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TO THE READER'.

2 Cor. vi.

σας.

WHEREAS Horace saith, "They that run over the sea change the air, not the mind2;" it is so, reader, that I, passing over the sea out of England into Brabant, have in some part changed also my mind. For whereas, being there, I minded to send this treatise but to one friend, who required it for his private instruction, and never to set any thing abroad; now, being arrived here in Lovaine, I have thought good, by putting it in print, to make it common to many. Yet, to say the truth, hereto I have been pricked more by zealous persuasions of others, than induced by mine own liking. For though duty require, be it with shame, or be it with fame, to employ all endeavour to the defence of the catholic faith in these most perilous times much impugned; yet, partly by a certain cowardly judgment, and specially by natural inXabe Bi- clination, I have ever liked more that old counsel uttered by the Greeks in two words, which adviseth a man so to live secretly as it be not known he hath lived. Wherefore, as this labour in that respect deserveth less thank, so for my part it ought less to be blamed. If ought be found amiss, the blame thereof rightly divided between my friends and me, the greater portion shall redound to them, the lesser to me, as on whom the spot of unskill only shall cleave, but the note of undiscretion shall remain to them. For as the defects be mine and none other's, so oversight of setting forth that which was of less sufficiency is to be imputed to them, not to me. Howsoever it be, the meaning of us both is only this, christian reader, hereby to minister unto thee matter of comfort in these sorrowful, of stay in these wavering, of understanding the truth in these erroneous times; withal, to call him back, who in denying these articles hath overrun himself. Wherein I am not altogether void of hope. Our Lord grant the spirit of heresy, pride, stoutness of heart in gainsaying, estimation of himself, and regard of this world, stop not from him the Holy Ghost's working! Would God he may weigh this my doing so indifferently, as my meaning towards him is right wholesome and friendly! But in case that deep wound may not be cured with such salve, yet my trust is it shall do thee good, reader, who art either yet whole, or not so desperately wounded: which if it do, I shall think my labour well requited, and myself to have achieved that reward which I sought.

Now, this much I have thought good here to warn thee of, that, whereas at the first I appointed this to my private friend only, and not to all in common (though in sundry places I follow the manner of such as mind to publish their writings), I have so both ordered the matter and tempered the style, as I judge it might have been liked of my friend at home, and doubt whether it may bear the light abroad. I see men's stomachs of our time to be very delicate and diverse. Some require sweet junkets, some sour and sharp sauces; some esteem the curiosity of cookery more than the wholesomeness of viands; some can like no dish, be it never so well dight. In this diversity no man can please all: whosoever seeketh it shall find himself deceived. I ween the best way is, if a man herein mind to do ought, to make his provision of the things only which be wholesome. So shall he displease many, hurt none, and please all the good. Whosoever in doing this directeth his whole purpose and endeavour to this end, that he may profit and help all, in my judgment he doth do the duty of an honest and a good man. Verily in this treatise this hath been mine only purpose; and the mean to bring the same to effect hath been such as whereby I studied to profit wholesomely, not to please delicately. How much good I have performed, I know not; my conscience (which is enough) beareth me witness of good-will. What the apostles have planted, in this great barrenness and drought of faith I have desired again to water. God give increase!

If the multitude of allegations brought for confirmation of some these articles shall seem tedious, no marvel. I should mislike the same in another myself. I grant

[Reprinted from Harding's Answer, 1564, and not given in the editions of Jewel's works.]
[2 Cœlum non animum mutant, qui trans mare currunt.-Hor. Epist. 1. xi. 27.]

herein I have not always kept due comeliness. For, simply to say what I think (having leave to return to my former metaphor), soothly in some courses I have overcharged the board with dishes. Marvel not I have done that I discommend myself: to avoid a more reproof in greater respect, I have wittingly done a thing in some degree reprovable. Neither think I greatly to offend, if in this time of spiritual famine I follow the wont of some feast-makers; who, of their neighbours twitted with niggardness, to shew their largess and bounty feast them with lavish. The adtersary, as here thou mayest see, hath not spared to irk us with reproach of penury, of scarcity, of lack; I mean, of proofs for maintenance of some good part of our religion. In this case to me it seemed a part of just defence to utter some good store. And the niggard's feast by old proverb is well commended, thou knowest pardy. Neither yet have we emptied all our spence3, as hereafter it shall appear, if need require.

If some do not allow this consideration, whosoever the same shall blame, him here concluding shortly I answer with Alexander king of Macedons, who to Leonidas, one of his minions, finding fault with spending much frankincense in sacrifices, wrote thus in few: "Frankincense and myrrh to

thee we have sent plenty, that now to the gods

thou be no more a niggard." Farewell.

At Lovaine, 14 of June,

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THE PREFACE TO MASTER JEWEL1.

In the sermon, fol. 46,2

THIS heap of articles which you have laid together, master Jewel, the greater it riseth, the less is your advantage. For whereas you require but one sentence for the avouching of any one of them all, the more groweth your number, the more enlarged is the liberty of the answerer. It seemeth you have conceived a great confidence in the cause, and that your adversaries (so it liketh you to term us whom God hath so stayed with his grace as we cannot bear you company in departing from his catholic church) have little or nothing to say in their defence. Else what should move you, both in your printed sermon, and also in your answers and replies to doctor Cole, to shew such courage, to use such amplification of words, so often and with such vehemency to provoke us to encounter, and as it were at the blast of a trumpet to make your challenge? What, feared you reproach of dastardness if you had called forth no more but one learned man of all your adversaries; and therefore, to shew your hardiness, added more weight of words to your proclamation, and challenged all the learned men that be alive?

Among cowards, perhaps, it serveth the turn sometimes to look fiercely, to speak terribly, to shake the weapon furiously, to threaten bloodily, no less than cutting, hewing, and killing; but among such we see many times sore frays foughten, and never a blow given. With such brags of himself, and reproach of all others, Homer, the wisest of all poets, setteth forth Thersites for the fondest man of all the Grecians that came to Troy. Goliath the giant, so stout as he was, made offer to fight but with 1 Sam. xvii. one Israelite: "Choose out a man amongst you," quoth he, “and let him come and vobis virum, fight with me, man for man." But you, master Jewel, in this quarrel ask not the ad singulare combat of one catholic man only, but, as one sure of the victory before proof of fight, cast your glove, as it were, and with strange defiance provoke all learned men that be alive to camp with you.

Eligite ex

et descendat

eertamen.

Now, if this matter shall so fall out as the overthrow appear evidently on our side, and the victory on yours, that is to wit, if we cannot bring one sentence for proof of any one of all these articles out of the scriptures, ancient councils, doctors, or example of the primitive church; yet wise and grave men, I suppose, would have liked you better, if you had meekly and soberly reported the truth. For truth, as it is plain and simple, so it needeth not to be set forth with brag of high words. You remember that old saying of the wise: Simplex veritatis oratio: "the utterance of truth ought to be simple."

But if the victory (loth I am to use this insolent word, were it not to follow the metaphor which your challenge hath driven me unto) fall to our side, that is to say, if we shall be able to allege some one sufficient sentence for proof of some one of all these articles; yea, if we shall be able to allege divers and sundry sentences, places, and authorities, for confirmation of sundry these articles; in this case, I ween, you shall hardly escape among sober men the reproach of rashness, among humble men, of presumption, among godly men, of wickedness: of rashness; for what can be more rash than in so weighty matters as some of these articles import, so boldly to affirm that, the contrary whereof may sufficiently be proved? of presumption; for what can be more presumptuous, than in matters by you not thoroughly seen and weighed, to impute ignorance, and unableness to avouch things approved and received by the church, to all learned men alive? of wickedness; for what is more wicked than (the former case standing) so to remove the hearts of the people from devotion, so to bring the church into contempt, so to set at nought the ordinances of the Holy Ghost?

As you follow the new and strange doctrine of Theodorus Beza and Peter Martyr, the prolocutors of the Calvinian churches in France, whose scholar a long time you have been; so you divert far from that prudency, sobriety, and modesty, which in their outward demeanour they shewed in that solemn and honourable assembly

[Reprinted from Harding's Answer, 1564, and not given in the editions of Jewel's works.]
[ See before, page 20.]

at Poyssi, in September 1561; as it appeareth by the oration which Beza pronounced there in the name of all the Calvinists. In which oration, with humble and often protestation, they submit themselves, if cause shall so appear, to better advice and judgment, as though they might be deceived, uttering these and the like words in sundry places: "If we be deceived, we would be glad to know it." Item: "For the small measure of knowledge that it hath pleased God to impart unto us, it seemeth that this transubstantiation," &c. Item: "If we be not deceived." Item: "In case we be deceived, we would be glad to understand it3," &c. But you, master Jewel, as though you had read all that ever hath been written in these points, and had borne away all that ever hath been taught, and were ignorant of nothing touching the same, and none other beside you had seen ought, and were able to say ought, say marvellous confidently, and that in the most honourable and frequent audience of this realm, that you were well assured that none of your learned adversaries, no, nor all the learned men alive, shall ever be able to allege one sentence for any one of these articles, and that, because you know it, therefore you speak it, lest haply your hearers should be In the serdeceived.

mon, fol. 49.4

Likewise in your answer to doctor Cole's first letter you say, speaking of these articles, you thought it best to make your entry in your preaching with such things Fol. 6,5 as wherein you were well assured we should be able to find not so much as any colour or shadow of doctors at all. Wherein you withdraw yourself from plainness, so much as you do in your presumptuous challenge from modesty. For, being demanded of doctor Cole why you treat not rather of matters of more importance than these articles be of, which yet lie in question betwixt the church of Rome and the protestants, as of the presence of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament, of justification, of the value of good works, of the sacrifice of the mass, and of such other; not unwitting how much and how sufficient authority may be brought against your side for proof of the catholic doctrine therein, lest all the world should espy your weakness in these points, you answer that you thought it better to begin with smaller matters, as these articles be, because you assure yourself we have nothing for confirmation of them. Thus craftily you shift your hands of those greater points wherein you know scriptures, councils, doctors, and examples of the primitive church to be of our side, and cast unto us, as a bone to gnaw upon, this number of articles of less weight (a few excepted) to occupy us withal: which be partly concerning order rather than doctrine, and partly sequels of former and confessed truths, rather than principal points of faith; in the exact treaty of which the ancient doctors of the church have not employed their study and travail of writing. For many of them being sequels depending of a confessed truth, they thought it needless to treat of them: forasmuch as, a principal point of truth granted, the granting of all the necessary sequels is implied : as in a chain (which comparison St Basil maketh in the like case) he that draweth Epist. ad Grethe first link after him, draweth also the last link. And for this cause, indeed, the gorium fraless number and weight of such ancient authorities may be brought for the avouching of them; and yet the things in them expressed be not justly improved by any clause or sentence you have said or uttered hitherto.

Verily, M. Jewel, if you had not been more desirous to deface the catholic church, than to set forth the truth, you would never have rehearsed such a long roll of articles, which for the more part be of less importance; whereby you go about to discredit us, and to make the world believe we have nothing to shew for us in a great part of our religion, and that you be to be taken for zealous men, right reformers of the church, and undoubted restorers of the gospel. As touching the other weighty points, whereupon almost only your school-masters of Germany, Switzerland, and Genera, both in their preachings and also in their writings treat, you will not yet adventure the trial of them, with making your match with learned men, and in the mean time set them forth by sermons busily among the unlearned and simple people, until such time as you have won your purpose in these smaller matters.

trem.

Thus you seem to follow a sleight which king Alexander the Great used to further the course of his conquests; who, as Plutarch writeth, whereas he thought verily In Vita Alex

[An Oration made by Master Theodore de Beze, Lond. R. Jugge. foll. B iii. 2, C vi. 2, C viii. &c.] [See before, page 22.]

[5 See before, page 28.]

[ Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Ad Greg. Fratr. Epist. xxxviii. Tom. III. p. 118.]

andri Magni.

that he was begotten of a god, shewed himself toward the barbarians very haut and proud; yet among the Greeks he used a more modesty, and spake little of his godhead. For they being rude, and of small understanding, he doubted not but by ways and means to bring them to such belief: but the Greeks, whom he knew to be men of excellent knowledge and learning, of them he judged, as it proved indeed, the matter should be more subtilly scanned, than simply believed. Right so you, M. Jewel, persuading yourself to have singular skill in divinity, among the simple people you utter the weighty and high points of christian religion that be now in question, in such wise as the protestants have written of them, and with vehement affirmations, with misconstrued and falsified allegations, and with pitiful exclamations you lead the seely souls into dangerous errors. But in your writings, which you knew should pass the judgment of learned men, the points of greater importance you cover with silence, and utter a number of articles of less weight for the more part in respect of the chief, though for good cause received and used in the church (I speak of them as they be rightly taken), denying them all, and requiring the catholics, your adversaries, to prove them. Wherein you shew yourself not to fear controlment of the ignorant, but to mistrust the trial of the learned.

Likewise in the holy canon of the mass you find faults where none are, as it may easily be proved, thinking for defence thereof we had little to say. But of the prayer there made to the virgin Mary, the apostles and martyrs, of the suffrages for the departed in the faith of Christ, in your whole book you utter never a word, though you mislike it, and otherwheres speak against it; as all your sect doth. And why? Forsooth, because you know right well we have store of good authorities for proof thereof. And by your will you will not yet strive with us in matters wherein by the judgment of the people, to whom you lean much, you should seem overmatched. And therefore you search out small matters in comparison of the greatest, such as the old doctors have passed over with silence, and for that cannot of our part by ancient authorities be so amply affirmed, at leastway as you think yourself assured. And in this respect you lay on load of blame, contumelies, and slanders, upon the church for maintaining of them. Wherein the mark you shoot at every man perceiveth what it is; even that, when you have brought the catholic church into contempt, and borne the people in hand we are not able to prove a number of things by you denied, for lack of such proofs, as yourself shall allow, in certain particular points of small force (which falsely you report to be the greatest keys and highest mysteries of our religion), then triumphing against us, and despising the ancient and catholic religion in general, you may set up a new religion of your own forging, a new church of your own framing, a new gospel of your own device. Well may I further say, cathedram contra cathedram, but not, I trow, as St Augustine termeth such state of religion, altare contra altare: for whatsoever ye set up, if ye set up any thing at all, and pull not down only, all manner of altars must needs be thrown down.

Now, being sorry to see the catholic church by your stout and bold brags thus attempted to be defaced, the truth in manner outfaced, and the seely people so dangerously seduced; imbarred of liberty to preach by recognisance, and yet not so discharged in conscience of duty appertaining to my calling; I have now thought good to set forth this treatise in writing, whereby to my power to save the honour of the church, which is our common mother, to defend the truth, in whose quarrel none adventure is to be refused, and to reduce the people from deceit and error, which by order of charity we are bound unto.

For the doing hereof, if you be offended, the conscience of good and right meaning shall soon ease me of that grief. Verily mine intent was not to hurt you, but to profit you, by declaring unto you that truth which you seem hitherto not to have known for, if you had, I ween you would not have preached and written as you have. Your years, your manner of study, and the party you have joined yourself unto considered, it may well be thought you have not thoroughly seen how much may be said in defence of the catholic doctrine, touching these articles which you have denied.

For the manner of doing, I am verily persuaded that neither you, nor any of your fellows, which of all these new sects by your side professed soever he liketh best, shall have just cause to complain. The whole treatise is written without choler, without gall, without spite. What I mislike in you, and in them of your side, I could

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