Obrazy na stronie


Touching these ancient fathers that here be alleged, notwithstanding the credit of some of them might well come in question, as namely that Chrysostom in his liturgy prayeth for the emperor of1 Alexius, which was not born within five hundred years after that Chrysostom was dead; yet will I spare both this, and also all other like advantages, and receive all these authorities as if they were good and perfect3 without exception.

But first, for the clearer conceiving of the answer hereunto, understand, good christian reader, that by the record of the old fathers Christ is present Cyril. In Joh. amongst us sundry ways: by his holy Spirit, as Cyrillus saith; by his grace, as Eusebius Emissenus saith"; by his divinity and majesty, as St Augustine Consecr. Dist. Saith; by faith dwelling in our hearts, as St Paul saith. Thus is Christ most

Lib. viii. cap. vii.

Emiss. de

2. Quia


August. in
Tract. in

Joh. 50.
Eph. iii.

August, de
Dist. 2.


comfortably present in his holy word, in the mystery of baptism, and in the
sacrament of his body. We deny only that gross and fleshly presence that M.
Harding here defendeth; wherein we have the authority and consent of the
old learned fathers. For, to allege one instead of many, St Augustine saith:
Corpus....in quo resurrexit, [in] uno loco esse oportet":
uno loco esse oportet: "The body wherein
Christ rose again must be in one place."

Here M. Harding, as his manner is, taketh one thing in hand, and proveth another. For to prove that Christ is really and fleshly present in the sacrament, he allegeth the old fathers, that never spake one word of this real or fleshly presence. And therefore, setting such countenance upon the matter with the names of holy fathers, and not once coming near that thing wherein standeth the whole question, he dallieth vainly and abuseth the simplicity of the people. For touching Chrysostom and Basil, we grant that Christ, being in heaven in his humanity and in the substance of his body, is nevertheless by his Spirit and grace invisibly present in his sacraments. Which answer, notwithstanding it might serve generally to all these authorities here brought in, yet I have thought it not amiss to consider them all severally as they come.


St Chrysostom prayeth with the very same words also in his liturgy or mass: where we read further, that "the priest and the deacon do adore and worship, saying three times secretly, 'God be merciful to me a sinner;' and that the people do all likewise devoutly adore". Now, sith he will adoration Et populus sito be made, he acknowledgeth Christ present, whom he granteth to be also at the same time in heaven.

militer omnişɓ cum pietate adorant.

Hicron, ad

Paul. de Ob.


It is likely, saith Master Harding, that Christ is fleshly present in the sacrament, for that the priest and the people adoreth him. This guess hath very slender hold. For would he that the people should never worship Christ, but only when they have him present before their face? Certainly St Hierome writeth thus of a gentlewoman named Melania: Ad Christi pedes provoluta est1o:

μεταδοῦναι ἡμῖν τοῦ ἀχράντου σώματός σου, καὶ
τοῦ τιμίου αἵματος, καὶ δι ̓ ἡμῶν παντὶ τῷ λαῷ.
Basil. Lit. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560. pp. 66, 7.]
[ 1565 omits of.]

[2 See before, page 114, note 4.]

[3 Perfit, 1565, 1609.]


[+ ἐναυλίζεται τοῖς ἀξίοις διὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος. -Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Comm. in Joan. Evang. Lib. XI. cap. ii. Tom. IV. p. 933.]

[5 Euseb. Emiss. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 35. col. 1927. See before, page 467.]

[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. xii. Tractat. 1. 13. Tom. III. Pars 11.

col. 634.]

[ Id. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can, 44. col. 1935.]

[ Omnes, H. A. 1564.]

[ Πρόσχες, κ.τ.λ. Εἶτα προσκυνεῖ ὁ ἱερεὺς καὶ ὁ διάκονος ἐν ᾧ ἐστὶ τρόπῳ, λέγοντες μυστικώς τρὶς, Ὁ Θεὸς ἱλάσθητί μοι τῷ ἁμαρτωλῷ. Και λαὸς ὁμοίως, πάντες μετὰ εὐλαβείας προσκυνοῦow. Chrysost. Lit. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. p. 103.]

[10...ad pedis advoluta Christi, quasi ipsum teneret, arrisit. Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Ad Paul. sup. Ob. Blesil. Epist. xxii. Tom. IV. Pars 11. col. 58.]

Mare. Hom.

"She fell down and worshipped at Christ's feet:" notwithstanding she had not Miracle. Christ there bodily present. Likewise Chrysostom teacheth us to worship Christ in the sacrament of baptism. For thus he saith unto the people: Et vos, qui Chrysost. in accepturi estis baptisma,...tenete pedes Salvatoris: lavate lacrymis: crine tergite11: 14. "You that will receive baptism, hold the feet of our Saviour: wash them with your tears: wipe them with your hair." Yet will not M. Harding therefore say that Christ is bodily and carnally present in the water of baptism. Thus the faithful then were taught to worship Christ, although they had him not corporally in real presence. The idolaters worshipped the sun and the moon; yet they pulled them not down from heaven to receive their worship. Therefore M. Harding's argument of adoration can stand him but in little stead. For we are taught to worship Christ sitting in heaven, not lying bodily present before our eyes.

Chrysostom. de

Lib. iii.


Which he uttereth more plainly in these words: O miraculum, O Dei benignitatem, &c.: "O miracle, O the goodness of God, who sitteth above with Sacerdolio, the Father, at that very instant of time is handled with the hands of all, and giveth himself to those that will receive and embrace him. And that is done by no crafty slightness 12, but openly in the sight of all that stand about. How sayest thou, seem these things no better to thee 13 than to be contemned and despised14?" By which words of St Chrysostom we may see that Christ's being in heaven maketh no proof that he is not in earth, sith both these rerities may well stand together.



Fer. de

This argument would serve well, if there were none other miracle but carnal presence. But if M. Harding had conferred with the old catholic fathers, he should have found miracles in the sacrament of baptism, no less than in this sacrament of Christ's body. Leo saith: [Deus] mirabile nobis sacramentum Leon. Epist. regenerationis indulsit 15: "God hath granted us the marvellous sacrament of regeneration." So saith Eusebius Emissenus: Veniant [nunc] qui futuræ resur- Hom, Sext. rectionis gloriam sitiunt: jam nunc de...remissione peccatorum digno miraculo Baptism. reficiant fidem suam. Homo [in] fonte tingitur, &c. 16: "Let them draw near that thirst after the glory of the resurrection that is to come: even now let them refresh their faith with that worthy miracle of remission of sin. A man is washed in the font," &c. In like sort writeth Chrysostom touching the same; Nullo pacto de intellectuali per baptismum regeneratione et admirabili partu ra- Chrysost, in tionem reddemus. Nam et angeli, qui adfuerunt, tam inenarrabilis operis modum 24. minime possunt enarrare. Adfuerunt tantum, et viderunt; nihil autem operati sunt: sed Pater tantum, et Filius, et Spiritus sanctus17: "We are never able to yield a reason of the spiritual regeneration and miraculous birth that we have by baptism. The very angels that were present are not able to utter the manner of that unspeakable work. They were present only, and saw; but they wrought nothing; but only the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." Here we see a miracle in baptism, and such a miracle as the angels of God are not able to utter it. Yet will not M. Harding say that Christ's body is therefore really present in the water of baptism. So weakly these proofs hang together. But Chrysostom's words are very vehement: That Christ is present at the

["Chrysost. Op. Lat. Basil. 1547. In Marc. Hom. xiv. Tom. II. col. 1284.]

[12 Sleights, H. A. 1564.]

[13 To thee no better, H. A. 1564.]

[14 Ὢ τοῦ θαύματος· ὦ τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ φιλανθρω πίας ὁ μετὰ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἄνω καθήμενος, κατὰ τὴν ὥραν ἐκείνην τῶν ἁπάντων κατέχεται χερσί, καὶ δίδωσιν αὐτὸν τοῖς βουλομένοις περιπτύξασθαι καὶ περιλαβεῖν. ποιοῦσι δὲ τοῦτο πάντες διὰ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν τῆς πίστεως. ἆρά σοι τοῦ καταφρονεῖ

σθαι ταῦτα ἄξια καταφαίνεται;-Chrysost. Op.
Par. 1718-38. De Sacerdot. Lib. 111. 4. Tom. I.
p. 382.]

[15 Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. Ad Pulch. Au-
gust. Epist. xiii. col. 317; where sacramentum nobis.]
[16 Euseb. Emis. Hom. Lut. Par. 1547. Hom. vii.
de Pasch. fol. 51. 2; where jam tunc.]

[17 Chrysost. Op. In Joan. Hom, xxv. Tom. VIII. p. 145.]

Joh. Hom.

Dist. 2.

Ego Berenga rius. In



holy ministration; that every man both toucheth him with his fingers, and also seeth him with his eyes, and that clearly and openly, without. guile or error. I grant these words be very vehement, and much exceed the common But here would I learn of master Harding, whether he will take these words plainly and simply as they lie, or else will rather qualify them with a courteous and gentle interpretation. If he follow the rigour of the words, then appeareth there a manifest contradiction; and Chrysostom in uttering one sentence is found clean contrary to himself. For first he saith, "Christ is there invisibly, in such sort as no man can see him;" and yet immediately after, with one breath he saith, "Every man seeth him with his eyes plainly, and without guile or error." Again, by the rigour of the same words, we must needs grant that the people both verily and indeed seeth Christ's very body, and also handleth and toucheth it with their fingers; which is not only a manifest De Consecr. untruth, but also a greater heresy than ever was defended by Berengarius, as it is confessed by the doctors of M. Harding's own side1. Indeed, the marvellous effects that God worketh in the faithful, in that dreadful time of the holy communion, wherein the whole mystery of our redemption that we have in the blood of Christ is expressed, Chrysostom calleth a miracle; and therefore the more to stir the people's minds to the consideration of the same, he inflameth his speech with rhetorical amplifications and heat of words. He saith: "Christ is crucified before our eyes: his blood gusheth out of his side, and streameth and floweth over the holy table; and the people is therewith made red and bloody 2." This advancing 3 and ravishing of the mind he calleth a miracle; but of any corporal or fleshly presence he speaketh nothing. By such figurative and fiery speech he meant not that we should understand him precisely according to the sound of his words, but sought only to lift up and enkindle his hearers' minds. So St Paul saith to the Galathians: "Christ was crucified before your eyes." So St Hierome: "Our faces are marked in baptism with the blood of Christ4." So saith Tertullian: "We are washed in the passion of our Lord"." So St Gregory saith: Eundem Agnum Johannes ostendendo, Esaias prævidendo, Abel offerendo locutus est: et quem Johannes in ostensione, quem Esaias in locutione, hunc Abel significando in manibus tenuit® : "St John the Baptist spake of the same Lamb by pointing, Esaias by seeing, Abel by offering. And the Lamb that John held in his hand by pointing, and Esay by speaking, the same Lamb Abel held in his hand by signifying." These sayings, and other like, are vehement, as is that of Chrysostom; and, as M. Harding knoweth, may not be taken as they lie, but must be mollified with a gentle construction.

Gal. iii.

Hieron. in
Psal. Ixxxv.
Tertull. de
Gregor. in
Job. Lib.

xxix. cap.



The same father confesseth the body of Christ to be in divers places [Christ's body in likewise in his homilies ad Populum Antiochenum, most plainly alluding many places at Chrysostom's to Elias. Elias, saith he, melotem quidem discipulo reliquit: Filius Hom. 2.

words not

justly and fully re


once. H.A. 1564.]

autem Dei ascendens suam nobis carnem dimisit. Sed Elias quidem exutus: Christus autem et nobis reliquit, et ipsam habens ascendit: “Elias (when he was carried up in the fiery chariot) left to his disciple Elizeus his mantle of sheep's skins: but the Son of God, when he ascended, left to us his flesh. But Elias did put off his mantle; and Christ both left his flesh to us, and also ascended having it with him." Nothing can be spoken more plainly, whereby to shew that we have the same

[Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gra-
tian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. Gloss.
in can. 42. col. 1932. See before, page 459, note 4.]

[* Οταν γὰρ ἴδῃς τὸν Κύριον τεθυμένον, καὶ
κείμενον, καὶ τὸν ἱερέα ἐφεστῶτα τῷ θύματι, καὶ
ἐπευχόμενον· καὶ πάντας ἐκείνῳ τῷ τιμίῳ φοι-
νισσομένους αἵματι κ.τ.λ. Chrysost. Op. Par.
1718-38. De Sacerdot. Lib. III. 4. Tom. I. p. 382.
See also In Matt. Hom. lxxxii. Tom. VII. p. 788.]
[3 Avancing, 1565.]

[ Perhaps the reference is to the following pas-
sage: Ergo post lepram sanari non poteris nisi per

passionem Christi et per baptismum...Exterminator
quum viderit sanguinem in fronte tua, accedere non
poterit. Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Breviar, in
Psalt. Psalm. lxxxiv. Tom. II. Append. col. 344.]
[5...passio Domini, in quam tinguimur.-Tertull.
Op. Lut. 1641. De Baptism. 19. p. 264.]

[ Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Lib. XXIX. in cap. xxxviii. B. Job. cap. xxxi. 69. Tom. I. col. 948.]

[ Chrysost. Op. Ad Pop. Ant. Hom. ii. Tom. II. p. 34.]

flesh here in earth that was received into heaven, which Christ hath not put off to give it to us. By which doctrine of St Chrysostom (148) we are taught to believe, that The hundred Christ's flesh or his body is both in heaven and also in the earth, in how many eighth unplaces soever this blessed sacrament is rightly celebrated.


and forty

truth. For the very order of the comparison plainly concludeth the


Pop. Ant

This place well considered both openeth itself, and also giveth light unto other like. Chrysostom sheweth in what sort Christ hath both taken up his flesh into heaven, and also left the same here amongst the faithful in the earth; and to that end compareth Elias and Christ together. The story is known, that, when Elias was taken up in a fiery chariot, he let down his coat unto Elizeus 2 Kings ii. that stood beneath; who took it up, and by the power of the same divided the water of Jordan. Upon occasion hereof Chrysostom saith: Tanquam maximam Chrysost. ad hæreditatem Elizæus melotem suscepit. Etenim vere maxima fuit hæreditas omni Hom. 2. auro pretiosior. Et erat postea duplex Elias: et erat sursum Elias, et deorsum Elias: "Elizeus received the coat made of sheep's skins as a great inheritance. And doubtless it was an inheritance more precious than any gold. After that time Elias was double: for there was Elias above, and Elias beneath." Above was the very true Elias in the natural substance and presence of his body; beneath was nothing else but Elias' coat; which coat notwithstanding, because of the powers that were wrought with it, he calleth Elias. Thus Chrysostom compareth Elias with Christ, and Elias' coat with the sacrament; and thus he saith, Christ is above, and Christ is beneath; as he saith, Elias is above, and Elias is beneath. For, as Elias' coat was called Elias, even so the sacrament of Christ's body is called Christ's body. Which saying agreeth well with these words of St Augustine: Sacramentum corporis Christi secundum quendam modum corpus August. Christi est": "The sacrament of Christ's body, after a certain manner, is the fa body of Christ;" not substantially or really or indeed, but as Elias' coat is Elias. Hereof M. Harding might well have formed this argument:

Elias, being above, was not verily and indeed present beneath in his coat; Therefore by Chrysostom's comparison Christ's body is not indeed really and fleshly present in the sacrament.


ad Bonifac.

and forty

truth, joined

(149) And whereas many, measuring all things by the common order and laws of The hundred nature, believe nothing can be done above nature, and therefore think that the body ninth unof Christ, forasmuch as it is of nature finite, cannot by power of God be in many with a slan places at once, of which opinion M. Jewel seemeth to be himself; it shall not be der. beside the purpose, though the places already alleged prove the contrary, to recite the testimonies of an old doctor or two, wherein they confess most plainly that which by this article is most untruly denied.


Coen. Dom.

M. Harding hopeth to win the victory by untrue reports. For with what truth or modesty can he say that we measure all things by the laws of nature, and believe nothing above the judgment of our senses? He knoweth well our doctrine is according to the doctrine of St Cyprian 10, St Augustine, and other old fathers, Cyprian, de that Christ's body is meat for our minds, and not for our bellies; and that the Cibus mentis, same cannot be eaten with our mouth or teeth, or by any other natural or mate- non ventris. rial means, but only spiritually by faith, which is the mouth of the inner man. He knoweth we teach the people to lift up their hearts, and, as St Chrysostom saith, "to become eagles in this life, and to mount up unto the gates of heaven, Chrysost. even unto the heaven11 of heavens, and so to draw near to Christ's body12." He 24.

[ Id. ibid.]

[9 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Ad Bonifac. Epist. xcviii. 9. Tom. II. col. 267; where the words are transposed.]

[10 Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Con. Dom. (Ar

nold.) p. 44. See before, page 141, note 11.]
[ Heavens, 1565, 1609.]

[19 Chrysost. Op. In Epist. 1. ad Cor. Hom. xxiv.
Tom. X. p. 218.]

1 Cor. Hom.

knoweth we say Christ is present by his Godhead, by his Spirit, and by his grace, and worketh miraculously in the sacrament of his body, as he doth in the sacrament of baptism. All this it pleaseth M. Harding to call the law of nature and the judgment of our senses. Verily we yield no more unto nature than it is meet we should. Neither do we abridge God's omnipotent power. But all vain fantasies of man's head may not be measured by the power of God. This argument the heretic Praxeas used against Tertullian. For thus he said: God is omnipotent, and can do it; therefore we must believe that he doth it. But Tertullian answerTertull, adv. eth him: Si tam abrupte in præsumptionibus nostris hac sententia utamur, quidris de Deo confingere poterimus: quasi fecerit, quia facere potuerit. Non autem, quia omnia potest facere, ideo... credendum est illum fecisse: ... sed an fecerit, requirendum1: "If we use this saying so rashly in our presumptions, we may imagine of God what we list; as though, because God can do it, that therefore indeed he hath done it. But we may not believe that God hath done every thing, because he is able to do it; but rather we must search out whether he have done it or no." Thus M. Harding's new catholic faith is called of Tertullian a vain presumption.


St Ambrose speaketh

only of the

spiritual sight and

fruition of

the mind,

no manner



St Ambrose hath these words: Etsi... Christus nunc non videtur In Psal. xxxviii. offerre, tamen ipse offertur in terris, quando Christi corpus offertur. Imo ipse offerre manifestatur in nobis, cujus sermo sanctificat sacrificium quod offertur2: If Christ now be not seen to offer, yet he is offered in earth, when the body of Christ and requireth is offered. Yea, it is manifest that himself offereth in us, whose word sanctijieth and consecrateth the sacrifice that is offered." Now, if Christ's body be offered in earth, as this father affirmeth, and that of Christ himself, in respect that the sacrifice which is offered is by his word consecrated; then it followeth, Christ's body to be in so many places as it is offered in. Where by the way this may be noted, that the sacrifice oj The hundred the church (150) is not thanksgiving (as our new masters do teach), but sacrificium in the body of Christ itself, which of the fathers is called "an unbloody ficum. and quickening or life-giving sacrifice3."

gross or corporal presence.

and fiftieth


For St Augustine

calleth it the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiv


Col. iii.
Ambros. in
Luc. Lib. x.
cap. xxiv.

De iis qui mit. Myst. Cap. in.


cruentum d rivi

In all these words there is no mention of carnal presence; and therefore M. Harding's purpose is hereby but weakly furthered. But, good christian reader, to put thee out of all doubt of St Ambrose's judgment in this behalf, I beseech thee to consider these words that he writeth upon the gospel of St Luke: Quee sursum sunt, sapite, non quæ supra terram. Ergo non supra terram, nec in terra, nec secundum carnem te quærere debemus, si volumus invenire1: “Seek the things that be above, not the things that be upon earth. Therefore we must seek thee neither upon the earth, nor in the earth, nor according to the flesh, if we list to find thee." This is St Ambrose's undoubted and most certain judgment; from which we may not be removed by any amplification or shew of words. If M. Harding will needs force and press the bare letter, as I said before of St Chrysostom, he will make St Ambrose in one sentence plain contrary to himself. For first he saith: Vidimus Principem sacerdotum3, &c.: "We have seen (Christ) the Prince of priests coming unto us: we have seen him and heard him offering up for us his blood." He addeth immediately: Etsi nunc Christus non videtur offerre, &c.: “Although Christ be not seen to offer, yet is he offered in the earth.” If we follow the very force and sound of the words, this contradiction of seeing and not seeing cannot be salved. Wherefore, to avoid this inconvenience, we must say that St Ambrose speaketh of the spiritual eyes of our faith, with which eyes we see Christ indeed offering up himself upon the cross. And thus, as St Ambrose saith, magis videtur, quod non videtur: "the thing is the better seen

['Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Adv. Prax. 10. p. 641.] [2 Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. In Psalm. xxxviii. Enarr. 25. Tom. I. col. 853; where nunc Christus.] [3 See before, page 108.]

[ Id. Expos. Evang. see. Luc. Lib. x. cap. xxiv. 159, 60. Tom. I. col. 1538; where quæ super terram.]

[5 Vidimus Principem sacerdotum ad nos venientem, vidimus et audivimus offerentem pro nobis sanguinem suum.-Id. in Psalm. xxxviii. Enarr. 25. Tom. I. col. 853.]

[ Id. Lib. de Myst. cap. iii. 15. Tom. II. col. 328.]

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