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that the people was then taught to believe that Christ's body is really, substantially, corporally, carnally, or naturally, in the sacrament; Or that his body is, or may be, in a thousand places or more at one time; Or that the priest did then hold up the sacrament over his head; Or that the people did then fall down and worship it with godly honour; Or that the sacrament was then, or now ought to be, hanged up under a canopy; Or that in the sacrament after the words of consecration there remaineth only the accidents and shews, without the substance of bread and wine; Or that the priest then divided the sacrament in three parts, and afterward received himself all alone; Or that whosoever had said the sacrament is a figure, a pledge, a token, or a remembrance of Christ's body, had therefore been judged for an heretic; Or that it was lawful then to have thirty, twenty, fifteen, ten, or five masses said in one church, in one day; Or that images were then set up in the churches, to the intent the people might worship them; Or that the lay people was then forbidden to read the word of God in their own tongue-if any man alive were able to prove any of these articles by any one clear or plain clause or sentence, either of the scriptures, or of the old doctors, or of any old general council, or by any example of the primitive church; I promised then that I would give over and subscribe unto him.

These words are the very like, I remember, I spake here openly before you all. And these be the things that some men say I have spoken and cannot justify. But I for my part will not only not call in any thing that I then said (being well assured of the truth therein), but also will lay more matter to the same; that, if they that seek occasion have any thing to the contrary, they may have the larger scope to reply against me.

2

Wherefore, besides all that I have said already, I will say further3, and yet nothing so much as might be said: If any one of all our adversaries be able clearly and plainly to prove, by such authority of the scriptures, the old doctors, and councils, as I said before, that it was then lawful for the priest to pronounce the words of consecration closely and in silence to himself; Or that the priest had then authority to offer up Christ unto his Father; Or to communicate and receive the sacrament for another, as they do; Or to apply the virtue of Christ's death and passion to any man by the mean of the mass; Or that it was then thought a sound doctrine to teach the people, that the mass, ex opere operato, that is, even for that it is said and done, is able to remove any part of our sin; Or that then any christian man called the sacrament his Lord and God; Or that the people was then taught to believe, that the body of Christ remaineth in the sacrament as long as the accidents of the bread remain there without corruption; Or that a mouse, or any other worm or beast, may eat the body of Christ (for so some of our adversaries have said and taught); Or that when Christ said, Hoc est corpus meum, this word hoc pointeth not the bread, but individuum vagum, as some of them say; Or that the accidents, or forms, or shews of bread and wine, be the sacraments of Christ's body and blood, and not rather the very bread and wine itself; Or that the sacrament is a sign or token of the body of Christ that lieth hidden underneath it; Or that ignorance is the mother and cause of true devotion and obedience-these be the highest mysteries, and greatest keys of their religion, and without them their doctrine can never be maintained and stand upright-if any one of all our adversaries be able to avouch any one of all these articles, by any such sufficient authority of scriptures, doctors, or councils, as I have required,—as I said before, so say I now again, I am content to yield unto him, and to subscribe. But I

[2 Beside, 1560.]

[ Farther, 1560.]

[ Or, 1609, 1611.]

[1 Cor. xi.]

am well assured that' they shall never be able truly to allege one sentence. And because I know it, therefore I speak it, lest ye happily should be deceived.

All this notwithstanding, ye have heard men in times past allege unto you councils, doctors, antiquities, successions, and long continuance of time, to the contrary. And an easy matter it was so to do, specially before them that lack either leisure or judgment to examine their proofs. On a time Mithridates, the king of Pontus, laid siege to Cyzicum, a town joined in friendship to the city of Rome. Which thing the Romans hearing, made out a gentleman of theirs, named Lucullus, to raise the siege. After that Lucullus was within the sight of the town, and shewed himself with his company upon the side of an hill, thence to give courage to the citizens within that were besieged, Mithridates, to cast them into despair, and to cause them the rather to yield to him, made it to be noised, and bare them in hand, that all that new company of soldiers was his, sent for purposely by him against the city. withstanding, the citizens within kept the walls, and yielded not. on, raised the siege, vanquished Mithridates, and slew his men. people, is there now a siege laid to your walls: an army of doctors and councils shew themselves upon an hill: the adversary, that would have you yield, beareth you in hand that they are their soldiers, and stand on their side. But keep your hold: the doctors and old catholic fathers, in the points that I have spoken of, are yours: ye shall see the siege raised, ye shall see your adversaries discomfited and put to flight.

All that notLucullus came Even so, good

The Pelagians were able to allege St Augustine as for themselves'; yet, when the matter came to proof, he was against them. Helvidius was able to allege Tertullian as making for himself; but in trial he was against him. Eutyches alleged Julius Romanus for himself; yet indeed was Julius most against him. The same Eutyches alleged for himself Athanasius and Cyprian; but in conclusion they stood both against him. Nestorius alleged the council of Nice; yet was the same council found against him.

Even so they that have advanced' themselves of doctors and councils, and continuance of time in any of these points, when they shall be called to trial to shew their proofs, they shall open their hands and find nothing. I speak not this of arrogancy (thou, Lord, knowest it best, that knowest all things); but, forasmuch as it is God's cause and the truth of God, I should do God great injury if I should conceal it. But to return again to our matter. There be some that say that no mass is private, or to be taken as the action of one private man. For they say, the priest that saith mass here doth communicate with another priest that saith mass some other where, wheresoever it be, the distance being never so great. This commission seemeth very large. For so may the priest that saith mass in England or Scotland communicate with the priest that is in Calicute, or in the farthermost part of India. And by this means should there be no excommunication at all; for the party excommunicate might say, he would communicate with the priest whether he would or no. St Paul glosseth not the matter on this sort, but saith: Alter alterum exspectate" ; that is, "Tarry ye one for another." And again he saith: "When ye come together, ye cannot eat the Lord's supper; for every one of you taketh his own supper aforehand.”

But

Some others say, the priest may communicate for the people, and that is as meritorious unto them as if they had communicated themselves". But what commission hath the priest so to do? or from whom? or what certain knowledge hath he that his receiving of the communion shall be available for the people? For, if it be so, what needed it then Christ to say, Accipite, bibite ex hoc omnes ? Or, if we may receive the sacrament of Christ's body one for another, why may not we as well be baptized one for another? Why may we not as well confess our faults before the congregation, and receive absolution one for another? Why may we not hear the gospel, and believe one for another? O that these follies,

[1 That is omitted, 1560.]

[2 Plutarch. in Lucull.] [3 Themself, 1560.] [ For an account of these heretics see Mosheim; also Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Adv. Helvid.

Tom. IV. Pars 11. col. 141.]

[5 Avaunted, 1560, 1609.]

[ Exspectare, 1560.]

[ Communicate themself, 1560.]

so weak and so vain, without shew or shadow of any truth, should ever sink into a christian heart, or take place in God's religion! St Paul saith: Qui manducat et bibit indigne, judicium sibi manducat et bibit: "Whoso eateth or drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment," not unto others, saith St Paul, "but to himself." Again, St Paul saith: "Whoso believeth in him that [Rom. iv.} justifieth the wicked;" not the faith of any other man, but "his own faith is reckoned to him unto justice." St Chrysostom saith, it is the heresy of the Marcionites to think that any one man may receive the sacrament for another; and therefore he maketh light of such disorder of the sacraments, and calleth them Sacramenta vicariao. Origen saith: Ille est sacerdos et propitiatio et hostia". Est enim Agnus Dei qui tollit peccata mundi: quæ propitiatio ad unumquemque venit per viam fidei": "He is our priest," saith Origen, "he is our atonement, he is our sacrifice. For he is the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world. Which atonement," saith he, "cometh unto us (not by the application of the mass, but) by the way of faith."

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St Augustine likewise saith: Si non obliviscimur mundi Salvatoris, quotidie nobis Christus immolatur. Ex ipsis reliquis cogitationis, id est, ex memoria, Christus nobis quotidie immolatur13: "If we forget not the Saviour of the world, Christ is every day sacrificed unto us. Even by the remainents of our cogitations, that is, by our remembrance of his death, Christ is made a sacrifice unto us every day.". It is not therefore neither the faith, neither the doing of the priest, but our own doing, and our own faith, that applieth unto us the virtue and merits of Christ's death.

Some other say that St Peter said mass at Rome, and St James at Hierusalem. And why say they not rather that Christ himself said mass? for that were the near way to bring the mass into credit. Or why say they not sooner that Aaron and his chaplains said mass? For indeed, as it hath been used, the church hath had much more of the robes, of the ceremonies, and of the sacrifices of Aaron, than of the institution or ordinance of Christ. But this have men told you, and with such things as they have found out themselves" they have infeoffed and fathered the apostles of Christ. So commonly conjurers and sorcerers make their vaunts, that they have all their books and their cunning from Athanasius, from Moses, from Abel, from Adam, from Raphael the archangel.

Thus the people of God is deceived and mocked, and instead of precious stones driven to take counterfeits. For I assure you, brethren, in the time of Peter and James neither was there any man that ever heard the name of mass (for missa was never named until four hundred years after Christ; and yet then was it no private mass neither, but a communion), nor yet were the pieces and parts of the mass, as we in our time have seen them, set together. And what mass could that be, that as yet had neither her own name nor her parts? But forasmuch as they affirm so constantly that St James said mass at Hierusalem, and, whatsoever it were that he said, will needs have it called by the name of a mass, let us compare their mass and St James' mass both together. St James said his mass in the common tongue, as the people might understand him; they say their mass in a strange Latin tongue, that the people should not know what they mean. St James spake out the words of consecration distinctly and plainly: they in their mass suppress the same words and keep them close. St James in his mass ministered the communion unto the people they in their mass receive themselves" all alone. St James in his mass ministered the sacrament unto the people under both kinds: they in their mass

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dentium per viam fidei venit.—Orig. Op. Par. 1733-
59. In Epist. ad Rom. Lib. 111. Tom. IV. p. 515.]
[12 Impiis reliquiis, 1560.]

[13 ... cum autem non obliviscimur munus Salvato-
ris, nonne quotidie nobis Christus immolatur?. ex
ipsis reliquiis cogitationis, id est, ex ipsa memoria, quo-
tidie nobis sic immolatur, quasi, &c.-August. Op.
Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. lxxv. Enarr. 15. Tom. IV.
col. 801.]

[14 Themself, 1560.]

minister the sacrament unto the people in one kind only. St James in his mass preached and set forth the death of Christ: they in their mass have only a number of dumb gestures and ceremonies which they themselves' understand not, and make no manner mention of Christ's death. St James' mass was full of knowledge: their mass is full of ignorance. St James' mass was full of consolation: their mass is full of superstition. When St James said mass, the people resorted to receive the sacrament: when they say mass, the people resorteth to look upon only and to behold the sacrament. And, to conclude, St James in his mass had Christ's institution: they in their mass have well near nothing else but man's invention.

Such difference ye may see between St James' mass and theirs. O that St Paul were now alive, and saw the behaviour and order of the priest at their mass! Think ye that he would take it and account it for the Lord's supper ? When he had espied but one fault in the holy communion amongst the Corinthians, straightway he rebuked them, and called them back to Christ's institution. "This," saith he, "I received of the Lord, and the same I gave over unto you."

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But if he saw the disorder that we have seen, would he not be moved as much against us now, as he was sometime against the Corinthians? Would he not pull us back to the institution of Christ, as he did them? Would he not say unto us, Did I ever teach you to minister the holy communion in a strange language? Did I ever teach you to receive the communion privately to yourselves alone, and so to disdain and to despise your brethren? Did I ever teach you to minister the communion to the people in one kind? Did I ever teach you to say mass, or to receive the sacrament for the people? Did I ever teach you the idle follies of your canon? Did I ever teach you to offer up the Son of God unto his Father? Did I ever teach you any other propitiatory sacrifice for sin than that Christ once offered upon the cross? Did I ever teach you to minister the Lord's supper, wherein the people should nothing else but look upon and behold your doings, without any kind of knowledge or comfort? Did I ever teach you to lift the sacrament over your head? Did I ever teach the people to fall down thereunto, and to worship they know not what? Be these the things that I delivered you? Be these the things that I received of the Lord? This would St Paul say unto us if he were now alive. Thus would he reprove us, and call us to the standard and original of the first appointing of the holy sacrament.

Our own inventions and phantasies, wherewith we had filled the mass, were so many and so gross, that they quite covered and shadowed the death of Christ, and the holy mysteries of our salvation. Therefore we could not truly say, These things Paul delivered unto us, or these things Paul received of the Lord.

Wherefore, good people and dearly-beloved brethren, forasmuch as we see there have been great and evident abuses and errors in the mass, so plain and so manifest, that no man that hath reason, and will consider them, can deny it; let us follow the counsel of St Paul, let us return to the ordinance of Christ, unto the true standard that cannot fail us.

As it is not in the power of man to appoint sacraments, so is it not in the power of man to alter or change sacraments. God will not be worshipped after our phantasies, and therefore so oftentimes he chargeth us in the scriptures: Non facietis quod bonum videtur in oculis vestris: "Ye shall not do that thing that seemeth good to you in your own sight:" "Ye shall not turn, neither to the left hand, nor to the right;" but "what thing soever I bid you do, that only shall ye do." "Your thoughts be not my thoughts, neither be your ways my ways. For as far as heaven is from the earth, or the east from the west, so far off be your thoughts from my thoughts, and your ways from my ways, saith the Lord." It is a dangerous thing for a mortal man to control or find fault with the wisdom of the immortal God.

Tertullian, an old father of the church, sheweth us the wilfulness of man's heart after it hath once enterprised to presume a little against God's truth and ordinance: Præter scripturas faciunt, ut post audacius contra scripturas faciant":

[2 Priests, 1560.]

[ Themself, 1560.] [3 Then, 1560.]

[ Yourself, 1560.]

[5 Therein, 1560.]

[ Is the following the passage intended? Sed

"First," saith he, "they attempt somewhat beside the scriptures, to the intent that afterward they may gather courage and boldness to do contrary to the scriptures." At the end they proceed as far as the scribes and Pharisees, that, for maintenance of their own traditions, despised and brake the commandments of God. For redress therein, there is no better way than to follow St Paul's counsel here, and to have recourse to God's holy word.

St Ambrose saith: Interrogemus Petrum, interrogemus Paulum, si verum volumus invenire: "If we will find out the truth, and be put out of doubt,” saith St Ambrose, "let us hearken what Peter and Paul will say unto us."

St Cyprian saith: Hinc schismata oriuntur, quia caput non quæritur, et ad fontem non reditur, et cœlestis Magistri præcepta non servantur3: “ Hereof," saith St Cyprian," arise schisms and divisions, for that we seek not to the head, nor have recourse to the spring, nor keep the commandments of the heavenly Master." Tertullian saith: Hæc ratio contra omnem hæresim valet, hoc verum est quod primum fuit: "This reason," saith he, "is able to confound all manner heresies: that thing is true that was first appointed."

10

O that our adversaries, and all they " that stand in defence" of the mass this day, would content themselves" to be judged by this rule! O that in all the controversies that lie between us and them they would remit the judgment unto God's word! So should we soon agree and join together: so should we deliver nothing unto the people but that we have received at God's hand.

14

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And if there be any here that have had, or yet have any good opinion of the mass, I beseech you for God's sake, even as ye tender your own salvation, suffer not yourselves" wilfully to be led away, run not blindly to your own confusion. Think with yourselves", it was not for nought that so many of your brethren rather suffered themselves to die, and to abide all manner extremity and cruelty, than they would be partakers of that thing that you reckon to be so holy. Let their death, let their ashes, let their blood, that was so abundantly shed before your eyes, somewhat prevail with you and move you. Be not ruled by your wilful affections. Ye have a good zeal and mind towards God: have it according unto the knowledge of God. The Jews had a zeal of God, and yet they crucified the Son of God. Search the scriptures: there shall ye find everlasting life. There shall ye learn to judge yourselves and your own doings, that ye be not judged of the Lord. If ever it happen you to be present again at the mass, think but thus with yourselves ": What make I here? what profit have I of my doings? I hear nothing; I understand nothing; I am taught nothing; I receive nothing: Christ bade me take; I take nothing: Christ bade me eat; I eat nothing: Christ bade me drink; I drink nothing. Is this the institution of Christ? Is this the Lord's supper? Is this the right use of the holy mysteries? Is this it that Paul delivered unto me? Is this it that Paul received of the Lord? Let us say but thus unto ourselves "; and no doubt God of his mercy will open our hearts: we shall see our errors, and content ourselves 15 to be ordered by the wisdom of God, to do that God will have us to 16 do, to believe that God will have us to believe, to worship that God will have us worship. So shall we have comfort of the holy mysteries; so shall we receive the fruits of Christ's death; so shall we be partakers of Christ's body and blood; so shall Christ truly dwell in us, and we in him; so shall all error be taken from us; so shall we join all together in God's truth; so shall we all be able, with one heart and one spirit, to know and to glorify the only, the true, and the living God, and his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ; to whom both with the Holy Ghost be all honour and glory for ever and Amen.

ever.

15

credent sine scripturis, ut credant adversus scripturas. Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. De Præscript. Hæret. 23. p. 239.]

[The editor has not been able to discover the passage referred to.]

[ Jewel appears in these words to have condensed what Cyprian asserts at considerable length. See Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. Ad Pomp. Epist. lxxiv. pp. 214, 5.]

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