head, ground, and foundation of all virtues; and therefore, he puts that upon his head first."

2. The ALBE, Alba (the Eastern Stoicharion and the Russian Podriznik). This is a loose and long garment coming down to the feet and having close-fitting sleeves reaching to the hands. Anciently it appears to have been made usually of Linen, though in later times rich silks of different colours were frequently used, while in the Russian Church velvet is often employed. It was very commonly ornamented with square or oblong pieces of Embroidery called Apparels; these were stitched on or otherwise fastened to various parts of it, especially just above the feet and near the hands, where they had somewhat the appearance of cuffs. The Rubric of 1549 directs the use of "a white Albe plain;" this may have meant a Linen Albe without Apparels, yet Silk or similar material seems not to be forbidden provided it be white: Embroidery, such as shown in the sketch; Plate I., appears sufficiently "plain" to be consistent with the language and intention of the Rubric. Old-fashioned Surplices are always thus ornamented about the shoulders, a tradition of ancient custom.

The Rationale says of the Minister that "he puts upon him the Albe, which, as touching the Mystery, signifieth the white garment wherewith Herod clothed Christ in mockery when he sent Him to Pilate. And as touching the Minister, it signifieth the pureness of conscience, and innocency he ought to have, especially when he sings the Mass."

The SURPLICE, Superpelliceum, Plate II. (whether with or without Sleeves) and the ROCHET, Rochetum, being both of them only modifications of the Albe, this language of the Rationale respecting it appears to apply equally to them.

3. The GIRDLE, Cingulum (the Eastern Póyass).—This is a Cord or narrow Band of Silk or other material (usually white) with Tassels attached; or, as in the Eastern Church, a broad Belt (often of rich material) with a clasp, hooks, or strings. It is used for fastening the Albe round the Waist.

The Rationale thus explains it :-"The Girdle, as touching the Mystery, signifies the scourge with which Christ was scourged. And as touching the Minister, it signifies the continent and chaste living, or else the close mind which he ought to have at prayers, when he celebrates."

4. The STOLE, Stola (the Eastern Epitrachelion of the Priest, the Orarion of the Deacon, the Lention of the Sub-deacon).—This is a strip of Silk about three inches wide, and about eight and a half feet long; it may be plain or richly ornamented; especially at the ends, of which examples are given in Plate II. The Priest wears it hanging over his neck, and when he celebrates it is usually crossed on the breast and passed under the Girdle: the Deacon wears it suspended over the left shoulder; but, when assisting at the Celebration, he often has it brought across his back and breast and fastened at his right side. As used by the Greek Priest it has the appearance of two Stoles joined together, the upper end having a hole through which the head is put, and thus it hangs down in front.

The Rationale says thus of it :- "The Stole, as touching the Mystery, signifieth the ropes or bands that Christ was bound with to the pillar, when He was scourged. And as touching the Minister, it signifieth the yoke of patience, which he must bear as the servant of God."

5. The MANIPLE, Manipulus, sometimes called Fanon or Phanon and Sudarium (the Eastern Epimanikia and the Russian Pórutchi; each of these are, however, a kind of Cuffs worn on both hands).-Originally it appears to have been a narrow strip of Linen, usually as wide as a Stole and about two and a half feet long [see Plate II.], and seems to have been employed as a kind of Sudarium for wiping the hands and for other cleanly purposes, whence it probably took one of its names. Subsequently, however, it became a mere ornament, being made of rich materials and often embroidered, or even enriched with jewels. It hangs over the left arm of the Celebrant and his assistants; it should be fastened near the wrist, in a loop, to prevent its falling off.

The Rationale describes its meaning together with the Stole in these words: "in token whereof" (i. e. of patience) "he puts also the Phanon on his arm, which admonisheth him of ghostly strength and godly patience that he ought to have, to vanquish and overcome all carnal infirmity."

6. The CHASUBLE or VESTMENT, Casula (the Eastern Phelonion and the Russian Phelóne or Phælonion).-This vesture is worn over the Albe: originally it was nearly or entirely a circular garment, having an opening in the centre through which the head of the wearer passed; and thus it fell gracefully over the shoulders and arms, covering the entire person in its ample folds and reaching nearly to the feet both before and behind: at a later period it was made narrower at the back and front by reducing its circular form, and so it frequently terminated like a reversed pointed arch; the sleeve part also became shorter, reaching only to the hands and thus avoiding the need of gathering it up on the arms. Ultimately, whether from economy, or bad taste, or supposed convenience, the sleeve parts were cut away to the shoulders in the Latin Communion; and even the Russian vestment has been so much reduced in the front that it covers little more than the chest however, the older form has been for the most part retained in the rest of the Eastern Communion. The drawing on Plate I. shows the form which prevailed in the Church of England prior to the Reformation; it has the merit of being both elegant and convenient. The same picture shows the mode of ornamenting it, namely, by embroidering the collar and outer edge, and by attaching to it what is called the Y Orphrey; though very commonly the Latin Cross, and sometimes the Crucifixion, was variously embroidered on the back, only the perpendicular Orphrey (or Pillar, as it is termed) being affixed in the front.

The Rationale is thus given :-"The overvesture, or Chesible, as touching the Mystery, signifieth the purple mantle that Pilate's soldiers put upon Christ after that they had scourged Him. And as touching the Minister, it signifies charity, a virtue excellent above all other."

7. The COPE, Cappa (the Armenian Phelonion is a similar Vestment and is used instead of the Chasuble).—It is a kind of full, long Cloke, of a semicircular shape, reaching to the heels, and open in front, thus leaving the arms free below the elbows. Most commonly it has a Hood, as shown in the drawing, Plate II.; where also is represented the Orphrey and an illustration of the mode of enriching the material by embroidery. The mode of fas tening it, by a Band, to which is often attached a rich ornament, called the Morse is there also exhibited. It is worn over either the Albe or the Surplice.

The Rationale does not mention it; probably because it was not one of the Eucharistic Vestments then or previously in use. But that it might be used at the Altar (though probably not by the Celebrant when consecrating the Oblations) is plain from the fact that the Rubric of 1549 in naming "Vestment or Cope," apparently allows a choice between it and the Chasuble; but it may only have been intended that, in a place where both are provided, the Chasuble alone should be worn where the whole Eucharistic Service was used; for a Rubric at the end of the Service specifies the Cope as the Vestment to be employed at those times when only the earlier portion of the Service is intended to be said, no Consecration being designed because of its being known that there would "be none to communicate with the Priest." The 24th Canon of 1603 does indeed recognize the Cope as the Celebrant's Vestment to be used in Cathedrals; but the Rubrie of 1662, having later and larger authority, seems to point to the Chasuble of the Book of 1549 as the Vestment in which to consecrate.

8. The TUNICLE, Tunica; also called, as worn by the Deacon or Gospeller, DALMATIC, Dalmatica (the Eastern Stoicharion a Saccus of the Deacon).-This is a kind of loose coat or frock, reaching below the knees, open partially at the lower part of the sides; it has full, though not large, sleeves; in material and colour it should correspond with the Chasuble. Examples of its Orphreys and of the mode of embroidering it are shown in the two illustrations on Plate I. The Deacon's Dalmatic was usually somewhat more ornamented in the Western Church than was the Tunicle worn by the Sub-deacon or Epistoler.

This Ornament, like the Cope, is not mentioned in the Rationale, probably because, as was observed above, only the Vestments of the Celebrant are there specified.

T. W. P.

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