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of the usage of the primitive church, of old canons, of ancient councils, of catholic fathers, Greeks and Latins, old and new, even of Clemens, Abdias, and Amphilochius, which are M. Harding's peculiar doctors. St Chrysostom saith: "In the receiving of the holy mysteries there is no difference between priest and Chrysost. in people." Dionysius saith: "The unity of the cup is divided unto all.” Igna- 18. tius saith: "One cup is divided unto the whole church." St Augustine saith: "We drink all together, because we live all together?." But to reckon up the hat ad authorities of antiquity, as I said, it would be infinite.

2 Cor. Hom. Eccl. Hier.

cap. iii.

Philad.
De Consecr.
Dist. 2.

iii. Quæst. 80.

The scholastical doctors of very late years have seen and testified that M. Quia passus. Harding's doctrine is but new. Thomas of Aquine saith: In quibusdam ecclesiis Thom. Par. provide observatur, ut populo sanguis...non detur 10: "In certain churches it is Art. 12. providently observed, that the blood be not given to the people." "In certain churches," he saith, not in all churches.

iv. cap. xlii.

Quæst. 55.

Likewise Durandus: In multis locis communicatur cum pane et vino, id est, cum Durand. Lib. toto sacramento1l: "In many places they communicate with bread and wine, that is to say, with the whole sacrament." "In many places," he saith, but not in all places. Likewise Alexander de Hales, a great school-doctor: Ita fere ubique Alex. Par. iv. a laicis fit in ecclesia 12: "Thus the lay-people in the church for the most part do." Membr. 1. "For the most part," he saith, but not in all parts. And Linwood in his Provincials: Solis... celebrantibus sanguinem sub specie vini consecrati sumere, in Linwood de hujusmodi minoribus ecclesiis est concessum 13 : "It is granted only unto the priests et Fide Ca that celebrate in such small churches, to receive the blood under the form of wine." He excepteth only "the small country churches," not the greater churches in cities and towns. All these doctors lived within the space of three hundred years past. So long it was before M. Harding's doctrine could grow general.

Summ. Trin.

thol.

Antoninus saith, that king William the Conqueror, that lived a thousand years Antoni.us. after Christ, caused his whole army to communicate, and that, as the order was then, under both kinds 14. Haimo, that was not long before him, saith: Appellatur Haimo in ...calix communicatio propter participationem; quia omnes communicant ex illo 15 : "The cup is called the communication, because of the participation; for that every man receiveth of it." Thus is our doctrine confirmed, not only by the old doctors,

but also by the new.

1 Cor. xi.

Wherefore M. Harding, thus maintaining the open abuse of the holy mysteries, offendeth against Christ's institution, against the scriptures, against the perfection of the sacrament, against the confirmation of the new testament, against the tradition and practice of the apostles, against the ancient councils, against the canons, against the doctors, both old and new. The apostles of Christ, being full of the Holy Ghost, so took Christ's words as we take them now. And St Hierome saith: Quicunque... aliter scripturam intelligit, quam sensus Spiritus sancti Hieron, at flagitat, quo conscripta est, licet de ecclesia non recesserit, tamen hæreticus appellari iii. cap. v. potest 16: "Whosoever understandeth the scriptures otherwise than the sense of the Holy Ghost requireth, by which Holy Ghost the scriptures were written, although he be not yet departed from the church, yet he may well be called an heretic." If M. Harding will say, "That was true then, and this is true now;" then may we answer him as St Hilary did the Arians: Veritas ergo temporum erit Hilar. ad

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fol. 267. 2; where provide precedes in.]

[ See before, page 256, note 5-]

...

[12 sicut fere ubique fit a laicis in ecclesia.Alex. Alens. Theol. Summ. Col. Agrip. 1622. Pars IV. Quæst. XI. Membr. ii. Art. iv. 3. p. 406.]

[13 Provincial. seu Const. Angl. Antw. 1525. Lib. 1. De Summ. Trin. foll. 7, 8.]

[14 Northmanni... mane dominico corpori et sanguini communicaverunt. - Antonin. Chron. Lugd. 1586. Tit. XVI. Var. Hist. Undec. Sæc. cap. v. 1. Pars II. fol. 623.]

[15 Haym. in Epist. Interpr. 1528. Ad Cor. 1. cap. x. fol. yii. 2. See before, page 135.1

[16 Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. ad Galat. Lib. III. cap. v. Tom. IV. Pars 1. col. 302.]

Galat. Lib.

Const. August.

Unit. Eccles. cap. xi.

magis, quam evangeliorum1: "Then truth must be as pleaseth the time, not as August. de pleaseth the gospel." And further, as St Augustine answered the Donatists: Si aliud declamas, aliud recitas, nos post vocem Pastoris nostri, per ora prophetarum, et os proprium, [et] per ora evangelistarum, nobis apertissime declaratam, voces vestras non admittimus, non credimus, non accipimus": "If ye preach any otherwise, or tell us any other tale, after we have once heard the voice of our Shepherd, most plainly declared unto us by the mouths of his prophets, by his own mouth, and by the mouths of his evangelists, touching your voices, we take them not, we believe them not, we receive them not.".

Cypr. ad Ca

cil. Lib. ii.

Epist. 3.

But, forasmuch as this is a mystery of unity, God grant unto us such humility of mind, that we may all submit ourselves unto his holy word, that we may join together in holy and perfect3 unity; and, as I alleged before out of St Cyprian, "by his advertisement redress that thing wherein certain have erred; that, when he shall come in his glory and in his heavenly majesty, he may find us to hold that he warned us, to keep that he taught us, to do that he did! Amen1."

...

facta est fides temporum potius quam evangeliorum.-Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. Ad Constant. August. Lib. 11. 4. col. 1227.]

[2 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. De Unit. Eccles. cap. xii. 32. Tom. IX. col. 359; where Si

autem aliunde clamas vel recitas, and per os.]
[3 Perfit, 1565.]

[ Cypr. Op. Oxon, 1682. Ad Cæcil. Epist. lxiii. p. 157. See before, page 255.]

OF PRAYERS IN A STRANGE TONGUE.

THE THIRD ARTICLE.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY,

OR that the people had their common prayers then in a strange tongue, that they understood not.

To furnish out this article, M. Harding hath laid together a great heap of stories, antiquities, observations of writers, erections, propagations, canons, and orders of the church, cosmography, situation of countries, corruptions and changes of tongues; which things he might better have used to some other purpose. Now they serve him more for shew of learning than for substance of proof. He hath bestowed upon this treaty, whatsoever he could either devise of himself, or find in others, adding besides all manner of beauty and force unto the same, both with weight of sentence, and also with colour of words. Howbeit, great vessels be not always full; and the emptier they be, the more they sound. The wise reader will be weighed with reason, and not with talk. As I said at the beginning, one good sentence were proof sufficient. And if there be any one such in this whole book, I will yield according to promise. If there be none, then must M. Harding consider better of the matter, and begin again. Howbeit he hath done that was the part of a good orator, that the learned may say, he hath shewed learning and eloquence; the unlearned may think, he hath said some truth.

[OF THE CHURCH SERVICE IN LEARNED TONGUES, WHICH THE UNLEARNED
PEOPLE IN OLD TIME IN SUNDRY PLACES UNDERSTOOD
NOT. ARTICLE III. HARDING'S ANSWER, 1564.]

M. HARDING. THE FIRST DIVISION.

fifth untruth.

subjection of Rome the

If you mean, M. Jewel, "by the people's common prayers,” such as at that time they commonly made to God in private devotion, I think they uttered them in that tongue which they understood; (65) and so do christian people now for the most The sixtypart; and it hath never been reproved by any catholic doctor. But if by the com- For under the mon prayers you mean the public service of the church, whereof the most part hath the bishop of been pronounced by the bishops, priests, deacons, and other ecclesiastical ministers, ople for the the people to sundry parts of it saying Amen, or otherwise giving their assent; I grant some understood the language thereof, and some understood it not; I mean, for the time you refer us unto, even of six hundred years after Christ's conversation here in earth.

most part

pray 5 in

Latin.

sixth un

For about nine hundred years past, (66) it is certain the people in some countries The sixtyhad their service in an unknown tongue, as it shall be proved of our own country of truth England.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

For 6 this certainty will never be proved.

The disorder of prayer that M. Harding hath here taken in hand to defend is not only repugnant to the scriptures of God, but also contrary to the sense of nature. For if birds and beasts could speak, as Democritus the philosopher sometime thought, and as Lactantius, a christian writer, seemeth partly to say Lactant. Inst. they do; yet, being birds and beasts, and void of reason, they would not speak they know not what. Wherefore, seeing this abuse appeareth contrary to God and nature, and now also is misliked and condemned by the common judgment of

[5 Prayeth, 1565.]

[ 1565 omits for.]

[ Cum enim suas voces propriis inter se notis

discernunt atque dinoscunt, colloqui videntur.-Lac-
tant. Op. Lut. Par. 1748. Div. Inst. Lib. 111. cap. x.
Tom. I. p. 211.]

Lib. in. cap.

X.

Par. iii.

Quæst. 183.

Art. 4.

implieth a contradic

tion.

all people; therefore it behoveth M. Harding to leave his guesses, and soundly and effectually seek1 to prove it.

Two special things he hath confessed in this treaty, which quite overthrow his whole purpose: the one is, "that the prayers in the primitive church were said in the common known tongue;" the other is, "that it were good even now, that the people understood their own prayers." This is the plain song, and may well stand for the ground: the rest is altogether descant and vain voluntary, and the most part out of tune.

This distinction of common prayers, whereof he imagineth some to be made openly by the minister of the church, some severally by every of the people in private devotion, is both unperfect2, and also needless. For the secret prayers, that the faithful make severally by themselves, have evermore been called "private," and never "common." And in this sense Thomas of Aquine thinketh that a prayer made in such sort by the priest, and in the church, may be called private3.

He thinketh "that the people uttered their secret prayers in the tongue that they understood," and so, he saith, "christian people do now for the most part." The former part hereof is undoubtedly true. But for the second, "that christian people do so now," God's name be blessed that hath brought it so to pass, not by M. Harding or his catholic doctors, but by such as they have withstanded for the same, and called heretics!

reason,

"Touching the public service pronounced by the priest, whereunto the people said Amen; some," saith M. Harding, "understood the language thereof, and M. Harding some understood it not." Here unawares he implieth a repugnance in and a manifest contradiction. For if some of the people understood it not, how could all the people say Amen? St Paul's words be plain: "How shall the unlearned say Amen to thy thanksgiving? For he knoweth not what thou sayest." This runneth directly against M. Harding: all the people gave their assent, and said Amen to the common prayers in the church; ergo, all the people understood the common prayers. The allegation of the church of England in the time of Augustine, whereof M. Harding maketh himself so sure, and saith with such affiance, "It shall be proved," when it shall hereafter come to proof indeed, shall prove nothing.

Here M. Harding wandereth vainly from the purpose.

As concerning the distinction of private and common prayers, between which M. Harding would also have a difference of speech, undoubtedly the tongue, that is godly and profitable, and will stir the mind in private devotion, is also godly and profitable, and likewise able to stir the mind in the open church. And I marvel what reason can lead any man to think the contrary.

M. HARDING. THE SECOND DIVISION.

But to speak first of antiquity and of the compass of your six hundred years, it is evident by sundry ancient records, both of doctors and of councils, specially of the council Laodicene in Phrygia Pacatiana, holden by the bishops of the lesser Asia, about the year of our Lord 364, that the Greek churches had solemn service in due order and form, set forth with exact distinction of psalms, and lessons, of hours, days, feasts, and times of the year, of silence and open pronouncing, of giving the kiss of peace to the bishop, first by the priests, then by the lay-people, of offering the sacrifice, of the only ministers coming to the altar to receive the communion, with divers other seemly observations5.

Also the Latin churches, they had their prayers and service also, but in such fixed order long after the Greeks. For Damasus the pope first ordained that psalms should be sung in the church of Rome alternatim, “interchangeably or by course,” so as now we sing them in the quire, and that in the end of every psalm should be said, Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui sancto, sicut erat, &c.; which he caused to

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In Rescripto Hieronymi ad Hieronymum Presby

ad 2 Epist. Damasi Papæ

terum.

be done by counsel of St Hierome, that the faith of the 318 bishops of the Nicene council might with like fellowship be declared in the mouths of the Latins. To whom Damasus wrote by Bonifacius the priest to Hierusalem, that Hierome would send unto him Psallentiam Græcorum, "The manner of the singing of the Greeks," so as he had learned the same of Alexander, the bishop in the east. In that epistle, complaining of the simplicity of the Roman church, he saith that there was on the Sunday but one epistle of the apostle, and one chapter of the gospel rehearsed, and that there was no singing with the voice heard, nor the comeliness of hymns known among them9. About the same time St Ambrose also took order for the service of his church of Milan, and made holy hymns himself. In whose time, as St Augustine writeth, "when Justina, the young emperor Valentinian's mother, for cause of her heresy, wherewith she was seduced by the Arians, persecuted the catholic faith, and the people thereof occupied themselves in devout watches more than before time, ready to die with their bishop in that quarrel; it was ordained that hymns and psalms should be sung in the church of Milan, after the manner of the east parts10; that the good folk thereby might have some comfort and spiritual relief in that lamentable state and continual sorrows. Thereof the churches of the west forthwith took example, and in every country they followed the same" In his second book of Retractations he sheweth, that in his time such manner of singing began to be received in Africa12. Before this In 2 Proœmio Commenta- time had Hilarius also, the bishop of Poitiers in France, made hymns riorum Epist. ad Galat. for that purpose, of which St Hierome maketh mention 13.

Lib. Confessionum.

cap. xi.

Singing.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

We may well suffer M. Harding to wander at large in matters that relieve him nothing. If it were lawful for others so to do, it were no great mastery to write books. Many matters be here heaped together, touching order of service, distinction of psalms, lessons, hours, days, feasts, the giving of peace, the form of communion, singing in the church, when it began in Græcia, when in Rome, when in Milan, when in Africa, when in France, and when in other places. These be none of the matters that lie in question. And therefore, as they nothing further M. Harding to this purpose, so in other respects they hinder him sundry ways. For in the same council of Laodicea 14 it is decreed, like as also in the council of Concil. Laod. Carthage 15, "that nothing be read in the church unto the people, saving only Concil. the canonical scriptures." Therefore the lessons there mentioned were not taken out of the Festival, or Legenda Aurea, as hath been used in the church of Rome; but out of the chapters of the holy bible, as it is now used in the church of England. The peace given to the bishop was not a little table of silver or somewhat else, as hath been used in the church of Rome, but a very kiss 16 indeed, in token of perfect 17 peace and unity in faith and religion. So Justinus Martyr saith, speaking of the time of the holy ministration: "We salute each one another with In Apol. 2. 16 kiss 18" So likewise Chrysostom and others.

a

can. 39.

Carth. iii.

can. 47.

ἀλλήλους φιλήματι

ασπαζό

μεθα.

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et per cetera orbis imitantibus.- August. Op. Par.
1679-1700. Confess. Lib. IX. cap. vii. 15. Tom. I.
col. 162.]

[12 Id. Retract. Lib. 11. cap. xi. Tom. I. col. 45.]
[13 Hieron. Op. Comm. Lib. 11. in Epist. ad Gal.
Præf. Tom. IV. Pars I. cols. 255, 6.]

[14 Ὅτι οὐ δεῖ ἰδιωτικοὺς ψαλμοὺς λέγεσθαι ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ, οὐδὲ ἀκανόνιστα βίβλια, ἀλλὰ μόνα τα κανονικὰ τῆς καινῆς καὶ παλαιᾶς διαθήκης.—Concil. Laod. can. 59. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. I. col. 1507.]

[15 Concil. Carth. 111. can. 47. in eod. Tom. II. col. 1177. See before, page 70, note 3.]

[16 Cosse, 1565.]
[17 Perfit, 1565.]

[18 Just. Mart. Op. Par. 1742. Apol. i. p. 82.]

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