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SYNOPSIS OF THE LIFE OF JESUS.
again foretells his own death and resurrection, Matt. 17: 22, 23; Mark 9 : 30–32; Luke 9: 43-45; returns to Capernaum and miraculously provides tribute-money, Matt. 17 : 24-27; Mark 9:33; exhorts his disciples to humility and brotherly love, Matt. 18: 1-35; Mark 9: 33–50; Luke 9 : 46–50; instructs and sends forth the Seventy, Luke 10:1-16; takes his final departure from Galilee and goes up to the feast of tabernacles, John 7: 2-10; Luke 9: 51-56; passes through Samaria where he cleanses ten lepers, Luke 17:11-19.
VI. FEAST OF TABERNACLES AND OUR LORD'S SUBSEQUENT ACTS UNTIL HIS ARRIVAL AT BETHANY, SIX DAYS BEFORE THE
Time: Six months wanting six days. Jesus attends the feast of tabernacles, and teaches publicly, John 7: 11-53; 8:1; takes occasion from their charge against the woman taken in adultery, to rebuke the Pharisees, John 8:2-11; reproves in a further discourse the Jews, who in consequence attempt to stone him, John 8: 12-59; pronounces the parable of the good Samaritan, Luke 10: 25-37; visits Martha and Mary at Bethany, Luke 10:38-42; teaches his disciples again how to pray, Luke 11: 1-13; receives the Seventy on their return and rejoices in their spiritual knowledge, Luke 10:17–24; heals at Jerusalem on the sabbath a man who was born blind, at which the Pharisees are highly displeased, John 9:1-41; 10: 1-21; is present in Jerusalem at the feast of dedication, after which he retires beyond Jordan, John 10: 22–42; raises Lazarus from the dead at Bethany, John 11:1-46; again retires from Jerusalem in consequence of the murderous designs of the chief priests and Pharisees, John 11: 47–54; is followed by multitudes beyond Jordan, and heals an infirm woman on the sabbath, Matt. 19:1, 2; Mark 10:1; Luke 13: 10-21 ; teaches on his way to Jerusalem, Luke 13: 22–35; dines with a chief Pharisee on the sabbath, Luke 14: 1-24; shows what is required of true disciples, Luke 14:25–35; pronounces the parables of the lost sheep, the prodigal son, the unjust steward, and the rich man and Lazarus, Luke 15:1-32; 16:1-31; inculcates forbearance and faith, Luke 17:1-10; predicts the suddenness of his final coming, Luke 17:20–37; pronounces the parables of the importunate widow, and the Pharisee and publican, Luke 18: 1-14; gives precepts respecting divorce, Matt. 19: 3-12; Mark 10:2-12; receives and blesses little children, Matt. 19:13–15; Mark 10: 13-16; Luke 18: 15–17; answers the inquiry of the rich young man, and pronounces the parable of the laborers in the vineyard, Matt. 19 : 16–30; 20:1-16; Mark 10: 17–31 ; Luke 18:18–30; foretells a third time his death and resurrection, Matt. 20: 17-19; Mark 10:32–34; Luke 18: 31–34; replies to the ambitious request of James and John, Matt. 20: 20–28; Mark 10:35-45; heals two blind men near Jericho, Matt. 20: 29–34 ; Mark 10: 46–52; Luke 18: 35-43; 19:1; visits Zaccheus and utters the parable of the ten pounds, Luke 19; 2-28; arrives at Bethany six days before the Passover, John 11: 55–57 ; 12:1, 9–11.
VII. OUR LORD'S PUBLIC ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM, AND THE SUBSEQUENT TRANSACTIONS BEFORE THE FOURTH PASSOVER.
TIME: Four days. Jesus makes his public entry into Jerusalem, Matt. 21:1-11, 14-17; Mark 11 : 1-11; Luke 19 : 29–44; John 12: 12-19; curses the barren fig tree and cleanses a second time the temple, Matt. 21:12, 13, 18, 19; Mark 11: 12–19; Luke 19: 45–48; his authority questioned by the chief priests, on which he pronounces the parable of the two sons, Matt. 21 : 23–32; Mark 11: 27-33; Luke 20:1-8; and of the wicked husbandmen, Matt. 21 : 33–46; Mark 12: 1-12; Luke 20: 9–19; and of the marriage of the king's son, Matt. 22: 1-14; replies to the question of the lawfulness of giving tribute to Cæsar, Matt. 22: 15-22; Mark 12: 13–17; Luke 20: 20-26; teaches the Sadducees the doctrine of the resurrection, Matt. 22: 23-33; Mark 12: 18–27 ; Luke 20: 27-40; is questioned by a lawyer as to what is the great commandment of the law, Matt. 22: 34-40; Mark 12: 28, 34; proposes a question to the Pharisees respecting the relation of Christ to David, Matt. 22: 41-46; Mark 12: 35–37: Luke 20: 41-44; pronounces woes upon the Pharisees and laments over Jerusalem, Matt. 23: 1-39;
Mark 12: 38–40; Luke 20 : 45–47 ; commends the widow who cast two mites into the treasury, Mark 12: 41-44; Luke 21:1-4; foretells the destruction of the temple, Matt. 24:1-42; Mark 13:1-37 ; Luke 21: 5–36; exhorts to watchfulness in reference to his final coming, Matt. 24: 43-51; pronounces the parables of the ten virgins and five talents, Matt. 25: 1-30; describes the scenes of the last judgment, Matt. 25: 13–46 ; sups at Bethany, Matt. 26:1-16; Mark 14:1-9; Luke 22:1, 2; John 12: 2–8; is betrayed by Judas Iscariot, Matt. 26: 14-16; Mark 14: 10, 11; Luke 21: 3–6; prepares to eat the passover, Matt. 26: 17-19; Mark 14: 12–16; Luke 22: 7–13.
VIII. FOURTH PASSOVER; OUR LORD'S PASSION, AND THE ACCOMPANYING CIRCUMSTANCES UNTIL THE END OF THE JEWISH SABBATU.
TIME: Two days. Jesus eats the passover with his disciples, Matt. 26 : 20; Mark 14: 17; Luke 22: 14–18; washes their feet, John 13: 1-20; points out Judas as the traitor, Matt. 26 : 21-35; Mark 14: 18–21; Luke 22: 21-23; John 13: 21-35; foretells Peter's fall, Matt. 26 : 31-35; Mark 14: 27-31; Luke 22: 31–38; John 13: 36–38; institutes the Lord's Supper, Matt. 26: 26-29 : Mark 14: 22–25; Luke 22: 19, 20; 1 Cor. 11: 23–25; coniforts his disciples, John 14: 1-31; declares himself to be the true Vine, John 15: 1-27; promises the Comforter, John 16: 1-33; prays for his disciples and other believers, John 17: 1-26; goes forth to Gethsemane where he is in a dreadful agony, Matt. 26: 30, 36–46; Mark 14: 26 : 32–42; Luke 22: 39–46; John 18:1; is betrayed and made prisoner, Matt. 26: 47–56; Mark 14: 43–52; Luke 22: 47–53; John 18: 2-12; is brought before Caiaphas and denied by Peter, Matt. 26: 57, 58, 69–75; Mark 14: 53, 54, 66–72; Luke 22: 54–62; John 18: 13-18, 25–27; is brought before the Sanhedrim and condemned and mocked, Matt. 26 : 59-68; Mark 14: 55–65; Luke 22: 63-71; John 18: 19-24; is led away to Pilate, Matt. 27: 1, 2, 11-14; Mark 15:1-5; Luke 23: 1-5; John 18: 28–38; is sent to Herod, Luke 23: 6–12; is delivered by Pilate to be crucified, Matt. 27: 26–30; Mark 15: 15–19; John 19:1-3; is led away to Calvary, Matt. 27: 31-34; Mark 15: 20–23; Luke 23 : 26–33; John 19:16, 17; is crucified, Matt. 27: 35–38; Mark 15: 24–28; Luke 23 : 33–38; John 19:18-24; is mocked on the cross, Matt. 27 : 39–44; Mark 15: 29–32; Luke 23: 35–43; expires on the cross, Matt. 27: 45–50; Mark 15: 33–37 ; Luke 23 : 44–46; is taken down from the cross and buried, Matt. 27: 57–61; Mark 15: 42–47; Luke 23 : 50–56; John 19: 31-42.
TIME: Forty days. The women visit the sepulchre, Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2-4; Luke 24:1-3; John 20:1, 2; vision of angels in the sepulchre, Matt. 28: 5–7; Mark 16: 5–7; Luke 24: 4-8; Jesus meets the women on their way back to the city, Matt. 28:8-10; Mark 16: 8; Peter and John run to the sepulchre, Luke 24 : 12; John 20:3–10; Jesus shows himself to Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre, Mark 16:9-11; John 20: 11–18; the report of the watch, Matt. 28: 11-15; Jesus is seen by Peter, 1 Cor. 15:5; and by the two disciples on their way to Emmaus, Mark 16: 12, 13; Luke 24: 13–35; shows himself the same evening to the disciples, Thomas being absent, Mark 16: 14–18; Luke 24: 36-40; John 20: 19–23; 1 Cor. 15: 5; and again one week after, Thomas being present, John 20: 24–29; shows himself to seven of them at the Sea of Tiberias, John 21: 1-24; meets above 500 brethren on a mountain in Galilee, Matt. 28: 16, 20; 1 Cor. 15:6; is seen of James, and then of all the apostles, 1 Cor. 15:7; Acts 1: 3-8; ascends to heaven, Mark 16: 19, 20; Luke 24: 50-53; Acts 1 : 9-12.
PREFACE TO THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW.
MATTHEW, called also Levi, the son of Alpheus (Mark 2: 14; Luke 3: 57, 29), was a publican or toll-gatherer under the Ro
He was a Galilean, but of what city or tribe of Israel it is unknown. He was first called by Jesus, while he abode in Capernaum (Matt. 9:9). It is not probable, however, that he followed Jesus continuously, until he had settled his accounts with those by whom he had been employed (see N. on Matt. 9:9). The field of his labors, after the apostles went abroad to preach to the Gentiles, is quite uncertain. Later writers say that he went to Ethiopia, where he is supposed to have died a martyr's death. This, however, is denied by Heracleon, as cited by Clement of Alexandria.
Various dates are assigned to the publication of Matthew's Gospel. It was beyond all question the first of the four Synoptic Gospels, and written probably some 30 years after the death of Christ. As it regards the language in which it was written, there has been much dispute. It is the almost unanimous testimony of the early Fathers, that it was originally composed in the Hebrew language, as spoken then by the inhabitants of Palestine. There is no question that it was written for the Hebrew Christians in Palestine, but this does not preclude its composition in Greek, since that was the prevalent language throughout the East, at the time when his gospel was probably written. The early Fathers might well and naturally imagine that, inasmuch as it was written for the Hebrew Christians, it was written in Hebrew. But it is a remarkable fact that no citations have been made from this supposed Hebrew gospel, nor was it used by those very
Fathers on whose testimony it is supposed to have existed. The internal evidence in favor of a Greek original is so strong, that the best modern critics regard it as an incontrovertible fact that the gospel was written in that language by Matthew himself. Olshausen, in
order to harmonize these two conflicting views, conjectures that Matthew, previously to the publication of his Greek gospel, had written a gospel in Hebrew for the churches in Palestine.
Matthew rehearses more fully than the other Evangelists the acts of Jesus, and also some of his discourses, as the Sermon on the Mount, and the parables and discourses relating to his coming to destroy Jerusalem and to judge the world. He groups incidents together with little or no regard to their chronological order. His style is simple and perspicuous. His eye is ever on the fulfilment in Christ of ancient prophecies. He dwells on the circumstances of the birth of Jesus, and the progressive establishment of the Messianic kingdom. He has not the graphic power of Mark, or the spiritual perceptions of John, but in the clearness, simplicity and fulness of details, he is perhaps superior to either, and equal to Luke, whose gospel may be regarded as complemental to Matthew's, the one being adapted particularly to the Jewish, the other to the Gentile mind.
THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW.
CHAPTER I. THE book of the a generation 3 And Judas begat Phares and David, ' the son of Abraham. begat Esrom ; and Esrom begat
2 " Abraham begat Isaac; and Aram ; Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob 4 And Aram begat Aminadab; begat Judas and his brethren; and Aminadab begat Naasson i
a Lu, 3:23. 1. Ps. 132:11; Is. 11:1; Je. 28: and Naasson begat Salmon; 5. ch. 22:42; John 7: 42; Ac. 2: 30; & 13: 23; c Ge. 12: 3, & 22:18. Ga. 3:16.
g Ge. 38: 27. h Ru. 4: 18, &c. 1 Ch. 2, 5, 9, &c. d Ge. 21: 2, 3.
Ge. 29 : 35.
e Ge. 25: 26.
Christ is often found. The other ap1. This verse announces the subject pellations of our Lord, as Son of God, of vs. 2–17, after which the Evangelist Son of man, &c. will be explained proceeds to speak more directly of the in the connexions in which they birth of Jesus Christ. The book, i. e. stand. The son of David, the son of table, record.
Generation has here the Abraham, i. e. the son of David and sense of genealogy, and in connexion of Abraham, for the word son, in both with book may be interpreted the gene- cases, refers to Jesus Christ. The proof alogical record, or family register. Je- of this is contained in the genealogical sus Christ, the proper name of our record which follows. Christ, according Savior, given to him by divine appoint- to prophecy, was to descend from David ment (v. 21). Jesus, derived from a Heb. and Abraham. In proving his Messiahword, signifying Jehovah his help, or ship, it became necessary, therefore, to salvation, denotes a savior, one who will trace back his origin, in an unbroken save, and is the name of three persons line, to these ancestors. Matthew folin the New Testament, JESUS, the lowed the male line, because his gospel Savior of men; Joshua (called Jesus in was primarily written for the Jews, and Heb. 4:8); and Jesus, surnamed Justus, such a lineage only with them was legal. a fellow-laborer of Paul (Col. 4:11). Luke, on the other hand, who wrote his The word Christ, Heb. Messiah, which gospel for the Gentiles, traced our Sasignifies the anointed, a name given to vior's pedigree upward from Heli, the the Hebrew kings, from their being father of Mary. This catalogue of anointed to the royal office (1 Sam. 16: names in Matthew is intended to furnish 6; 24: 6, 10; 26: 9, 16; 2 Sam. 1: legal proof of the assertion, that Jesus 14; 19: 21 ; Lam. 4: 20), and also to Christ was “the son of David, the son the high priests, who were also anoint-of Abraham.” ed, is by way of eminence applied to As it respects this genealogical table, our Savior, the anointed of the Lord three series of fourteen are adopted as (Ps. 2 : 2). From having been an ap a kind of technical mode of reckoning pellation of his kingly and priestly for the sake of convenience, by way of office, it became a proper name, some reference, and to assist the memory. times used by itself, and sometimes in These are made from Abraham to David; the connexion, Jesus Christ. It is never and from David to Josiah, or the epoch affixed to Jesus in the Gospels, but of the Babylonish captivity; and from only in their prefaces. In the Acts Jechonias to Jesus, including the exand Epistles, the combination Jesus tremes, with the exception that Jecho