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Eucharist.

spiritual meat that we eat" (that is, the very body of Christ): and so unto them manna was Christ's body, and not the same thing it was before. And for better Bert. de Sac. declaration hereof, Bertramus saith: Christus ut nunc panem convertit in corpus suum, ita tum manna de cœlo datum suum corpus invisibiliter operatus est": "Christ, as he now turneth the bread into his body, even so then in like sort the manna that fell from heaven, invisibly he made his body." Thus, as the bread is Christ's body, even so was manna Christ's body; and that invisibly, and by the omnipotent power of God. Thus are the elements of manna, of the bread, of the wine, and of the water, changed, and are not as they were before; and therefore in every of the same we honour the body of Christ invisible, not as really and fleshly present, but as being in heaven. This whole matter, and the causes thereof, St August. de Augustine seemeth to open in this wise: Signacula quidem rerum divinarum esse visibilia, &c.2: "Let the new-christened man be taught that sacraments be visible signs of heavenly things, and that the things themselves that he seeth not must be honoured in them, and that the same kind and element (bread, wine, or water) is not so to be taken as it is in daily use. Let him also be taught, what the words mean that he hath heard, and what is hidden (and to be believed) in Christ, whose image or likeness that thing (that is, that sacrament) beareth.” He addeth further: Deinde monendus est ex hac occasione, ut si quid etiam in scripturis audiat, quod carnaliter sonet, etiamsi non intelligat, credat tamen spirituale aliquid significari: "Moreover, upon occasion hereof he must be taught that, if he hear any thing even in the scriptures that sound carnally, yet he think there is some spiritual thing meant by it."

Catech. Rud. cap. xxvi.

and seventy

For Theodo

Manent in priori substantia.

ing's con

are
body, and
must be
worshipped
with godly

M. HARDING. THE TWENTY-SIXTH DIVISION.

66

Leaving a number of places that might be alleged out of the ancient fathers for the confirmation of this matter, to avoid tediousness, I will conclude with that most plain place of Theodoretus, who, speaking of the outward signs of the sacrament, The hundred saith, that notwithstanding they remain after the mystical blessing (171) in the profirst untruth. priety of their former nature, as those that may be seen and felt no less than before ; retus saith: yet they are understanded and believed to be the things which they are made by virtue of consecration, and are worshipped with godly honour. His words be these: By M. Hard- Intelliguntur ea esse, quæ facta sunt, et creduntur, et adorantur, ut Dialog. 2. struction, the quæ illa sint, quæ creduntur: "These mystical signs," saith he, are outward signs understanded to be those things which they are made; and so they are believed and are adored as being the things which they are believed to be." With which words Theodoretus affirmeth both the real presence, and also the adoration: the real presence, in that he saith these outward signs or tokens after consecration to be made things which are not seen, but understanded and believed; whereby he signifieth the invisible thing of this sacrament, the body and blood of Christ: adoration he teacheth with express terms, and that because, through power of the mystical blessing, the signs be in existence and in deed the things which they are believed to be, soothly the body and blood of Christ. For, otherwise, God forbid that christian people should be taught to adore and worship the insensible creatures, bread and wine! Of which he saith that they are adored, not as signs, not so in nowise, but as being the things which they are believed to be. Now I report me to the christian reader, whether this adoration of the sacrament, whereby we mean the godly worship of Christ's body in the sacrament, be a new device, or no, brought into the church but lately, [Fol. 20. H. A. about three hundred years past, as M. Jewel maketh himself sure of it in 1564.] his sermon 6.

honour.

[ Ipse...qui nunc...panem...in sui corporis carnem...convertit, ipse tunc quoque manna de cœlo datum corpus suum... invisibiliter operatus est.Ratramn. Lib. de Corp. et Sang. Dom. Oxon. 1838. cap. xxv. p. 14.]

[2 Signacula &c., sed res ipsas invisibiles in eis honorari; nec sic habendam esse illam speciem benedictione sanctificatam, quemadmodum habetur in usu quolibet: dicendum etiam quid significet et

sermo ille quem audivit, quid in illo condiat, cujus illa res similitudinem gerit.-August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. de Catech. Rud. cap. xxvi. 50. Tom. VI. col. 293.]

[3 Themself, 1565.]

[ Id. ibid.; where intelligit, and spiritale.]

[ Theodor. Op. Lut. Par. 1642-84. Inconfus. Dial. 11. Tom. IV. p. 85.]

[ See before, page 10.]

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

By these words of Theodoret, M. Harding thinketh himself able to prove both real presence and also adoration of the sacrament; and I doubt not but the discreet reader shall soon perceive he hath proved as well the one as the other. Touching real presence, Theodoretus speaketh nothing; no, not one word. His manner of speech seemeth rather to incline to transubstantiation; whereunto notwithstanding Theodoretus is an enemy, and thinketh it a great folly, proceeding of ignorance, as it shall appear. And whereas Theodoretus imagineth two men to reason together by way of a dialogue, a catholic man and an heretic, M. Harding is fain, for defence of his doctrine, to take part with the heretic, and to use his arguments as if they were catholic. For thus the heretic there saith, even as M. Harding now saith: Symbola dominici corporis et sanguinis alia quidem sunt ante Theodor. invocationem sacerdotis; sed post invocationem mutantur, et alia fiunt": "The Inconfus. sacraments or signs of Christ's body and blood are one thing before the blessing of the priest; but after the blessing they are changed, and made other things." And he speaketh of the change of substance as M. Harding doth. The catholic man maketh answer: Signa mystica post sanctificationem non recedunt a natura

sua.

Dial. ii.

Manent enim in priori substantia, et figura, et forma: "Nay, marry, the mystical signs after the blessing (of the priest) depart not from their own nature. For they remain in their former substance, and figure, and form." He saith further: "Yet the same bread and wine, remaining as they were before, are Ut quæ sint understanded and believed and adored as the things that they are believed."

Here, good christian reader, note by the way, M. Harding saith: The nature and substance of the bread and wine is utterly abolished and done away; but the catholic man saith: "The same nature and substance remaineth still as it was before." If the catholic man's saying be catholic, then M. Harding's saying is not catholic.

illa quæ creduntur.

M. Harding will reply: But these signs are honoured. Even so St Augustine saith: Baptisma, ubicunque est, veneramur1o: "We honour baptism, wheresoever August. it be." But for answer11 hereto, understand thou, good reader, that Theodoret Epist. clxiv. was a Greek bishop, and that the Grecians never used to give godly honour to the sacrament until this day. Further understand thou, that St Ambrose touching the sacrament writeth thus: Venisti ad altare: vidisti sacramenta posita super Ambros de altare: et ipsam quidem miratus es creaturam. Tamen creatura solennis et nota12: cap.iii. "Thou camest to the altar: thou sawest the sacraments laid upon the same, and didst marvel at the very creature. Yet is it a creature used and known."

Here. St Ambrose calleth the sacrament a creature, and that twice together in one place. I think M. Harding will not have us believe that Theodoretus, being so godly a man, gave godly honour unto a creature.

But Theodoretus saith they are honoured. last objection.

This is already answered in the

...

Sacr. Lib. iv.

contr. Max.

August.

contr. Faust.

For, as St Augustine teacheth us, “in sacraments we must con- August. sider, not what they be indeed, but what they signify 13." And in this sense they Lib. iii. are understanded and believed and adored, as by signification being or representing the things that are believed. St Augustine saith: Sacramenta [sunt]. verba visibilia14: "Sacraments be visible words." But words are oftentimes put Manich. Lib. for the things that are signified by the words. So saith St Hilary: Verba Dei sunt illa quæ enuntiant 15: "The words of God be the very things that they utter Trin. Lib. vi. or signify." So Christ saith: "My words be spirit and life;" because they be John vi. instruments of spirit and life. And so Origen saith: Hoc quod modo loquimur Origen, in

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xix. cap. xv. Hilar. de

Num. Hom.

23.

August. de
Doctr. Christ.

ix.

sunt carnes Christi1: "The very words that I now speak are the flesh of Christ." Even in this sort the sacraments are the flesh of Christ, and are so understanded and believed and adored. But the whole honour resteth not in them, but is passed over from them to the things that be signified.

M. Harding will say, by this construction adorantur is as much to say as non adorantur; "they are honoured," that is, they are not honoured, but only lead us to those things that must he honoured. Herein is none inconvenience. For so it appeareth Theodoretus expoundeth his own meaning. His words immediately following are these: Confer ergo imaginem cum exemplari, et videbis similitudinem. Oportet enim figuram esse veritati similem2: "Compare therefore the image (that is, the sacrament) with the pattern (that is, with Christ's body). For the figure must be like unto the truth." Theodoretus calleth the sacrament an image, a resemblance, and a figure. I think M. Harding will not say that images, resemblances, and figures, be worthy of godly honour. And hereunto very aptly agreeth St Augustine's lesson touching the same: Qui... adorat utile Lib. iii. cap. signum divinitus institutum, cujus vim significationemque intelligit, non hoc veneratur, quod videtur et transit, sed illud potius, quo talia cuncta referenda sunt3: “He, that worshippeth a profitable sign appointed by God, and understandeth the power and signification of the same, doth not worship that thing that is seen with the eye and passeth away, but rather he worshippeth that thing unto which all such things have relation." Here St Augustine thinketh it no inconvenience to say, we worship the sign, and yet worship it not. And this he speaketh, not only of the sacrament of Christ's body, but also of the sacrament of baptism. For so he saith further in the same place: Sicuti est baptismi sacramentum, &c.1: "As is the sacrament of baptism and the celebration of the body and blood of the Lord: which sacraments every man, when he receiveth them, being instructed, To worship knoweth whereto they belong, that he may worship them, not with carnal bondage, but with the freedom of the Spirit." I might add hereto the words of that most fond and lewd second council of Nice: Venerandas imagines perfecte adoramus; et eos, qui secus confitentur, anathematizamus5: “We do perfectly 6 adore the reverend images, and do accurse them that profess otherwise." And yet afterward they say: "Honor imagini exhibitus refertur ad prototypum5: "The “The honour given to the image [(is not given to the image, but)7] redoundeth unto the pattern." Thus that council saith: " Images are honoured:" that is to say, they are not honoured.

August. in codem capite.

baptism.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Now let us examine what construction M. Harding maketh upon these words: Theodoretus saith: "The bread and the wine leave not, or be not changed from, their former nature :” that is to say, by this new exposition, they utterly leave their former nature.

“ They remain still in their substance :" that is to say, saith M. Harding, they remain not in their substance.

Further M. Harding saith:

The accidents of bread and wine be the signs of Christ's body: the bread and the wine be no signs.

The visible accidents are made the invisible body and blood of Christ: the bread and wine are made nothing.

The signs be made the very self thing that is signified, and that in existence, and in deed. And so one thing at one time and in one respect is substance and accident, visible and invisible, and, as they term it in the schools, fundamentum and terminus; which was ever wont to be called a monster in nature. So many errors are scarcely sufficient to maintain one error.

[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Num. Hom. xxiii. 6. Tom. II. p. 359; where carnes sunt Verbi Dei.]

[2 Theodor. Op. Lut. Par. 1642-84. Inconfus. Dial. H. Tom. IV. p. 85.

[3 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Doctr. Christ. Lib. 111. cap. ix. 13. Tom. III. Pars 1. col. 49; where veneratur for adorat.]

[ Sicuti est baptismi sacramentum, et celebratio corporis et sanguinis Domini: quæ unusquisque

cum percipit, quo referantur imbutus agnoscit, ut ea non carnali servitute, sed spiritali potius libertate veneretur. Id. ibid.]

[5 Concil. Nic. 11. Def. Act. vii. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. II. pp. 599, 603. See also in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. VII. cols. 556, 76.]

[6. Perfitely, 1565.]

[7 This clause is inserted from 1565.]

Now I trust the christian reader will soon consider how soundly M. Harding hath discharged his promise, and proved the adoration of the sacrament. Verily, of all these doctors that he hath here alleged (Theodoretus only excepted, in whom he would seem to have some colour of aid, who also is already clearly answered), there is not one that any way may be thought to touch, either the worshipping of the outward sacrament itself, or of Christ, as present in the sacrament.

1215.

de Sacr.

The greatest doctors of that side say that, unless transubstantiation be concluded, the people cannot freely worship the sacrament without occasion of idolatry. Now it is known that transubstantiation is a new fantasy, newly devised Ann. Dom. in the council of Lateran in Rome: and D. Tonstal saith that, before that time, Tonst. Lib. i. it was free and lawful for any man to hold the contrary. Wherefore it is likely Buch. fol. 46. that before that time there was no such adoration: otherwise it must needs have been with great danger of idolatry. But after that, as it is said before, pope Honorius took order, and gave commandment that the people should adore9; Extra. de pope Urbanus added thereto a new solemn feast of Corpus Christi day; and pope Clemen. Lib. Clement confirmed the same with great store of pardons 10. This is the antiquity Si Dominum. and petite degree of this kind of adoration.

Fol. 26. H. A. 1564.]

Gen. xxix.

M. HARDING. THE TWENTY-SEVENTH DIVISION.

Celeb. Miss.

iii. Tit. 16.

defence of

idolatry.

idolaters

idol of good

And whereas, utterly to abolish this adoration, he allegeth great danger of idolatry, in case the priest do not truly consecrate11; thereto may be answered, that Jacob stood in no danger of conscience for that, by the procurement of Laban, he lay with Lea instead of Rachel; neither for the same was he to be charged with advoutery, because he meant good faith, and thought himself to have had the company of his wife Rachel. So idolatry is not to be imputed unto him that worshippeth Christ with godly honour in the A very simple bread not consecrate, which of good faith he thinketh to be consecrate. Touching manifest Enchir. 60. this case, St Augustine hath this notable saying: "We have need," saith Even so the he, "to put a difference in our judgment, and to know good from evil; thought their forasmuch as Satan, changing his shape, sheweth himself as an angel of light, lest faith to be through deceit he lead us aside to some pernicious things. For, when he deceiveth very God. the senses of the body, and removeth not the mind from true and right meaning, wherein each man leadeth a faithful life, there is no peril in religion. Or if when he feigneth himself good, and doth or saith those things that of congruence pertain to good angels, although he be thought to be good, this is not a perilous or sickly error of christian faith. But when as by these things he beginneth to bring us to things quite contrary, then to know him from the good Spirit, and not to go after him, it standeth us much upon diligently to watch and take heed12" Thus St Augustine. Thus 13 much for the adoration of the sacrament, or rather of Christ in the sacrament, may suffice.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

The great danger and horror of idolatry that hereof riseth, M. Harding thinketh may easily be salved by the example of Rachel and Lea: and thus he bringeth in God's mystical providence for defence of open error; and thus teacheth us instead of Rachel to take Lea, and to honour a creature instead of

[ Porro ante Innocentium tertium Romanum episcopum, qui in Lateranensi concilio præsedit, tribus modis id posse fieri curiosius scrutantibus visum est: &c.-Tonst. De Verit. Corp. et Sang. Dom. in Euch. Lut. 1554. Lib. 1. fol. 46.]

[ Honor. III. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. III. Tit. xli. cap. 10. col. 1378.]

[10 Clemens V. in eod. Clement. Lib. 111. Tit. xvi. cols. 240, &c.]

[11 See before, page 13.]

[12 Magis opus est dijudicare atque dignoscere, cum se Satanas transfigurat velut angelum lucis, ne

fallendo ad aliqua perniciosa seducat. Nam quando
sensus corporis fallit, mentem vero non movet a vera
rectaque sententia, qua quisque vitam fidelem gerit,
nullum est in religione periculum: vel cum se bonum
fingens, ea facit sive dicit quæ bonis angelis congru-
unt, etiam si credatur bonus, non est error christianæ
fidei periculosus aut morbidus. Cum vero per hæc
aliena ad sua incipit ducere, tunc eum dignoscere,
nec ire post eum, magna et necessaria vigilantia est.
-August. Op. Enchirid. cap. lx. 16. Tom. VI. cols.
218, 9.]

[13 This, 1565, and H. A. 1561.]

Doubts God. Wherein it shall be necessary briefly to touch how many ways, even by touching their own doctrine, the poor simple people may be deceived, and yield the honour Conse- of God to that thing that in their own judgment is no God.

cration.

Thom. Par.

iii. Quæst. 83.
Johan. de

Burg. Pup...
Ocul. cap. iii.

Idem.
Idem.

Thus therefore they say: If the priest chance to forget to put wine into the cup, and so pass over the consecration without wine1;

Or if the bread be made of any other than wheaten flour, which may possibly

happen2;

Or if there be so much water in quantity, that it overcome and alter the Gers. contr. nature of the wine;

Flor. Lib. iv,

Extra. de
Celeb. Miss.

Or if the wine be changed into vinegar, and therefore cannot serve to consecration;

Or if there be thirteen cakes upon the table, and the priest for his consecration determine only upon twelve, in which case, they say, not one of them all is consecrate3;

Or if the priest dissemble or leave out the words of consecration; or if he De homine. forget it, or mind it not, or think not of it-in every of these, and other like defects, there is nothing consecrate; and therefore the people, in these cases honouring the sacrament, by their own doctrine giveth the glory of God to a creature, which is undoubted idolatry.

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And, that the folly hereof may the better appear, one of them writeth thus: Quod si sacerdos, &c.5: "If the priest, having before him sundry cakes at the time of consecration, do mind only and precisely to consecrate that only cake that he holdeth in his hand, some say the rest be not consecrate; but say thou, as Duns saith, they be all consecrate." Yea, further he saith: "If the priest do precisely determine to consecrate only the one half part of the cake, and not likewise the other half, that then, the cake being whole, that one part only is consecrate, and not the other"."

Pope Gregory saith: "If the priest be a known adulterer or fornicator, and continue still in the same, that his blessing shall be turned into cursing; and that the people obeying not this most wholesome precept commit idolatry 9.”

In this case standeth the simple people: so many ways and so easily they may be deceived. For notwithstanding they may in some part know the priest's life and open dealing, yet how can they be assured of his secret words, of his

['Contingit quandoque quod per negligentiam ministri aut aqua non ponitur in calice, aut etiam nec vinum, &c.—Thom. Aquinat. Op. Venet. 1595. Summ. Theol. Tert. Pars, Quæst. lxxxiii. Art. 6. fol. 280, 2.]

[ Possibly and easily happen, 1565.]

[ Materia necessaria eucharistiæ est panis frumentarius: quia sine illo non potest fieri consecratio... Quæritur hic utrum possit confici ab aceto... Dicendum quod si sit jam perfecte acetum, quod non potest confici ex aceto...alioquin enim si vinum ab aqua vinceretur, consecratio impeditur... Quæritur si sint quindecim hostiæ consecrandæ supra altare, et sacerdos non credat esse nisi duodecim; utrum illæ quindecim erunt consecratæ. Berengarius archiepiscopus Compostelanus...ad istud dubium respondet cum distinctione tali...aut intendit præcise consecrare duodecim et non plures, et non determinat quæ sunt illæ duodecim. Et tunc dicit idem Berengarius quod nulla est consecrata. Floret. Lib. Lugd. 1499. Lib. IV. foll. 94, 5, 6.

Materia congrua, immo necessaria, hujus sacramenti est panis et vinum...Panis enim consecrandus debet esse triticius....Materia calicis necessaria est vinum de vite: quia sanguis Christi de alia materia quam de vino vitis confici non potest... Si enim tantum apponitur de aqua quod substantia vini absorbeatur...de illa mixtura non potest confici sanguis Christi. Joan. de Burg. Pup. Ocul. Argent. 1514.

Pars IV. De Sacram. Euch. fol. 16, 7.]

[* Quæsivistis quid de incauto presbytero videatur, qui...missam celebrare se fingit...gravius... videtur offendere...cum...non solum Deo...sed populo, quem decipit, se astringat.-Innoc. III. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. III. Tit. xli. cap. 7. col. 1374.]

[ Quid si sacerdos acceptis pluribus hostiis consecrandis: quando venit ad actum consecrationis non advertit nisi ad eam quam habet in manu?...quidam dicunt quod non sunt aliæ consecratæ. Sed tu die cum Scoto quod omnes sunt consecrata.- Clavas. Summ. Angel. Argent. 1513. Euchar. i. 27. fol. 85.]

[ Utrum sacerdos virtute verborum præfatorum possit unam partem ipsius hostiæ consecrare sine alia hostia continua remanente. Resp. Rich. in iv. di. x. quod sic: si intenderet determinate ad alteram partem: puta dexteram, vel a tali signo citra.-Id. ibid. 26.] [7 Advouterer, 1565, 1609.] [ People knowing his life, and nevertheless hearing his mass, commit, 1565.]

[ Si qui sunt presbyteri...qui in crimine fornicationis jaceant, interdicimus eis...Si qui vero in suo peccato perseverare maluerint... benedictio eorum vertitur in maledictionem... Qui vero huic saluberrimo præcepto obedire noluerit, idololatriæ peccatum incurrit. Gregor. VII. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Prim. Pars, Dist. lxxxi. can. 15. cols. 388, 9.]

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