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fresh subjects have been treated, new and interesting information given, and some ancient mistakes corrected. As instances of the kind of subjects embraced and the general mode of treatment adopted, reference may be made to the larger biographies—especially that of Haydn, which is crowded with new facts; to the articles on Auber, Berlioz, Bodenschatz, Bull, Cristofori, David, Farinelli, Finck, Froberger, Galitzin, Gibbons, Hasse; on Additional Accompaniments, Agrémens, Arpeggio, Arrangement, Fingering, Form, and Harmony; on Académie de Musique, Bachgesellschaft, Breitkopf and Härtel, Bassoon, Carmagnole, Choral Symphony, Conservatoire, Concerts, Concert Spirituel, Copyright, Drum, English Opera, Fidelio, Grand Prix de Rome, Handel and Haydn Society, Handel Festivals and Commemorations, Harpsichord, Harmonica, Hexachord, and many others. The engraved illustrations have been specially prepared for the work, and will speak for themselves.

In an English dictionary it has been thought right to treat English music and musicians with special care, and to give their biographies and achievements with some minuteness of detail. On this point thanks are due to Colonel Joseph Lemuel Chester for much accurate information which it would have been almost impossible to obtain elsewhere, and which he has afforded in every case with the greatest kindless and promptitude.

Every means has been taken to procure an adequate treatment of the various topics, and to bring the information down as near as possible to the day of publication. Notwithstanding the Editor's desire, however, omissions and errors have occurred. These will be rectified in an Appendix on the publication of the final volume.

The limits of the work have necessarily excluded disquisitions on Acoustics, Anatomy, Mechanics, and other branches of science connected with the main subject, which though highly important are not absolutely requisite in a book concerned with practical music. In the case of Acoustics, sufficient references are given to the best works to enable the student to pursue the enquiry for himself, outside the Dictionary. Similarly all investigations into the music of barbarous nations have been avoided, unless they have some direct bearing on European music.

The Editor gladly takes this early opportunity to express his deep obligations to the writers of the various articles. Their names are in themselves a guarantee for the value of their contributions; but the lively interest which they have shown in the work and the care they have taken in the preparation of their articles, often involving much time, and laborious, disinterested research, demand his warm acknowledgment.

29 BEDFORD STREET,
COVENT GARDEN, LONDON.

April 1, 1879.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

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SIR JULIUS BENEDICT

B. JOSEPH BENNETT, Esq.

J. B. JAMES R. STERNDALE-BENNETT, Esq.

J. R. S.-B. DAVID BAPTIE, Esq., Glasgow

D. B. MRS. WALTER CARR

M. C. C. WILLIAM CHAPPELL, Esq., F.S.A.

W.C. M. GUSTAVE CHOUQUET, Keeper of the Museum of the Conservatoire de Musique, Paris

G. C. ARTHUR DUKE COLERIDGE, Esq., Barrister-at-Law

A. D. C. WILLIAM H. CUMMINGS, Esq.

W. H. C. EDWARD DANNREUTHER, ESQ.

E. D. HERR PAUL DAVID

P. D. JAMES W. DAVISON, Esq.

J. W. D. EDWARD H. Donkin, Esq.

E. H. D. H. SUTHERLAND EDWARDS, Esq.

H. S. E. CHARLES ALLAN FYFFE, Esq., Barrister-at-Law

C. A. F. DR. FRANZ GEHRING, Vienna

F. G.
Rev. THOMAS HELMORE, Master of the Children of the Chapels Royal
GEORGE HERBERT, Esq.

G. H.
DR. FERDINAND HILLER, Cologne

H. A. J. HIPKINS, Esq.

A. J. H. EDWARD JOHN HOPKINS, Esq., Organist to the Temple

E.J.H. Rev. T. PERCY HUDSON

Τ. Ρ. Η. FRANCIS HUEFFER, Esq.

F. H. JOHN HULLAH, Esq., LL.D.

J. H. WILLIAM H. Husk, Esq., Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society W. H. H. F. H. JENKS, Esq., Boston, Mass., U.S. A.

F. H. J. HENRY J. LINCOLN, Esq.

H. J. L. CHARLES MACKESON, Esq., F.S.S.

C. M.

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HERR A. MACZEWSKI, Concert-director, Kaiserslautern

A. M. JULIAN MARSHALL, Esq.

J. M. MRS. JULIAN MARSHALL

F. A. M. EDWIN G. Monk, Esq., Mus. Doc., Organist of York Cathedral E. G. M. SIR HERBERT S. OAKELEY, Mus. Doc., Professor of Music at the University of Edinburgh

H. S. O. Rev. SIR FREDERICK A. GORE OUSELEY, BART., Mus. Doc., Professor of Music in the University of Oxford

F.A.G.O. C. HUBERT H. PARRY, Esq.

C. H. H. P. HERR ERNST PAUER

P. EDWARD JOHN PAYNE, Esq., Barrister-at-Law..

E. J. P. EDWARD H. PEMBER, Esq., Q.C.

E. H. P. Miss PHILLIMORE

C. M. P. HERR C. F. Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna

C. F. P. WILLIAM POLE, Esq., F.R.S., Mus. Doc.

W. P. VICTOR DE PONTIGNY, Esq.

V. DE P. EBENEZER PROUT, Esq...

E. P.
Rev. WILLIAM PULLING
CHARLES H. PURDAY, Esq.

C. H. P. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT, Esq., LL.D.

E. F. R. W. S. ROCKSTRO, Esq. ..

W. S. R H. H. STATHAM, Esq.

H. H. S. SIR ROBERT P. STEWART, Mus. Doc., Professor of Music in Dublin University

R. P. S. WILLIAM H. STONE, Esq., M.D.

W. H. S. ARTHUR SEYMOUR SULLIVAN, Esq., Mus. Doc.

S.
FRANKLIN TAYLOR, Esq.

F. T.
ALEXANDER W. THAYER, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste,
Author of the Life of Beethoven

A. W. T. C. A. W. TROYTE, Esq.

C. A. W.T. COLONEL H. WARE, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. H. W THE EDITOR

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W. Pg.

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Bedford Street, Covent Garden,

April 1, 1879.

A

DICTIONARY

OF

MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.

A.

A.

The name of the sixth degree of the natural A BATTUTA (Ital., 'with the beat '). An scale of C. The reason of its being indication, mostly used in recitatives, where after

applied to the sixth instead of the first the free declamation of the singer the strict time degree will be found explained in the article is resumed. It is thus equivalent to A TEMPO. ALPHABET. It represents the same note in ABBATINI, ANTONIO MARIA, was born at English or German, and in French and Italian Tiferno, or at Castello (Baini), in 1595 or is called La.

1605, and died in 1677. Was successively MaA is the note given (usually by the oboe, or by estro di Cappella at the Lateran, the Church the organ if there be one) for the orchestra to of the Gesù, and San Lorenzo in Damaso, and tune to, and it is also the note to which French three times held the like office at Maria Magand German tuning-forks are set, the English giore; was also, for a time, maestro at the being usually tuned to C.

church of Loreto. Was offered by Pope Urban In all stringed instruments one of the strings VIII the task of rewriting the Hymnal; but is tuned to Å ; in the violin it is the second refused to supersede the music of Palestrina by string, in the viola and violoncello the first, and any of his own. His published works consist in the contrabasso generally the third. A is also of four books of Psalms and three books of the key in which one of the clarinets in the Masses, some Antifone for twenty-four voices orchestra is set. In German the keys of A (Mascardi, Rome, 1630-1638, and 1677), and major and A minor are occasionally expressed five books of Mottetti (Grignani, Rome, 1635). by A8 and Ab.

[F.T.] He is named by Allacci as the composer of an AARON (correctly ARON), PIETRO, born at opera 'Del male in bene.? The greater part of his Florence in the latter part of the 13th century: productions remain unprinted. Some academical A monk of the order of Jerusalem, and devoted lectures by him, of much note in their time, to the study of counterpoint. His various works mentioned by Padre Martini, do not seem to op the history and science of music (for a list have been preserved. He assisted KIRCHER in of which see Becker, ‘Musik Literatur,' Leipsic, his • Musurgia.'

(E. H. P.] 1836) were printed at Venice and Milan. By ABBÉ, PHILIPPE PIERRE DE ST. Sevin and Pope Leo X he was admitted into the Roman PIERRE DE ST. Sevin, two brothers, violoncellists, Chapel

, and distinguished in various ways. were music-masters of the parish church of Agen In or about 1516 Aaron founded a school of early in the last century. It seems doubtful music at Rome, which obtained much reputa- whether they were actually ordained priests, or tion. He became a canon of Rimini, and died merely in consequence of their office had to wear

[C. F. P.] the ecclesiastical dress. From this circumstance ABACO, EVARISTO FELICE DALL', born at however they received the name of Abbé l'ainéVerona, and renowned as performer and composer or simply l'Abbé—and l'Abbé cadet, respectively. on the violin ; in 1726 concert-meister in the band They gave up their connection with the church of the Kurfirst Max Emanuel of Bavaria. Died and went to Paris, where they obtained engagein 1740. Compositions of his for church and cham. ments at the Grand Opéra. They were both ber were printed at Amsterdam, [C. F. P.] | excellent players, but the younger brother seems

B

in 1533.

I. Written.

to have been the more celebrated of the two, the help of which certain passages, chords, etc., and to have been specially remarkable for his may be written in a curtailed form, to the greater beautiful tone. It is said to have been owing convenience of both composer and performer. in great measure to the impression produced by Abbreviations of the first kind need receive his playing that the viola di gamba more and no special consideration here; they consist for more fell into disuse and the violoncello was more the most part of the initial letter or first syllable extensively introduced. (Batistin.) [T. P. H.] of the word employed-as for instance, p. for was born at Whilton, a Northamptonshire village, drums (timpani); and their meaning is every ABBEY, JOHN, a distinguished organ-builder; piano, cresc. for crescendo, ob. for oboe, cello for

violoncello, fag. for bassoon (fagotto), timp. for Dec. 22, 1785. In his youth he was employed where sufficiently obvious. Those of musical pas. in the factory of Davis, and subsequently in that of Russell , both organ-builders of repute in their sages are indicated by signs, as follows.

The continued repetition of a note or chord day. In 1826 Abbey went to Paris, on the in- is expressed by a stroke or strokes across the vitation of Sebastian Erard, the celebrated harp stem, or above or below the note if it be a semi. and pianoforte maker, to work upon an organ breve (Ex. I), the number of strokes denoting which Erard had designed, and which he sent to the Exhibition of the Productions of National semiquavers, etc., unless the word tremolo or

the subdivision of the written note into quavers, Industry in 1827, and also to build an organ for tremolando is added, in which case the repetition the Convent of the Legion of Honour, at St. is as rapid as possible, without regard to the Denis. He also built an organ from Erard's de.

exact number of notes played. On bowed in. sign for the chapel of the Tuileries, which, however, had only a short existence, being destroyed is easy, but in pianoforte music an octave or

struments the rapid reiteration of a single note in the Revolution of 1830. Having established chord becomes necessary to produce a tremolo, bimself as an organ-builder in Paris

, Abbey be the manner of writing and performing which is came extensively employed in the construction, shown in Ex. 2. renovation, and enlargement of organs in France and elsewhere. Amongst others he built choir organs for accompanying voices for the cathedrals of Rheims, Nantes, Versailles, and Evreux, and for the churches of St. Eustache, St. Nicholas des Champs, St. Elizabeth, St. Medard, St. Eti.

Played. enne du Mont, and St. Thomas Aquinas, in Paris; and large organs for the cathedrals of Rochelle, Rennes, Viviers, Tulle, Chalons-surMarne, Bayeux, and Amiens, and for churches, convents, and chapels at St. Denis, Orleans, Caen, Chalons, Picpus, and Versailles. He repaired and enlarged organs in the cathedrals of Mende, Moulins, Rheims, Evreux, and Nevers, and in the churches of St. Etienne du Mont, St. Philippe du Roule, The Assumption, and St. Louis d'An. tin in Paris. He also built many organs for Chili and South America. In 1831 Abbey was employed, at the instance of Meyerbeer (who had introduced the instrument into the score of his opera “Robert le Diable,' then about to be produced), to build an organ for the Grand Opera at Paris, which instrument continued to be used there until it was destroyed, with the theatre, by fire in 1873. Abbey was the first who intro

F Tremolo duced into French organs the English mechanism and the bellows invented by Cummins. His example was speedily followed by the French builders, and from that period may be dated the improvements in organ building which have raised the French builders to their present eminence. His work was well finished, and gener. ally satisfactory. He died at Versailles, Feb. 19, 1859. He left two sons, E. and J. Abbey, who now carry on the business of organ-builders in Versailles.

[W. H. H.) ABBREVIATIONS. The abbreviations employed in music are of two kinds, namely, the abridgment of terms relating to musical expression, and the true musical abbreviations by

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2.

Tremolo

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