Obrazy na stronie

Dion. Eccles.


August. de
Verbis Apost.
Serm. 16.

Hilar. Lib. viii. De Trin.

adoptione, sed etiam natura.

corporal presence, but, as Hilarius saith, in a mystery, which is, in a sacrament: Согроrally, nawhereby outwardly and unto our senses we express that thing in our bodies that turally. must be wrought inwardly in our minds. For this cause Dionysius saith: [Regeneratio] naturali illa purgatione, quæ fit per aquam, corporali quodam modo denuntiat Hier. cap. ii. animæ purgationem': "Our regeneration which we have in baptism, by that owμatik- natural purgation that is wrought by water in a certain bodily sort, teacheth us AUTOU - the purgation of the mind." Thus are we truly washed with Christ's blood in the ayyée. holy mystery of baptism: thus are we truly and indeed fed with Christ's body in the holy mystery of his supper. And albeit Christ be in neither of these mysteries in bodily and fleshly presence, yet doth not that thing any wise hinder either the substance of the holy mystery, or the truth of our receiving. And for that cause St Augustine saith: Non fallit nos apostolus, qui dicit, Christum habitare in cordibus nostris per fidem. In te est, quia ipsa fides in te est2: "The apostle deceiveth us not in saying that Christ dwelleth in our hearts by faith. He is in thee (not really or bodily, but) because his faith is within thee." M. Harding will reply: This cannot suffice: for Cyril and Hilary say that "Christ, not only by faith, but also corporally, carnally, and naturally is within us." These words in their own rigour, without some gentle construction, seem very hard. Even so Hilarius, Non tantum in the same book of the Trinity, saith that "we are one with God the Father, aut consensu, and the Son, not only by adoption or consent of mind, but also by nature3.” Which saying, according to the sound of the letter, cannot be true. Therefore the fathers have been fain to expound and to mollify such violent and excessive kinds Chrysost. In of speech. Chrysostom, where he saith, "We are made one lump with Christ," addeth, as it is said before, his correction withal, ut ita dicam, "as it were," or "if I may use such manner of speech." In like manner saith St Augustine: Qui in Christum credit, credendo in Christum venit, [et] in eum Christus, et quodammodo unitur in eum, et membrum in corpore ejus efficitur: "He that believeth in Christ, by believing cometh into Christ, and Christ into him, and, after a certain manner, is united unto him, and made a member in his body." "In a manner,” he saith, but not according to the force of the letter. Again, he expoundeth this word corporaliter in this wise: Non umbraliter, sed vere, et solide": "Not as in a shadow, but truly and perfectly"." So Cyrillus expoundeth his own meaning: Cyril.in Apol. Naturalis unio non aliud est, quam vera:... natura sumus filii iræ, id est, veres : "Natural union is nothing else but a true union. We are by nature the children of anger, that is, we are indeed and truly the children of anger." In which sense St Paul saith: Gentes facta sunt cohæredes, et concorporales, et comparticipes promissionis in Christo Jesu: "The heathens are become coinheritors, concorporal, and partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus." Thus much of these words corporally, naturally, &c.: whereby is meant a full perfect spiritual conjunction, excluding all manner of imagination or fantasy; not a gross and fleshly being of Christ's body in our bodies, according to the appearance of the letter. Otherwise there must needs follow this great inconvenience, that our bodies must be in like manner corporally, naturally, and fleshly in Christ's body. For Hilarius saith: Nos quoque in eo sumus naturaliter 10: "We also are naturally in him." And Cyrillus, as he saith, "Christ is corporally in us;" so he saith, "We are corporally in Christ11."

Matt. Hom.


August. de
Verbis Dom.

sec. Joh.
Serm. 60.

August. in
Psal. Ixvii.

ad Anath. iii.

Eph. iii. συσσώ


Hilar. de

Trin. Lib.viii.

Cyril. in Joh.
Lib. x. cap.



[' Dion. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. De Eccles. Hierarch. cap. ii. 3. Tom. I. p. 255; where avτ διαγγέλλουσα.]

[2 Ecce ubi est, in te est, quia et fides ipsa in teipso est. An fallit nos apostolus, qui dicit habitare Christum per fidem in cordibus nostris ?-August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Verb. Apost. Serm. clviii. 8. Tom. V. col. 764.]

[ Perhaps the following may be the passage intended: ... hæretici mentientes unitatis nostræ ad Deum utebantur exemplo, tamquam nobis ad Filium, et per Filium ad Patrem, obsequio tantum ac voluntate religionis unitis, nulla per sacramentum carnis et sanguinis naturalis communionis proprietas indulgeretur. Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. De Trin. Lib. VIII. 17. col. 957.]

[Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. lxxxii. Tom. VII. p. 788. See before, page 470, note 2.]

[5 August. Op. De Verb. Evang. Johan. Serm. cxliv. 2. Tom. V. col. 694.]

[" ... non umbraliter... sed corporaliter, id est, solide atque veraciter.-Id. in Psalm. lxvii. Enart. 23. Tom. IV. col. 677.] [ Perfitely, 1565.]

[ Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Apolog. adv. Orient. Anath. iii. Def. Cyril. Tom. VI. p. 167.] [ Perfit, 1565.]

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Trin. Lib. vi.

Sanct. Bap

τὸς ἐν ὑμῖν,

δὲ τὸ Πνεῦ


Joh. Tract. 25.

Further, that we be thus in Christ, and Christ in us, requireth not any corporal or local being, as in things natural. We are in Christ sitting in heaven, Corpoand Christ sitting in heaven is here in us, not by a natural, but by a spiritual rally, namean of being. St Augustine saith: Postquam ex mortuis resurrexit, et ascendit turally. ad Patrem, est in nobis per Spiritum 12: "After that Christ is risen from the dead, August. de and ascended unto his Father, he is in us by his Spirit." Which saying agreeth well with these words of St Basil: Paulus ait, Si quis Spiritum Christi non habet, Basil. de hic non est ejus. Deinde addit, Si tamen Christus sit in vobis; ac si diceret, Si tism. Spiritus Christi sit in vobis 13: "St Paul saith, If any man have not the Spirit of ei è XploChrist, he is not of him.' He addeth further these words, 'If Christ be in you;' ari TOU which is as much as if he had said, If the Spirit of Christ be within you." Το λέγειν....εἰ likewise St Augustine imagineth Christ to say unto Mary Maudlen: Ascendam μα ἐν ὑμῖν. ad Patrem meum ; tum tange me11: "I will ascend up unto my Father; then touch de thou me;" meaning thereby, that distance of place cannot hinder spiritual Temp. 153. touching. Again St Augustine imagineth Christ thus to say unto the people : Qui venit ad me, incorporatur mihi: "He that cometh unto me is incorporate into August. in me." He addeth of his own: Veniamus ad eum; intremus ad eum; incorporemur ei 15: "Let us go unto him; let us enter unto him; let us be incorporate into him." Thus, notwithstanding Christ were in heaven, and distant in place, yet was he present in St Paul; for so St Paul saith 16: "Will ye have a trial of Christ, 2 Cor. xiii. that speaketh within me?" This conjunction is spiritual, and therefore needeth not neither circumstance of place nor corporal presence. Likewise St Cyprian saith: Nostra et Christi conjunctio nec miscet personas, nec unit substantias; sed Cypr. de affectus consociat, et confœderat voluntates17: "The conjunction that is between Domini. Christ and us neither doth mingle persons, nor unite substances; but it doth knit our affects together, and join our wills." Yet notwithstanding, the same conjunction, because it is spiritual, true, full, and perfect 18, therefore is expressed of these holy fathers by this term corporal, which removeth all manner light and accidental joining; and natural, whereby all manner imagination or fantasy, and conjunction only of will and consent, is excluded: not that Christ's body is corporally or naturally in our body, as is before said, no more than our bodies are corporally or naturally in Christ's body; but that we have life in us, and are become immortal, because by faith and spirit we are partakers of the natural body of Christ.


M. Harding saith: We are thus joined unto Christ, and have him corporally within us, only by receiving the sacrament, and by none other means. This is utterly untrue, as it is already proved by the authorities of St Augustine, St Basil, Gregory Nazianzene, Leo, Ignatius, Bernard, and other holy fathers; neither doth either Cyrillus or Hilary so avouch it. Certainly, neither have they all Christ dwelling in them that receive the sacrament, nor are they all void of Christ that never received the sacrament. Besides the untruth hereof, this doctrine were also many ways very uncomfortable. For what may the godly father think of his child, that, being baptized, departeth this life, without receiving the sacrament of Christ's body? By M. Harding's construction, he must needs think his child is damned, for that it had no natural participation of Christ's flesh, without which there is no salvation; which participation, as M. Harding assureth us, is had by none other means, but only by receiving of the sacrament. Yet St Chrysostom saith: "In the sacrament Chrysost. in of baptism we are made flesh of Christ's flesh, and bone of his bones 19"

ἑτέρως ζωοποιηθῆναι δύνασθαι. εἰ μὴ συνεπλάκη σωματικῶς τῷ σώματι τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ζωής. Cyril. Alex. Op. Comm. in Joan. Evang. Lib. x. cap. ii. Tom. IV. p. 863.]

[12 This passage is not found in the book indicated. But for a somewhat similar notion see August. Op. De Trin. Lib. xv. 31. Tom. VIII. col. 989.] [13 Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Hom. de Spirit. Sanct. Tom. II. p. 584. The Benedictine editor doubts whether this homily be genuine.]

[14 Adscendam ad Patrem, et tunc tange.-August. Op. In dieb. Pasch. Serm. ccxlv. 2. Tom. V.

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Epist. ad

Ephes. Hom.



rally, cor


Hilar. de

Trin. Lib.viii.

unius fidei, id


Ejusdem re


For better trial hereof, understand thou, gentle reader, that both Cyrillus and Hilarius in those places dispute against the Arians, whose error was this, that God the Father and the Son are one, not by nature, but only by will and consent. Against them Hilarius reasoned thus:

Christ is as really joined unto the Father as unto us:

But Christ is joined unto us by nature;

Therefore Christ is joined to God the Father by nature.

The minor, that is, that "Christ is joined unto us by nature," he proveth thus: "We are joined unto Christ by faith," that is, "by the nature of one faith, Per naturam and that is to say, naturally." Likewise he saith: "We are joined unto Christ est, natura by the regeneration of one nature." And again: "We are joined to Christ by the nature of one baptism." Hereof he concludeth: "Therefore are we naturally generatione joined unto him1." Thus it appeareth by St Hilary, we may have Christ naturally Per naturam within us by three other sundry means; and therefore not only, as M. Harding tismi. holdeth, by receiving of the sacrament. And like as Christ is naturally, corporally, and carnally in us by faith, by regeneration, and by baptism; even so, and none otherwise, he is in us by the sacrament of his body. In which holy mystery Christ is joined unto us corporally, as being man, because we are fed indeed and verily with his flesh; and spiritually is joined to us, as God.

ejusdem bap

All these

were very young fathers.

Thus much unto Cyrillus and Hilarius, in whom M. Harding is not yet able to find that Christ's body is either corporally received into our bodies, or corporally present in the sacrament; which was the only thing that M. Harding hath here taken in hand, and should have proved; and now, not having proved that, notwithstanding all this great ado, hath proved nothing.

But he saith: "It had been more convenient rather modestly to have interpreted these words, than thus utterly to have denied them." Verily, perhaps it were so for him, that can make somewhat of nothing, and devise a commentary without a text, and imagine constructions, as M. Harding doth, of words that were never spoken.

Hereof M. Harding guesseth thus:

These fathers say that Christ is naturally and corporally in us; ergo, it is likely their meaning was, that Christ is naturally and corporally present in the sacrament. This reason is very simple; for, notwithstanding Christ were naturally within our bodies, yet the like being in the sacrament would not follow. But this argument would conclude the contrary, and hold better in this wise: Christ's body is not naturally or corporally present within us; Therefore much less it is corporally present in the sacrament.


And the catholic fathers, that sithence the time of Berengarius have written in defence of the truth in this point, using these terms sometimes for excluding of metaphors, allegories, figures, and significations only, whereby the sacramentaries would defraud faithful people of the truth of Christ's precious body in this sacrament, do not thereby mean that the manner, mean, or way of Christ's presence, dwelling, union, and conjunction with us, and of us with him, is therefore natural, substantial, corporal, or carnal; but they and all other catholic men confess the contrary, that it is far higher and worthier, supernatural, supersubstantial, invisible, unspeakable, special, and proper to this sacrament, true, real, and in deed notwithstanding; and not only tropical, symbolical, metaphorical, allegorical; not spiritual only, and yet spiritual; not figurative or significative only. And likewise concerning the manner of the presence and being of that body and blood in the sacrament, they and we acknowledge and confess that it is not local, circumscriptive, diffinitive, or subjective, or natural; but such as is known to God only.

[... quomodo non naturalem in his intelligis unitatem, qui per naturam unius fidei unum sunt? ...cessat in his assensus unitas, qui unum sunt in ejusdem regeneratione naturæ ?...quid...hic animorum concordia faciet, cum per id unum sint, quod uno Christo per naturam unius baptismi induantur?

...Eos nunc, qui inter Patrem et Filium voluntatis ingerunt unitatem, interrogo utrumne per naturæ veritatem hodie Christus in nobis sit, an per concordiam voluntatis ?-Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. De Trin. Lib. VIII. 7, 8, 13. çols. 951, 2, 4.]


Dist. 2.

These doctors lived within these two or three hundred years, and are such as M. Harding thought not worth the naming. Their doctrine in these cases is very unsavoury and without comfort. Generally, they hold that Christ's body remaineth no longer in our bodies, but only until the forms of the bread and wine begin to alter. Some others say that, as soon as our teeth touch the bread, straightways Christ's body is taken up into heaven. The words be these: Certum est, quod De Consecr. quam cito species dentibus teruntur, tam cito in cœlum rapitur corpus Christi. Tribus This doctrine notwithstanding, they say that Christ is naturally and corporally in Glossa. gradibus. within us. Here a man may3 say unto M. Harding, as he did before to the Arian heretic: What, troweth M. Harding, or his new doctors, that Christ cometh to The absurdius from heaven, and by and by forsaketh us? Or, that we eat Christ, and yet Harding's receive him not? Or, that we receive Christ, and yet have him not? Christ is corporally within us, and yet entereth not? Is this Christ's natural being in us? Is this the virtue of the mystical benediction? Is this the meaning of these holy fathers? Or troweth M. Harding, that, holding and maintaining such absurdities, his reader, be he never so simple, will believe him?

Or, that

ties of M.


Last of all, to declare the manner of Christ's presence in the sacrament, he saith, it is not local, not circumscriptive, not diffinitive, not subjective. By these terms his reader may rather wonder at his strange divinity and eloquence, than well conjecture what he meaneth. And, as it appeareth, he himself is not yet able to conceive his own meaning. For thus he saith: "This presence is known to God only." Then it followeth: M. Harding knoweth it not. And so this article at last is concluded with an ignoramus. Howbeit, the old learned fathers never left us in such doubts. Emissenus saith, as it is before alleged: Præsens est in De Consecr. gratia: "Christ is present by his grace." St Augustine saith: Est in nobis per quia corpus. Spiritum 5: "Christ is in us by his Spirit." Likewise again he saith: "Non hoc August. de corpus, quod videtis, manducaturi estis ;... sacramentum aliquod vobis trado: "Ye August. in shall not eat this body that ye see. It is a certain sacrament that I deliver you." Thus the holy fathers say Christ is present, not corporally, carnally, naturally; but, as in a sacrament, by his Spirit, and by his grace.

[2 Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. Gloss. in can. 23. col. 1922; where species quam cito.] [3 May a man, 1565.]

[Euseb. Emiss. in eod. ibid. can. 35. col. 1927;

where esset.]

[5 See before, page 477, note 12.]

[ Id. in Psalm. xcviii. Enarr. 9. Tom. IV. col. 1066; where commendavi for trado.]

Dist. 2.


Psal. xcviii.


The hundred and fortyfourth un


the ancient fathers ever knew this miracle.



OR, that Christ's' body is or may be in a thousand places or more at one time.




(144) Among the miracles of this blessed sacrament one is, that one and the same body may be in many places at once, to wit, under all consecrated hosts. For one of for God, it is agreeable to his Godhead to be every where simpliciter et proprie; but as for a creature, to be but in one place only. But as for the body of Christ, (145) it is after a manner between both. For, whereas it is a creature, it ought not The hundred to be made equal with the Creator in this behalf, that it be every where: but, whereas arth untruth. it is united to the Godhead, herein it ought to excel other bodies, so as it may in one trine hitherto (146) time be in more places under this holy sacrament2. For the uniting of Christ's seldom heard natural body unto the almighty Godhead, duly considered, bringeth a true christian The hundred man in respect of the same to forsake reason and to lean to faith, to put apart all doubts and discourses of human understanding, and to rest in reverent simplicity of For, notwith- belief.

and forty

And a doc


and fortysixth untruth.

standing the body of Christ be

joined with

yet it remaineth still a creature.

Matt. zie.
Luke xxiv.

Matt. xvii.
Luke rrit.
Acts i.

Matt. rreiti.
John xx.

Thereby through the Holy Ghost persuaded, he knoweth that, although the body of Christ be natural and human indeed, yet, through the union and conjunction, the Godhead, many things be possible to the same now, that to all other bodies be impossible; as to walk upon waters, to vanish away out of sight, to be transfigured and made bright as the sun, to ascend up through the clouds; and, after it became immortal, death being conquered, to rise up again out of the grave, and to enter through doors fast shut. Through the same faith he The hundred believeth and acknowledgeth that, (147) according unto his word, by his seventh un- power it is made present in the blessed sacrament of the altar, under the For Christ form of bread and wine, wheresoever the same is duly consecrated, according unto his institution in his holy supper; and that not after a gross or carnal manner, but spiritually and supernaturally, and yet substantially; not by local, but by substanGod's word is tial presence; not by manner of quantity, or filling of a place, or by changing of place, or by leaving his sitting on the right hand of the Father, but in such a manner as God only knoweth, and yet doth us to understand by faith the truth of his very presence, far passing all man's capacity to comprehend the manner how.

and forty


uttereth no such word; and faith without

no faith.

sacrament at one

Whereas some against this point of belief do allege the article of Christ's ascension, and of his being in heaven at the right hand of God the Father, [Christ's being in bringing certain texts of the3 scriptures pertaining to the same, and heaven and in the testimonies of ancient doctors signifying Christ's absence from the time implieth no comearth; it may be rightly understanded, that he is verily both in heaven 1564.] at the right hand of his Father, in his visible and corporal form, very God and man, after which manner he is there, and not here; and also in the sacrament invisibly

['His, H. A. 1564.]

[ Deo convenit esse ubique simpliciter, proprie; creaturæ convenit esse in uno loco tantum; corpus Christi autem medio modo se habet de corpore Christi cum enim sit creatura, non debet æquari

tradiction. H. A.

Creatori in hoc, quod ubique est; in hoc vero, quod
est unitum divinitati, debet excellere alia corpora, ut
simul in locis plurimis possit esse sub sacramento
altaris. Floret. Lugd. 1499. Lib. 1v. fol. 96. 2.]
[3 H. A. 1564, omits the.]

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