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1.

can. 49.

holden at Laodicea, and by sundry other authorities to that purpose before alleged, that the sacrifice was not daily offered, as M. Harding imagineth. Communion. Touching the minor, it is not proved, but hangeth, as I have said, only by guess. M. Harding himself saw that this is but a slender proof: "Chryso- Concil. Laod. stom ministered every day; ergo, he received alone;" and therefore he sought further to find his single communion in the country. But Chrysostom saith: "There is nobody to communicate." By this it may appear, as I have already said, that Chrysostom himself did not communicate, unless we will say Chrysostom was "nobody,” and so "nobody" received alone, and "nobody" himself said M. Harding's private mass. And therefore "nobody" may come forth and justly require me to subscribe. Thus, the major being false, the minor not proved, the conclusion not following, thou seest, good christian reader, what invincible force M. Harding hath brought to reprove his mass.

But because he seemeth to set somewhat by the winding up of his clew, it shall not be from the purpose to unwind it again, and to lay it abroad, and to consider the stuffing of it, and to see how closely and handsomely it is wound together.

First, there is not one thread of the holy scriptures in all this clew, but the plain example of Christ and his apostles quite refused.

2. Secondly, the private mass is founded upon the negligence, and, as M. Harding calleth it, the undevotion of the people.

3. Thirdly, there is a way devised, how two priests, saying their masses in divers countries, may communicate together in breaking bread, be the distance between them never so great; and that without any manner warrant of scripture or doctor.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Fourthly, lay-people, women, sick folks, and boys, that received or ministered the sacrament alone, are brought in for this purpose, as though it had been lawful then for women or boys to say mass.

Fifthly, because St Ambrose, St Augustine, St Hierome, St Chrysostom, St Basil, and such others would not serve, there is brought in a great number of petty doctors, all of doubtful credit, and many of them long sithence misliked and condemned by the church.

Sixthly, the matter is made good by visions, dreams, and fables.

Seventhly, there are alleged canons of councils not extant in any council, gathered without great judgment by one Gratian, and yet none of them neither proving nor once naming the private mass.

Eighthly, because M. Harding could not find his mass in the whole church of Rome, within the space of six hundred years after Christ, he hath therefore made search at Alexandria in Egypt, at Antioch in Syria, at Cæsarea in Cappadocia, a thousand miles beyond the limits of all Christendom, where as was never private mass said, neither then, nor before that time, nor never sithence.

9. Ninthly, for that he stood in despair of cathedral and other like great churches, he hath sought out chapels, cells, oratories, and private houses; and, because he had no hope to speed in towns or cities, he hath sought out the little churches in the country.

10.

11.

Tenthly, notwithstanding all this inquiry, he hath not yet found neither the name of private mass, nor any priest that ever ministered and received alone.

To be short, the whole substance of his proofs hangeth only upon his own surmise, without any certainty or appearance of truth.

These be the contents of M. Harding's clew, and thus substantially hath he proved the antiquity and universality of his mass.

Now, good reader, to give thee only a taste of some part that may be said of our side; first, it is apparent that Christ our Saviour, at his last supper, ministered the holy communion, and no private mass, and bade his disciples to do the same in his remembrance.

Likewise St Paul willed the Corinthians one to wait and tarry for another in the holy ministration, and to conform themselves to Christ's example. Where

[ Concil. Laod. in eod. can. 49. Tom. I. col. 1505.]

[ Put, 1611.] [ Prove, 1565, 1609.]

Communion.

Hieron. in

1 Cor. xi. Ambros.

1 Cor. xi.

Can. Apost. can. 9.

St Hierome saith, as it is before alleged: "The Lord's supper must be comupon mon unto all; for the Lord delivered the sacraments equally unto all the disciples that were present1." And St Ambrose likewise, expounding these words, Invicem exspectate, Wait one for another," saith thus: "That the oblation of many may be celebrate together, and may be ministered unto all2."

66

In the canons of the apostles it is decreed that, if any man resort unto the De Con. Dist. church, and hear the scriptures, and abstain from the communion, he stand exDe Con. Dist. communicate, as one that troubleth the congregation3.

2. Peracta.

1. Episcopus. De Con. Dist. 2. Si non.

De Con. Dist.

2. Si quis.

■ Clem. Epist.

2.

b Aug. de Serm. Dom.

The like decrees are found under the names of Calixtus 4, Anacletus 5, Martinus", Hilarius', and others; by which it is certain that the whole church then received together.

a Clemens, as M. Harding calleth him, the apostles' fellow, writeth thus: "Let so many hosts be offered upon the altar as may be sufficient for the people." St Augustine saith of the congregation in his time: "Every day we receive in Mont. Lib. the sacrament of Christ's body." And, opening the same more particularly, "August. in he saith thus: Unde...confido in eis, quibus heri communicasti, et hodie communicas, et cras communicabis 10 ? "What trust can I have in them, with whom thou didst communicate yesterday, and dost communicate to-day, and wilt communicate again to-morrow?"

ii. Psal. x.

Strom. Lib. i.

1 Cor. Hom.

27.

d Clement. d Clemens Alexandrinus saith: "After that certain, as the manner is, have divided the sacrament, they give every of the people leave to take part of it "1" St Chrysostom plainly describeth the very order of the communion that was Chrysost. in used in his time, by these words: "The spiritual and reverend sacraments are set forth equally to rich and poor: neither doth the rich man enjoy them more, and the poor man less: they have all like honour, and like coming to them. The sacraments being once laid forth (as then the manner was for the people to receive) are not taken in again, until all the people have communicate, and taken part of that spiritual meat; but the priests stand still, and wait for all, even for the poorest of them all 12."

Chrysost.

2 Cor. Hom. 18.

Gregor. Dial. Lib. ii. cap. xxiii.

Missa.

Isidor. in
Lex.

Again he saith: "There are things wherein the priest differeth nothing from the people; as when we must use the fearful mysteries. For we are all of one worthiness to receive the same 13"

St Gregory saith that even in his time the order was, that in the time of the holy communion the deacon should stand up and say aloud unto the people: Si quis non communicat, det locum 14: "If there be any body that is not disposed to communicate, let him give place."

This Latin word missa, in the time of Tertullian and St Cyprian, signified a dimissing, or a licence to depart, and was specially applied unto the communion upon this occasion that I must here declare. They that were then named catechumeni, that is to say, novices of the faith, and not yet christened, were suffered to be present at the communion until the gospel was ended. Then the deacon commanded them forth, pronouncing these words aloud: Catechumeni exeunto : or thus: Ite, missa est: "Go ye forth, ye have licence to depart." Of this dimis

[ Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. cap. xi. Tom. V. col. 997. See before, page 18.]

[2 Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Comm. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. cap. xi. Tom. II. Append. col. 150. See before, page 17.]

[3 Canon. Apost. 9. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1571-2. Tom. I. col. 28.]

[Anaclet. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624.
Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist.
ii. can. 10. col. 1917.]

[ Id. in eod. ibid. Dist. i. can. 59. col. 1907.]
[ Ex Concil. Mart. Brach. cap. 83. in eod. ibid.
Dist. ii. can. 18. col. 1920.]

[ Hilar. in eod. ibid. can. 15. col. 1919.]

[ Clement. Papæ I. Epist. ii. ad Jacob. in Epist. Decret. Sum. Pont. Rom. 1591. Tom. I. p. 16. See before, page 17.]

[9 quod [sacramentum] quotidie accipimus.—

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[ Clem. Alex. Op. Oxon. 1715. Strom. Lib. 1. Tom. I. p. 318. See before, page 153, note 14.]

[12 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. 1. ad Cor. Hom. xxvii. Tom. X. pp. 240, &c. The homily expresses at large what is here asserted; but the precise words do not appear in it.]

[13 Ἔστι δὲ ὅπου οὐδὲ διέστηκεν ὁ ἱερεὺς τοῦ ἀρχομένου οἷον, ὅταν ἀπολαύειν δίῃ τῶν φρικ τῶν μυστηρίων. ὁμοίως γὰρ πάντες αξιούμεθα τῶν avrov. Id. In Epist. 11. ad Cor. Hom. xviii. Tom. X. p. 568.]

[14 Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Dial. Lib. 11. cap. xxiii. Tom. II. col. 253.]

Communion.

of the bread.

sing or departing forth of the catechumeni and others, the service itself was then called missa 15. The rest remained still in the church, and received the communion together with the priest. Further, the breaking of the bread, which even now is used in the mass itself, signifieth a distribution of the sacrament unto the The breaking people, as St Augustine saith unto Paulinus: Ad distribuendum comminuitur 16; "It August. ad is broken, to the end it may be divided." Moreover, the priest himself in his 59. mass saith thus: "This holy mixture and consecration, &c. be unto me, and to all that shall receive it, unto salvation 17." Thus the very name of the mass, the very breaking of the bread, the very gestures and words that the priest useth at his mass, bear manifest witness against private mass.

Here I leave out a great number of councils, and canons, and old fathers, as Justinus Martyr, Dionysius, Tertullian, Epiphanius, and Eusebius, with sundry other ancient writers, both Greeks and Latins; thinking it sufficient by these few to have given a taste of the rest.

Our proofs hang not upon conjecture, or uncertain guesses: we pray not aid of sick folk, women, boys, and children, for the proof of the holy communion; as M. Harding is driven to do for proof of his mass: we seek not out secret oratories or privy chapels: we forge no new doctors, such as the world never knew before; as these men do for lack of others: we allege neither dreams, nor visions, nor fantastical fables.

We rest upon the scriptures of God, upon the authority of the ancient doctors and councils, and upon the universal practice of the most famous cities and churches of the world.

These things well compared and weighed together, judge thou now, gentle reader, whether M. Harding have hitherto just cause either to blow up the triumph with such courage, or to require any man to subscribe.

[15 Isidor. Hisp. Op. Col. Agrip. 1617. Orig. Lib. VI. cap. xix. p. 51.]

[16 August. Op. Ad Paulin. Epist. cxlix. 16.

Tom. II. col. 509.]

[17 Missal. ad Us. ac Consuet. Sar. Par. 1527: fol. 161. 2. See before, page 19.]

Paulin. Epist.

OF

COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS.

THE SECOND ARTICLE.

The fortysixth untruth, pro

ceeding only of the gross error of transubstantiation.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

OR that there was then any communion ministered unto the people under one kind.

[OF COMMUNION UNDER ONE KIND. ARTICLE II. H. A. 1564.]

M. HARDING. THE FIRST DIVISION.

This being a sacrament of unity, every true christian man ought in receiving of it to consider how unity may be achieved and kept, rather than to shew a straitness of conscience about the outward forms of bread and wine to be used in the administration of it; and that so much the more, how much the end of every thing is to be esteemed more than that which serveth to the end. Otherwise herein the breach of unity is so little recompensed by the exact keeping of the outward ceremony, that, according to the saying of St Augustine, “whosoever taketh the mystery of unity, and keepeth not the bond of peace, he taketh not a mystery for himself, but a testimony against himself1." Therefore they have great cause to weigh with themselves, what they receive in this sacrament, who, moved by slender reasons made for both kinds, do rashly and dangerously condemn the church for giving of it under one kind to all that do not in their own persons consecrate and offer the same in remembrance of the sacrifice once offered on the cross. And that they may think the church to stand upon good grounds herein, may it please them to understand, that the fruit of this sacrament, which they enjoy that worthily receive it, dependeth not of the outward forms of bread and wine, but redoundeth of the virtue of the flesh and blood of Christ. And whereas under either kind (46) whole Christ is verily present (for now that he is risen again from the dead, his flesh and blood can be sundered no more, because he dieth no more), this healthful sacrament is of true christian people with [Rom. vi. H.A. no less fruit received under one kind than under both. [And as this 1564.] spiritual fruit is not any thing diminished to him that receiveth one kind, so it is not any whit increased to him that receiveth both2.] The sacramentaries, that believe not the truth of Christ's body and blood in this holy sacrament, I remit to sundry godly treatises made in defence of the right faith in that point. I think it not necessary here to treat thereof, or of any other matter which M. Jewel hath not as yet manifestly touched in his sermon.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

The former article of private mass, by M. Harding's own confession, proceedeth not from God, but from the negligence of the people: but the abuse of the communion under one kind, from whence soever it first proceeded, standeth now only upon the wilfulness of the priests, who, seeing and knowing the institution and commandment of Christ, yet notwithstanding have devised ways, against their own knowledge, violently to repel the same. And that the whole case may the better appear, the question that standeth between us is moved thus: "Whether

[ Qui accipit mysterium unitatis, et non tenet vinculum pacis, non mysterium accipit pro se, sed testimonium contra se.-August. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert.

Pars, Dist. ii. can. 36. col. 1929. Op. Par. 1679-1700.
Serm. cclxxii. Tom. V. col. 1104.]

[ The sentence between brackets is found only in H. A. 1564.]

Differ

ence

be

the holy communion at any time, within the space of six hundred years after Christ, were ever ministered openly in the church unto the people under one kind." For proof whereof M. Harding hath here brought in women, children, tween sick folks, infants, and madmen, that these have sometimes received the one priest and kind, some in their private houses, some in their death-beds, some otherwise, as lay. he did before for proof of his private mass. If in all this long treaty he have brought any one example, or proof sufficient, of the ministration in one kind openly used in any church, it is good reason he be believed. But if he, after all these vaunts, having published such a book as all the world (as it is supposed) is not able to answer, have hitherto brought no such, neither example nor proof; then may we justly think there is nothing to be brought at all, but that by his eloquence and fair speech he seeketh to abuse the simplicity and ignorance of his reader.

dent.

The council of Basil3, above one hundred and thirty years past, made no con- Concil. Basil. science to grant the use of both kinds unto the kingdom of Bohemia; and this council now presently holden at Trident, upon certain conditions, hath granted Concil. Trithe same to other kingdoms and countries; and, were it not they should seem to confess the church of Rome hath erred, they would not doubt to grant the same freely to the whole world. None of them all can tell, neither when, nor where, nor how this error first began. Some think it sprang only of a certain super- S. Gardiner's stition and simplicity of the people". But whence soever it first began, as Ter- Sophistry. tullian writeth of the frowardness that he saw in certain of his time, it must now needs be maintained and made good against the truth. His words be these: Consuetudo initium ab aliqua ignorantia vel simplicitate sortita in usum per suc- Tertull. de cessionem corroboratur, et ita adversus veritatem vendicatur. Sed Dominus noster Christus veritatem se, non consuetudinem, cognominavit... Viderint ergo, quibus novum est, quod sibi vetus est. Hæreses non tam novitas, quam veritas revincit. Quodcunque adversus veritatem sapit, hoc erit hæresis, etiam vetus consuetudo": "Custom, either of simplicity, or of ignorance, getting once an entry, is inured and hardened by succession, and then is defended against the truth. But Christ our Lord called himself the truth, and not custom. Let them take heed therefore, unto whom the thing seemeth new, that in itself is old. It is not so much the novelty of the matter, as the truth, that reproveth an heresy. Whatsoever savoureth against the truth, it is an heresy, be the custom thereof never so old.”

Virg. Vel.

1 Cor. xi.

To come near the matter: "Unity," saith M. Harding, "is the substance of this sacrament: and whoso receiveth not the same in unity, receiveth a testimony against himself." As this is true, and avouched by St Augustine, and of our part not denied, so is it also true that St Ambrose writeth: Indignus est Domino, qui Ambros. aliter mysterium celebrat, quam ab eo traditum est. Non enim potest devotus esse, qui aliter præsumit, quam datum est ab auctores: "He is unworthy of the Lord, that doth otherwise celebrate the mystery than it was delivered of the Lord. For he cannot be devout, that taketh it otherwise than it was given of the author." But this excuse, under the pretence and colour of unity, seemeth to import some default. For what, think these folk that unity cannot stand without the breach of Christ's institution? or that the apostles and holy fathers, that ministered the communion under both kinds, were not in unity? or that there was never unity in the church for the space of a thousand four hundred and more years after Christ, until the council of Constance, where this matter was first concluded? Herein standeth that mystical unity, that one bread is broken unto all, and one cup is delivered unto all equally, without difference; and that, as Chrysostom saith, in the reverend sacrifice there is no difference between the priest Chrysost. in and the people, but all is equal9. But our adversaries have herein forced a 18.

[3 Concil. Basil. Sess. xxx. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. XII. cols. 600, 1.] [ Concil. Trident. in eod. Sess. xxii. Decr. sup. Pet. Conc. Cal. Tom. XIV. col. 861.]

[ A Detection of the Deuils Sophistrie, Lond.

1546. fol. 139. 2, &c.]

[ Hæreses, 1611.]

[ Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. De Virg. Vel. 1. p. 192.] [ Indignum dicit esse Domino, &c.-Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Comm. in 1. Epist. ad Cor. v. 27. Tom. II. Append. col. 149.]

[ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Cor. Hom. xviii. Tom. X. p. 568. 202, note 13.]

In Epist. II. ad
See before, page

2 Cor. Hom.

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