Obrazy na stronie


num, Lib. ix.
cap. vii.

b Nazianz. in
de Basil.
τὴν ἀκοὴν

Where he saith that the church of Rome, being as then plain and simple, learned the psalmody and other ecclesiastical music, and the singing of Gloria Patri at the end of every psalm, of St Hierome and the bishops of the east, he doth us well to understand that then Rome is not the mother of all these things, neither is so to be taken.

But where he further saith Damasus ordained that the psalms should be sung "interchangeably and in sides, and even so as they be now sung in the quire," meaning, as it seemeth, that only the priests and clerks sung, and the people sat still; it is an open and a manifest untruth. For it is certain many

ways that the whole people then sung the psalms all together.

St Augustine saith that "St Ambrose took that order in Milan in time of persecution and great danger, for the solace of the people1." "Nazianzenus Funeb. Orat. expresseth the terrible sound of the people so singing together in this wise: "When the emperor Valens was entered into the church where St Basil preached, and was stricken with the psalmody, as if it had been with a thunder, &c.2" The like hath St Hilary, writing upon the psalms3. The like hath Theodoretus of one ψαλμωδία kare3pov Flavianus and Theodorus, that first devised this order of singing in the city of Antioch 4.


In Psal. lxv. d Theodor.

Lib. ii. cap.

xxiv. Basil. in

Epist. ad Cler. Neoeasarien.

But none plainer than St Basil: his words be these: "The people rise before day, and hie them to the house of prayer, and there, after that in mourning, and in heaviness, and continual tears, they have confessed themselves unto God, standing up from their prayers, they begin the psalmody, and, being divided into Arrayan- two parts, they sing together, the one part answering to the other. And this order," λουσιν he saith, 66 was agreeable to all the other churches of God"." Certainly it seemeth ἀλλήλοις. that St Gregory in his time thought singing in the church to be a thing fitter for Dist. 92. In the multitude of people than for the priest. For he expressly forbiddeth the priest to sing in the church; but I do not remember that ever he forbade the people.

Sancta Ro


Hereof we may gather that Damasus divided the whole people into two parts, and willed them to sing the psalms in their own known tongue, the one part making answer by course to the other; saving only the sides, nothing like to that is now used in M. Harding's quires.


Much might be alleged for proof of having service in the Greek and in the Latin churches, long before the first six hundred years were expired, which is not denied. The thing that is denied by M. Jewel is this, that, for the space of six hundred years after Christ, any christian people had their service, or common prayers, in a tongue they understood not; which they of his side bear the world in hand to be a heinous error of the church, and a wicked deceit of the papists. And I say, as I said before, that (67) the service was then in a tongue which some people understood, and some understood not; I mean the Greek tongue, For? M. Har and the Latin tongue; for that it was, within the six hundred years, in any other barbarous or vulgar tongue, I never read; neither, I think, M. that under- Jewel, nor any the best learned of his side, is able to prove. To be the better understanded, I call all tongues barbarous and vulgar beside the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.

The sixtyseventh untruth.

ding is not able to shew one nation

stood not

their com

mon service.

[Usage of church service in within 600 years not be proved. H.

any vulgar tongue

after Christ canA. 1564.]

The gospel and the faith of Christ was preached and set forth in Syria and Arabia

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δακρύων ἐξομολογούμενοι τῷ Θεῷ, τελευταῖον ἐξαναστάντες των προσευχῶν, εἰς τὴν ψαλμῳδίαν καθίστανται. καὶ νῦν μὲν διχῇ διανεμηθέντες, drtubanovan dious. Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Ad Cler. Neoc. Epist. ccvii. Tom. III. p. 311.]

[ Qua de re præsenti decreto constituo, ut in hac sede sacri altaris ministri cantare non debeant, &c.-Gregor. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Prim. Pars, Dist. xcii. can. 2. cols. 435, 6.]

[7 1565 omits for.

de Scriptor. Ecclesiasticis 9. Temporib. Antonini Commodi. Anno Do. 181.


by Paul; in Egypt by Mark; in Ethiopia by Matthew; in Mesopotamia, Persia, BarbaMedia, Bactra, Hyrcania, Parthia, and Carmania, by Thomas; in Armenia the greater by Bartholomew; in Scythia by Andrew; and likewise in other countries by tongue. apostolic men, who were sent by the apostles and their next successors: as in France by Martialis, sent by Peter; by Dionysius, sent by Clement; by Crescens, as Clement Constit. Apost. and Hierome writeth; and by Trophimus, St Paul's scholar; and by Lib. Carlor Nathaniel, Christ's disciple; of whom he at Arelate1o, and this at Bourges and Treveres, preached the gospel, as some record: in our countries here of Britain, by Fugatius, Damianus, and others, sent by Eleutherius the pope and martyr, at the request of king Lucius, as Damasus writeth in Pontificiali11. Other countries, where the Greek and Latin tongue was commonly known, I pass over of purpose. Now, if M. Jewel, or any of our learned adversaries, or any man living, could shew good evidence and proof, that the public service of the church was then in the Syriacal or Arabic, in the Egyptian, Ethiopian, Persian, Armenian, Scythian, French, or Britain tongue; then might they justly claim prescription against us in this article, then might they charge us with example 12 of antiquity, then might they require us to yield to the manner and authority of the primitive church. (68) But that doubtless cannot appear, which if any could shew, The sixtyit would make much for the service to be had in the vulgar tongue.


M. Harding, being now out of his digression, foundeth himself upon this principle, that some people understood the common prayers, and some understood them not. But, if it might have pleased him to shew any one kind of people that understood them not, it had been sufficient. But he sheweth none, neither here, nor elsewhere. Therefore we may conjecture, his store of such things is not great.

eighth un-
For doubtless
it will soon

be shewed.

He granteth that the service was commonly said in the Greek and in the Latin tongue. All other tongues he condemneth for barbarous; by what authority, I cannot tell. For in the 13 respect of God, "there is neither Jew nor Gal. iii. gentile, nor Greek nor barbarous, nor any other distinction of tongues; but all are one in Christ Jesus 14" Otherwise any tongue, unto him that understandeth it not, appeareth barbarous; and in that sense St Paul saith: "Unless I under- 1 Cor. xiv. stand the meaning of the speech, I shall be barbarous unto him that speaketh ; and he that speaketh shall be likewise barbarous unto me:" like as Anacharsis the philosopher also said: "The Scythian is barbarous at Athens; and the Athenian is barbarous among the Scythians." And so the priest that prayeth in an unknown tongue, whether it be Greek or Latin, is barbarous unto the people; and, if he be ignorant, and himself understand not his own prayers, he is barbarous also unto himself. As for the Latin tongue, which M. Harding so favourably excepteth, it hath no such special privilege above others. St Paul, making a full division of the whole world, nameth some Greeks, and some barbarous, and so leaveth out the Latins among the barbarous. The same division Strabo also followeth in his Cosmography. For thus he saith: Barbare sunt omnes nationes, praeter Grecos 15 : Strabo, Cos"All nations be barbarous, beside the Greeks." Afterward the Romans misliking Li, and herewithal, as they increased the state of their empire, so first they excepted themselves, and in continuance, all other nations, that would become provinces, and be subject unto them. And therefore pope Nicolas the first made a piteous exclamation against the Greek emperor Michael, that seemed to deface the Latin tongue with that odious name: Appellatis Latinam linguam barbaram, ad injuriam Epist. Nicol. ejus qui fecit eam 16: "Ye call the Latin tongue barbarous, in despite of him that

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made that tongue." Great Alexander's modesty is much commended, who, as Strabo saith, would never sort his subjects by Greeks and barbarous, but rather Strabo, Cos by the difference of good and ill. "For many Greeks," said he, "be ill people; and many barbarous be good1." The like modesty might well have served

mograph. Lib. i.

M. Harding in this place. For many that know the Greek and the Latin tongues be notwithstanding ungodly; and many be godly, that know them not. Therefore Beda, 1 Cor. it is very discreetly said by Beda: Barbara est lingua, quæ Deum laudare non potest2: "The3 tongue is barbarous, that cannot serve God."


Acts ii.

M. Harding maketh a long discourse of the apostles' and other apostolic men's travels throughout the world. If he had shewed to what end, we might the better have known his purpose. If he will say, "The apostles preach in sundry countries; ergo, the people had their common prayers in an unknown tongue," this argument will hardly hold. For to that end God gave unto them the gift of

tongues, that they might deal with all nations in their own languages.

Here are we required to shew some evidence, that in the primitive church the public service was in the Syriacal, or Arabic, or Egyptian, or any other barbarous tongue; and it is stoutly presumed that we are able to shew none. Whatsoever

we can shew, this is no indifferent dealing.

For M. Harding, being required of me to shew but one sentence of proof for his side, and having as yet shewed nothing, suddenly altereth the whole state of M. Harding the cause, and shifteth his hands, and requireth me to shew. Which thing

requireth others to

shew, being

although I be not bound to do by any order of disputation, yet, that it may himself able appear that we deal plainly, and seek nothing but the truth, I am content, only in one example or two, presently to follow his will, referring the rest to another place more convenient for the same.

to shew


In the fif

teenth division.

Hieron. in
Epit. Paul.

And, forasmuch as the first tongue that he nameth amongst others, is the Syriacal, let him read St Hierome, describing the pomp of Paula's funeral. These be his words: Tota ad funus ejus Palæstinarum urbium turba convenit:... Hebræo, Græco, Latino, Syroque sermone, psalmi in ordine personabant: "At her funeral all the multitude of the cities of Palestine met together. The psalms were sung in order, in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Syrian tongue." Here may he see that in one city four several nations, in their common service, used four several tongues, among which tongues is the Syriacal; which thing M. Harding thinketh all the world cannot shew. St Augustine, willing the priests to apply their studies to correct the errors of their Latin speech, addeth thereto this reason: Ut populus Rud. cap. ix. ad id quod plane intelligit, dicat, Amen: "That people", unto the thing that they plainly understand, may say, Amen." This of St Augustine seemeth to be spoken generally of all tongues. M. Harding himself, at the end of his treaty, confesseth that the Armenians, Russians, Ethiopians, Sclavons, and Moscovites, have from the beginning of their faith, in their public service, used evermore their own natural country tongues. Wherefore, by M. Harding's own grant, we may justly claim prescription, and charge him with antiquity, and require him to yield to the authority of the primitive church.

August. de


Wherefore, M. Jewel in his sermon, which he uttered in so solemn an audience, and hath set forth in print to the world, saith more than he is able to justify, where he speaketh generally thus: "Before the people grew to corruption (whereby he meaneth the first six hundred years after Christ) all christian men [Fol. 168. throughout the world made their common prayers, and had the holy com- H. A. 1564.] munion, in their own common and known tongue." This is soon spoken, sir; but it will not by you be so soon proved.

[ Πολλοὺς γὰρ καὶ ̔Ελλήνων εἶναι κακοὺς, καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων αστείους, κ. τ. λ. Strabon. Geogr. Lut. Par. 1620. Lib. 1. p. 66.]

[ The passage does not appear in Bede in the place referred to. See however August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. cxiii. Serm. i. 5. Tom. IV. col. 1257; where we find, Non est enim lingua vestra, sed barbara, quæ Deum laudare non novit.]

[3 That, 1565.]

[ Praise, 1565, 1609.] [ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Ad Eustoch. Epist. lxxxvi. Epit. Paul. Tom. IV. Pars 11. cols. 687, 8.]

[6 August. Op. De Catechiz. Rud. cap. ix. 13. Tom. VI. col. 272.]

[7 That the people, 1565, 1609.]

[ See before, page 9.]



That M. Jewel there said is proved sufficiently, unless M. Harding be able to Homilies bring some example, one or other, to prove the contrary. Neither is the matter so hard of our side to be proved. Thomas of Aquine and Nicolas Lyra, M. Harding's own witnesses, for some good part, will prove it for me.


Indeed we find, that whereas holy Ephrem, deacon of the church of Edessa, wrote many things in the Syriacal tongue, he was of so worthy fame and renown, that Lib descriptorib. (as St Hierome witnesseth) his writings were rehearsed in certain churches Ecclesiast. openly, post lectionem scripturarum", "after the scriptures had been read;" whereof it appeareth to Erasmus that nothing was wont then to be read in the churches, beside the writings of the apostles, or at least of such men as were of apostolic authority 10. But by this place of St Hierome it seemeth not that Ephrem's works were used as a part of the common service; but rather as homilies, or exhortations, to be read after the service, which consisted in manner wholly of the scriptures. And whether they were turned into Greek, or no, so soon, it is uncertain.


M. Harding, contrary to the order of rhetoric, would confute our side, before he confirm his own. But I marvel much to what end he should thus allege Ephrem, unless it be to heap matter against himself. For will he thus frame his


"Ephrem wrote sundry things in his own mother tongue;"

Ergo, the people had their service in a strange tongue?

Will he have this to be allowed, and go for an argument? If there were nothing else here to be gathered, yet hath he touched two things expressly against himself. The one is, that nothing was then read in the church, saving only the scriptures, or other matters of apostolic authority; which thing is also straitly commanded by the council of Carthage. Yet M. Harding in his church, even in Concil. Carth. the public service, readeth lessons and legends of childish fables.

The other is, that Ephrem's homilies were pronounced unto the people in the vulgar tongue: yet M. Harding himself pronounceth gospels, epistles, and homilies, and all whatsoever, unto the people in a strange tongue.

But, to avoid this inconvenience, he saith: "The homilies were no part of the service." First, how is he sure of that? Certainly, the Latin homilies be read in the matins, and accounted part of the Romish service. Again, what necessary sequel is this:

The people understood Ephrem's homilies:

Ergo, his homilies were no part of the service?

Or what leadeth him to think it was profitable for the people to hear and understand Ephrem, and yet was not profitable for them to hear and understand Peter, Paul, or Christ ? To be short, he confesseth that Ephrem's writings were exhortations to the Greek people, and yet doubteth whether they were translated into the Greek or no; and so he endeth in uncertainty, and concludeth nothing.

iii. can. 47.

iv. cap. xxix.

Now let us see, whether the same Ephrem will conclude any thing of our side. First, Theodoretus saith: "He was utterly ignorant of the Greek tongue 12" Theodor. Lib. Which thing is also confirmed by M. Harding's own Amphilochius. For, in the conference that was between him and Basil, he saith: “ He spake by an inter- Amphiloch. preter, as being not able to speak Greek himself 13." Yet was the same Ephrem

a minister in the church, being, as St Hierome saith, a deacon 14, and, as some Hieron, de Eccles.Script.

[ Hieron. Op. Catal. Script. Eccles. 115. Tom. IV. Pars II. col. 126.]

[10 Hinc apparet non nisi apostolicas litteras olim legi solitas in templis, aut certe virorum apostolica auctoritatis, cum hodie monachorum somnia, imo muliercularum deliramenta legantur inter divinas scripturas. Hieron. Op. Basil. 1516. Erasm. Schol. in Catal. Script. Eccles. Tom. I. fol. 141.]

["Concil. Carth. 111. can. 47. in Concil. Stud.

Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. II. col.

[12 Παιδείας γὰρ οὐ γεγευμένος ̔Ελληνικῆς.
Theodor. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 1695-1700.
Lib. IV. cap. xxix. p. 192.]

[13 Amphiloch. Op. Par. 1644. In Vit. S. Basil. 202.]

[14 Hieron. Op. Catal. Script. Eccles. 115. Tom, IV. Pars II. col. 126.

others write, the archdeacon of the church of Edessa. Now let M. Harding shew St Hieus in what other tongue he could minister the ecclesiastical service, but in his rome's If he think this conjecture to be weak, let him understand further, that, as transla- own. Theodoretus reporteth, the same Ephrem made hymns and psalms in the Syrian tongue1; and that the same were sung at the solemn feasts of martyrs; and that, iv. cap. xxix. as Sozomenus saith plainly, the same hymns and psalms were sung in the churches φαιδροτέ- of Syria.


Theodor. Lib.

ρας τῶν





See the fifteenth

division of this article.

Hosius de
Sacro Verna-

Alph. de
Hæres. Lib. i.

cap. xiii.

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Neither St Hierome's translation of the scriptures into the Dalmatical tongue (if any such was by him made at all) proveth that the service was then in that vulgar tongue. That labour may be thought to have served to another purpose. But of the translation of the scriptures into vulgar tongues, I shall speak hereafter, when I shall come to that peculiar article. Verily the handling of this present, and of that, hath most things common to both. Thus, that the people of any country had the church service in their vulgar and common tongue, beside the Greek and the Latin tongue, we leave as a matter stoutly affirmed by M. Jewel, but faintly proved; yea, nothing at all proved.


M. Harding seemeth to doubt whether St Hierome translated the scriptures into the Sclavon tongue, or no. Yet Stanislaus Hosius, one of the greatest of that side, maketh it very certain, and putteth it quite out of doubt. His words be plain: In Dalmaticam linguam sacros libros Hieronymum vertisse constat3: "It is cule Legendo. certainly known that St Hierome translated the scriptures into the Sclavon tongue." ." And likewise Alphonsus de Castro: Fatemur,... olim sacros libros in linguam vulgarem fuisse translatos, beatumque Hieronymum in linguam Dalmaticam eos vertisse1: "We confess that in old times the scriptures were translated into the vulgar tongue, and that St Hierome turned them into the Sclavon tongue." Neither ever wist I any man that made doubt hereof, but M. Harding. "But, being granted," saith he, "that St Hierome so translated the scriptures, yet that proveth not that the service was then in the vulgar tongue." Good sir, much less it proveth that the service was then among the Sclavons in the Latin tongue. He saith further: "That labour may be thought to have served to another purpose." But to what other purpose, he sheweth not. Surely whatsoever is thought hereof by M. Harding, M. Eckius, one of his own doctors, confesseth that the same St Hierome, that translated the scriptures into the Sclavon tongue, procured also that the common service there should be said in the Sclavon tongue". And it may well be thought, his translation could serve to no better purpose. I grant St Chrysostom, and Origen, in their sermons, exhort the people to read the scriptures in their houses at home; which purpose also, no doubts, was very godly. But such private reading at home excludeth not the open reading in the church. Chrysostom saith, it was the reader's duty openly in the church to pronounce the Chrysost. in scriptures 8. And St Augustine saith unto the people: "The apostle St Paul witnesseth that this psalm, which ye have heard, pertaineth to that grace of God, whereby we are made Christians; therefore I have caused the same lesson to be read unto you9." I think M. Harding will grant that these lessons that St Chry

Eck. de

Missa Latine

Chrysost. in

Matt. Hom.

2. et in Gen.

Hom. 28.
Orig. in

Levit. Hom.


Act. A post.
Hom. 19.
Aug. in Psal,

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[ Theodor. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 1695

1700. Lib. IV. cap. xxix. p. 192.]

[2 Sozom. in eod. Lib. III. cap. xvi. p. 428.]
[3 Cum præsertim Dalmatica lingua sacros libros
Hieronymum vertisse constet, &c.-Hos. Op. Col.
1584. De Sacr. Vernac. Leg. Tom. I. p. 664.]

[Alf. de Castr. Adv. Omn. Hæres. Col. 1539.
Lib. 1. cap. xiii. fol. 28. 2.]

[ Identidem [ut in lingua sua rem divinam facerent] aliqui de lingua Sclavonica altissima testantur, a Hieronymo impetratum.-Joh. Eck. Enchir. Loc. Com. Lugd. 1572. cap. xxxvii. p. 339.]

[6 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. ii. Tom. VII. pp. 30, 1. Id. in cap. ix. Gen. Hom. xxix. Tom. IV. p. 281.]

[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. ix. 5. Tom. II. p. 240.]

[8 Chrysost. Op. In Act. Apost. Hom. xix. Tom. IX. p. 160.]

[ Hunc autem psalmum ad eam gratiam pertinere, qua Christiani sumus, testatus est apostolus Paulus: unde ipsam lectionem vobis legi voluimus.August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. xxxi. Enarr. ii. 2. Tom. IV. Pars 1. col. 171.]

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