Obrazy na stronie

The fortyfourth untruth. For3 Christ


which neither, being denied, they shall never be able to prove; what may be said or thought of many thousand other less1 churches through the world, where the priest that said mass had not2 in readiness a sufficient number of other priests and deacons to receive with him, so to make up a communion? Of such churches it must be said that either the sacrifice ceased, and that was not done which (44) Christ commanded to be done in his remembrance, which is not to be granted; or that the memory of commanded our Lord's death was oftentimes celebrated of the priests in the daily oblation, noch daily without tarrying for others to communicate with them, and so had these churches private masses, as the churches now-a-days have. Now to conclude, of this most Private mass evident place of Chrysostom, every child is able to make an invincible argument simple collec- against M. Jewel for the private mass, as they call it, in this sort. By report of Chrysostom, the sacrifice in his time was daily offered, that is to say, the mass was celebrated; but many times nobody came to communicate sacramentally with the priests, (45) as it is before proved; ergo, there were masses done without other receiving the sacrament with the priests. And then further; ergo, private masses in Chrysostom's days were not strange: and then yet one step further, there to stay; ergo, M. Jewel, according to his own promise and offer, must yield, subscribe, and recant-unto a guess.

proved by a


The forty

fifth untruth. For 3 this is not yet proved.


Now is M. Harding come (as he saith) to the winding up of his clew; meaning thereby, as may be thought, that the substance of all that he hath alleged hitherto hangeth only by a twined thread.

This conjecture is taken out of certain words of Chrysostom; and the whole force thereof standeth only upon this word nemo, which is in English "nobody." Chrysost. ad Chrysostom's words be these: "We do daily offer the sacrifice," or, as M. Harding Populum Antiochen. delighteth rather to say, "we do daily say mass; and there is nobody to communicate; ergo," saith he, "Chrysostom received alone." And so have we without question a plain private mass.

Hom. 61.

John iii.

Here would I first know, whether M. Harding will rest upon the bare words of Chrysostom, or rather qualify them somewhat, and take his meaning. If he press the words so precisely as he seemeth to do, then did not Chrysostom himself communicate. For he was some body; and the plain words be, "Nobody doth communicate." By which words doubtless Chrysostom himself is excluded as well as others. And so there was no sole receiving, nor any receiving at all, and therefore no private mass.

If he will rather take Chrysostom's meaning, it appeareth, his purpose was to rebuke the negligence of the people, for that, of so populous a city, they came to the holy communion in so small companies; which companies he, in a vehemency of speech, by an exaggeration in respect of the whole, calleth "nobody." The like manner of speech is used also sometimes in the scriptures. St John saith of Christ: Testimonium ejus nemo accipit: not for that nobody at all received his witness; for his disciples and many others received it; but for that of a great multitude very few received it. In like phrase Chrysostom himself saith otherChrysost. ad where: Nemo divina sapit, nemo contemnit ea quæ in terra sunt, nemo attendit ad cœlum: "Nobody savoureth godly things: nobody despiseth the things of this world: nobody hath regard to heaven." In these words M. Harding must needs confess that Chrysostom, instead of few, by heat of speech and by way of comparison, said, "nobody."


Hom. 12.

And albeit this only answer, compared with the manner of Chrysostom's eloquence, which commonly is hot and fervent, and with the common practice of the church then, may suffice a man more desirous of truth than of contention; yet I have good hope it may be proved, notwithstanding M. Harding's nemo, that Chrysostom neither was alone, nor could be alone at the holy ministration, and therefore could say no private mass. For, if the whole company of the lay-people would have forsaken him, yet had he company sufficient of the priests and

[1 Lesser, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]

[ Had not always, H. A. 1564.]

[ 1565 omits for.]

[4 See before, page 195.]

[5 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. ad Hebr. cap. vii. Hom. xii. Tom. XII. p. 126.]

deacons, and others of the quire. And, if the whole quire would have forsaken him, yet had he company sufficient of the lay-people, as it may be clearly proved. That there was then a great number to serve in the ministry, it may diversly

well appear.


Ignatius calleth presbyterium, "the sacred college, the council and company Ignat. ad of the bishop "."

τὸ ἱερὸν

Chrysost. in

By Lit.

Chrysostom himself in his liturgy saith thus: "The deacons bring the dishes OTHER. with the holy bread unto the holy altar: the rest carry the holy cups"." which words appeareth both a number of the ministry, and also provision for them that would receive.

ad Fab. An

Cornelius writeth that in the church of Rome there were forty and six priests, Epist. Corn. seven deacons, seven subdeacons, forty and two acolutes, exorcists, readers, and tioch, ex other officers of the church, fifty and two, widows, and other afflicted people that there were relieved, a thousand five hundred3.

Euseb. Lib.

vi. cap. xlii.



Nazianzene complaineth of the number of the clergy in his time, that they Nazianz. in seemed to be more than the rest of the people. And therefore the emperor Jus- Apologet. tinian afterward thought it needful to abridge the number, and to make a law, σxedóυ Tɩ that in the great church at Constantinople, where Chrysostom was bishop, there should not be above the number of threescore priests, one hundred deacons, forty apoμov, women, fourscore and ten subdeacons, one hundred and ten readers, and five άρχουσι. and twenty singers 10. Hereby we may see that Chrysostom, being at Antioch, in In Authent. so populous a city, although he had none of the lay-people with him, yet could Tit. Ut deter not be utterly left alone.


Collat. prima,

minatus sit numerus

Now, if we say that some of these priests, deacons, or other, communicated clericorum. with the bishop, "I tell them," saith M. Harding, boldly, and with a solemn countenance, which must needs make good proof, "this is but a poor shift, and will not serve their purpose." But if it be true, it is rich enough: if it agree with Chrysostom's own meaning, it is no shift; and therefore sufficiently served our


And because he sitteth so fast upon the bare words, and reposeth all his hope in nemo, if we list to cavil in like sort, we might soon find warrant sufficient to answer this matter, even in the very plain words of Chrysostom. For thus they lie Frustra assistimus altari: "In vain we stand at the altar." "We stand,"

saith he, and not "I stand;" and therefore includeth a number, and not one alone. Howbeit our shifts are not so poor: we need not to take hold of so small advantages.

Apost. can. 9.

It is proved 12 by the canons of the apostles, "that, if any bishop, or priest, or Canon. deacon, or any other of the quire, after the oblation is made, do not receive, un- ÉK TOU less he shew some reasonable cause of his so doing, that he stand excommunicate 13” katalóyou ἱερατικοῦ. There was then neither such number of altars, nor such chevisance 14 of masses, as hath been sithence. All the priests received together at one communion. The like law in the church of Rome was afterward renewed by pope Anacletus 15.

De Consecr.
Dist. 1.


The council of Nice decreeth thus: Accipiant diaconi secundum ordinem, post Episcopus. presbyteros, ab episcopis, vel a presbytero communionem 16: "Let the deacons in can. order, after the priests, receive of the bishops, or of the priest, the holy communion."


thag. vi. cap.

Likewise the council of Carthage: Accipiant [diaconi]...ex ordine eucharistiam Concil. Carpost presbyteros, eis dante...episcopo, vel presbytero 17: "Let the deacons receive is.

[* Τί δὲ πρεσβυτέριον ἀλλ ̓ ἢ σύστημα ἱερὸν, σύμβουλοι καὶ συνεδρευταὶ τοῦ ἐπισκόπου; Ignat. Op. Ed. Voss. 2da, Lond. 1680. p. 162. Epist. ad Trall. Interpolat.]

[ Diaconi discos cum panibus sanctis deferunt ad sanctum altare: reliqui portant sanctos calices.-Ord. Lit. B. Joan. Chrysost. in Cassandr. Op. Par. 1616. Liturg. cap. vii. p. 18. Different copies of the liturgy ascribed to Chrysostom differ exceedingly.]

[Euseb. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 16951700. Lib. VI. cap. xliii. p. 198.]

[ Gregor. Nazianz. Op. Par. 1778-1840. Orat. ii. 8. Tom. I. p. 15.]

[10 Corp. Jur. Civil. Amst. 1663. Authent. Collat. I. Tit. iii. Novell. iii. cap. 1. Tom. II. p. 7.]

[11 Serveth, 1565.] [12 Provided, 1565, 1609.] [13 Canon. Apost. 8. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. I. col. 25.]

[14 Chevisance: enterprise, achievement, bargain.] [15 Anaclet. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. i. can. 59, col. 1907.]

[16 Concil. Nicen. can. 18. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. II. col. 37.]

[17 Concil. Carthag. vI. in eod. cap. 18. Tom. II, col. 1598; where aut for vel.]

Concil. Laod. can. 59.

Concil. Tolet.

iv. cap. 17.

Nic. Cusan. ad Cler. et

the communion in order after the priests, either the bishop or the priest ministering it."

So the council of Laodicea: "It is lawful only for the priests of the church to enter into the place where the altar standeth, and there to communicate1."

So the council of Toledo: "Let the priests and deacons communicate before the altar, the clerks in the quire, and the people without the quire2."

Nicolaus Cusanus, writing unto the clergy and learned of Bohemia, hath these Lit. Bohem. Words: Hoc est... singulariter attendendum, quod sacerdotes nunquam sine diacono celebrabant: et in omni missa diaconus de manu sacerdotis accipit eucharistiam sub specie panis, et sacerdos de manu diaconi calicem3: "This thing is specially to be noted, that the priest did never celebrate without a deacon; and that in every mass the deacon received the sacrament in the kind of bread at the priest's hand, and the priest the cup at the deacon's hand."

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But what needeth much proof, in a case that is so plain? Chrysostom himself, in the liturgy that commonly beareth his name, followeth the same order. "After that the priests have received," saith he, "the archdeacon commandeth the deacons to come forth; and they, so coming, receive as the priests did before." This was the very order of Chrysostom's mass, touching the clergy, and that by the witness of Chrysostom himself.

Now let M. Harding judge uprightly, whether these shifts be so poor as he would make them.

But if the whole clergy had been so negligent, that not one of them all, being so many, and so straitly charged, would have communicated with the priest, as M. Harding seemeth to condemn them all, only upon his own word, without any evidence; yet let us see whether M. Harding's nemo were able of necessity to shut out all the rest of the people.

Chrysostom in divers places seemeth to divide the whole multitude into three sorts, whereof some were "penitent," some "negligent," and some "devout." The "penitent" were commanded away, and might not communicate: the "negligent" some time departed of themselves, and would not communicate: the "devout" remained, and received together. Now that the "devout" remained still with Chrysostom the whole time of the holy mysteries, it is plain by the very same place that M. Harding here allegeth for his purpose. For thus Chrysostom saith unto the people: "Thou art come into the church, and hast sung praises unto God with the rest, and hast confessed thyself to be one of the worthy, in that thou departedst not forth with the unworthy." By these words he sheweth that some were worthy, and some unworthy; that the unworthy departed, and the worthy remained. And again in the same homily he saith: "The deacon, standing on high, calleth some to the communion, and putteth off some; thrusteth out some, and bringeth in some." Chrysostom saith: "Some are called," and "some are brought in," to receive with the priest. Where then is now M. Harding's nemo? Verily, if there were "some people" with the priest, then was there no place for "nobody." If "nobody" received, then is it not true that Chrysostom saith, that "some received."

Here of a false principle M. Harding, as his wont is, guesseth out the like conclusion: “If there were so few communicants in that populous city of Antioch, where the scriptures were daily expounded and preached, then it is likely in country churches there were none at all." This argument hangeth only by likelihood, as


[1 καὶ μόνοις ἐξὸν εἶναι τοῖς ἱερατικοῖς εἰσιέναι εἰς τὸ θυσιαστήριον, καὶ κοινωνεῖν.—Concil. Laod. in eod. can. 19. Tom. I. col. 1500.]

[2. sacerdos et Levita ante altare communicent, in choro clerus, extra chorum populus.-Concil. Tolet. IV. in eod. cap. 18. Tom. V. col. 1711.]

[3 Nic. de Cusa Op. Basil. 1565. Ad Cler. et Lit. Bohem. Epist. vii. pp. 854, 5; where we find celebrarunt, et in omni missa diaconus de manu diaconi calicem, ut glo. in cap. pervenit 93. distin. ponit causam, et ita præceptum fuit servari.]

[Chrysost. Miss. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560.

fol. 21.

See before, page 116, note 3.] [ Theeself, 1565.]

[6 Ita scilicet et tu venisti, cecinisti Deo laudem, cum omnibus es confessus de dignis esse, cum indignis non secedendo.-Chrysost. Op. Lat. Basil. 1547. Ad Pop. Antioch. Hom. Ixi. Tom. V. col. 403. stans erectus... hos quidem vocat, hos autem arcet

hos quidem pellit et ejicit, hos autem introducit et assistit. Id. ibid. col. 405. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. ad Ephes. cap. i. Hom. iii. Tom. XI. p. 23. In Epist. ad Hebr. cap. x. Hom. xvii. Tom. XII. pp. 170, 1.]

do the rest of his making; and being set in order, it standeth thus: There was no private mass in the great city of Antioch; ergo, there was private mass in the country. Surely, good reader, this is a very country argument, whatsoever it seem to M. Harding.

Act. Hom.45.

Hom. 5.

And further, whereas to advance the city, and to abase the country, he saith, "The people in cities were daily taught by open sermons ;" herein he must needs be content that his guess give place unto the truth. For Chrysostom himself saith far otherwise. Thus he speaketh unto the people in the city: Dum per Chrysost. in hebdomadam semel vocamus vos, et ignavi estis, et alii quidem non advenitis, alii autem Idem in Matt. præsentes sine lucro disceditis; quid non faceretis, si nos hoc continuo faceremus? "Whereas, being called by us but once in the week, yet ye be slothful, and some of you come not at all, and other some, being present, depart without profit; what would ye not do, if we should call you every day?" I note not this for that I mislike with daily preaching, but for that untruth so boldly presumed should not pass untouched.

Yet saith M. Harding: "In small country churches, either the priest let cease the daily sacrifice, or else he received alone. But the daily sacrifice ceased not; for then that had been left undone that Christ commanded to be done; ergo, there was private mass." O M. Harding, is it not possible your doctrine may stand without lies? So many untruths in so little room, without shame of the world, without fear of God? Where did Christ ever command you to make your sacrifice? By what commission? By what words? Where did Christ will you to do it every day? Where did Christ ever call it the daily sacrifice? Or where ever learned you that the remembrance of Christ's death pertaineth more to the priest than to the people? And if your mass be that sacrifice, who ever commanded your priest to say your daily mass? What law, what decree, what decretal, what legantine, what provincial? Or what priest ever was there that said it daily?

Miss, can.

2. Quotidie.

Peccham in his provincial was never so strait. He saith no more but thus: Statuimus,... ut quilibet sacerdos, quem canonica necessitas non excusat, conficiat omni De Celebr. hebdomada saltem semel8: "We ordain that every priest, unless he be excused by Altissimus. some canonical necessity, do consecrate every week once at the least." There is odds between once a week and once a day. And Linwood, writing upon the same, allegeth these words of St Augustine's: Quotidie eucharistiæ communicare nec laudo De Con. Dist. nec vituperoo: “As for receiving the communion every day, I neither praise it nor dispraise it." Innocentius the third noteth, that there were priests in his time Extr. de that would scarcely say mass at four times in the year 10. And Thomas of Aquine Dolentes. thinketh it sufficient for a priest, that is not charged with cure, to say mass only Parte ult. upon principal feasts. It is also written in Vitis Patrum, that a certain holy Art. 1. man, being made priest, would notwithstanding never say mass while he lived. Yet was there none of these ever charged with foreslowing 12 or ceasing the daily sacrifice, or leaving undone that thing that Christ had commanded to be done.

Celebr. Miss.

In Summ.


Concerning the priest's sole receiving, which is grounded only upon itself, without further proof, verily I see no cause but that Nicolaus de Cusa, being a cardinal of Rome, ought to carry as good credit herein as M. Harding, with all his guesses. He saith, and willeth his words to be specially noted, as it is before Nicol. de touched, that in those days the priest did never receive without the deacon 13. Yet et Lit. Bohath M. Harding a certain surmise by himself, that the priests in the country received alone.

[ Id. In Act. Apost. Hom. xliv. Tom. IX. p. 335. See also In Matt. Hom. v. Tom. VII. p. 72.]

[ Provincial. seu Const. Angl. Antw. 1525. Lib. 111. De Celebr. Miss. fol. 168.]

[ Id. ibid.; where communionem accipere. See August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Eccles. Dogm. cap. xxiii. Tom. VIII. Append. col. 78.]

[10 Sunt et alii, qui missarum solemnia vix celebrant quater in anno.-Innoc. III. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decretal. Greg. IX. Lib. 111. Tit. xli. cap. 9. col. 1377,]

[11 unde sacerdoti, etiam si non habeat curam animarum, non licet omnino a celebratione cessare, sed saltem videtur, quod celebrare teneatur in præcipuis festis, &c.-Thom. Aquinat. Op. Venet. 1595. Summ. Theol. Pars III. Quæst. lxxxii. Art. 10. Tom. XII. fol. 276.]

[12 Foreslowing: putting off.]

[13 Nic. de Cusa Op. Ad Cler. et Lit. Bohem. Epist. vii. pp. 854, 5. See before, page 198, note 3.]

Cusa, ad Cler.


Chrysost. ad
Ephes. Hom.


But what a wonderful case is this! The mass that we must needs believe is so ancient, so universal, so catholic, so holy, so glorious, cannot be found, neither in churches, nor in chapels, nor in secret oratories, nor in private houses, in town or city; but must be sought out in some petty parish in the country, and that by conjecture only, and by guess, and by such records as directly condemn the whole order of the mass, and will suffer no man to be present thereat, but only such as will receive!

For thus saith Chrysostom: "If thou stand by and do not communicate, thou art malapert, thou art shameless, thou art impudent. Thine eyes be unworthy the sight hereof, unworthy be thine ears. O, thou wilt say, I am unworthy to be partaker of the holy mysteries. Then art thou unworthy to be partaker of the prayers: thou mayest no more stand here than a heathen that never was christened." And, touching himself, he saith: "In vain we come to offer the daily sacrifice in vain we stand at the altar1:" meaning thereby, as may appear, that, if he said private mass for lack of company, it was in vain. Here M. Harding, seeing that his mass, even by his own authority, is shrewdly cracked, and left for vain, assayeth to salve it as well as he may.

"The mass," saith he, "is not in vain in itself, but unto the people that will not come." This is a gloss beside the text; yet let us take it as it were true. But if hearing of the mass be a thing pleasant unto God, and meritorious unto the people; if Christ be there offered indeed for the sins of the world; if the priest alone may receive for all the rest; if it be sufficient for the people to communicate spiritually, as M. Harding hath avouched; then is not the saying of the mass in vain, no, not unto the people; no, although they never would communicate. Chrysostom saith, "It is in vain:" M. Harding saith, "It is not in vain." And yet, to see a greater contradiction, M. Harding himself in this place saith: "It is in vain unto the people." And yet the same Division ix. M. Harding hath said before: "It is commanded by councils: it is sufficient for the people to communicate in spirit: it is not in vain unto the people."

fol. 13. b. 2

Concil. Con

If M. Harding will stand unto the authority of Chrysostom, let him not dissemble, but speak plainly unto the people, as Chrysostom spake. Let him say to them that come to hear his mass: "If ye receive not, ye are shameless, ye are impudent, ye are not worthy to be partakers of the common prayers: depart ye from the church; ye have no more place here than Turks and heathens; your eyes be unworthy to see these things, unworthy be your ears; our masses cannot profit you; they are not meritorious for you; they please not God; they provoke his anger; they are all in vain." This is Chrysostom's sense and plain meaning; and this is a fair winding up of M. Harding's clew.

Now let us examine this invincible argument, wherewithal every child, as M. Harding vaunteth, is able to prove the private mass.

The major is this: "The sacrifice in Chrysostom's time was daily offered." The minor is this: "But many times no man came to communicate with the priest."

The conclusion: ergo, "There was private mass."

Here the major is apparent false; the minor proved at adventures, only by blind guess, and so not proved at all: therefore the conclusion must needs follow after as it may. Unless M. Harding look better to it, I trow it will prove

but a childish argument.

As for the major, it is plain by the sixth council of Constantinople3, by St stan. vi. can. Augustine upon St John', by St Basil Ad Cæsariam Patriciam3, by the epistle Aug. Tract. of the council of Alexandria in the defence of Macarius, and by the council



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[3 Concil. Quinisext. can. 52. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. VI. cols. 1166, 7.]

[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Tractat. xxvi. 15. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 500.]

[5 Basil. Op. Par. 1721-30. Ad Cæsar. Epist. xciii. Tom. III. p. 186.]

[ Epist. Synod. Concil. Alex. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Tom. II. col. 548.]

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