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̓Ακτῇ ἐπὶ προἐχούσῃ, ἐπὶ πλατεῖ Ελλησπόντῳ
Ως κεν τηλεφανὴς ἐκ ποντόφιν ἀνδράσιν εἴη
Τοῖς, οἳ νῦν γεγάασι, καὶ οἱ μετόπισθεν ἔσονται. (Od. Ω. 82.)
The Flight of Hector. It is certainly true, as Chevalier, Dalzel, Bryant, Vincent, Heyne and others have determined, that independently of the equivocal interpretation of the two prepositions Tepì and aμpì, there is nothing in Homer's description which can warrant the hypothesis of the circular flight of Hector round the city of Troy. In addition to the arguments employed by these and other authors, to prove, from the general context, that the scene of action lay between the walls and the fountains of the Scamander, it may be remarked, that, when under apprehension for the safety of Hector, Andromache expresses her fears lest he should be pursued by Achilles, she simply says X. 456. πεδίονδε δίηται, without any allusion to a possible pursuit round the city. In order to satisfy herself on this point, she likewise immediately directs her steps to the tower, and wall, where the crowd was stationed, to view the combat. This stationary condition of the spectators is almost a sufficient evidence as to the meaning of Homer.
It appears that, in his flight, Hector had two objects in view: one to reach the gates; a second to bring Achilles within the scope of the darts from the towers. A circular flight close under the walls implies a contradiction to these intentions of the poet. If Hector had taken the lead in a circular flight, and Achilles (as is declared to have been the case) could not overtake him, why did not Hector reach the gates? It may be said, at least, that in traversing an oblique course of Hector, Achilles would place himself nearer the walls than his adversary, and thus have assisted one of his material objects.
may be still further remarked, that although we do not necessarily conclude with Bryant and Dares Phrygius that Troy had seven gates, the Scæan gates were probably not the only gates of the city. These latter are particularised by Homer as leading into the plain. (Z. 392.) At B. 809. and O. 58. we learn that all the gates were opened. I am aware that, with a refinement and precision scarcely justifiable, Heyne denies the existence of any other than the Scæan gates on the ground that none other are mentioned by the poet, and for this reason seeks an explanation of πᾶσαι as a synonym of Ὅλαι. As the reason is insufficient and the distinction unnecessary, we may still conclude that the passage of the Trojan and allied armies was through more than one gate. Now if πãσaι allude to more than one gate, and Hector was pursued all round Troy, why was his only attempt at entrance made through the Dardanian gates? It matters
little whether the Scean and Dardanian gates were or were not the same, so long as the improbability remains that Homer should have precluded his Hero from the chance of escaping by more than one out of several means which offered themselves to his choice.
The particular argument for the circular flight of Hector round the walls of Troy is derived from the assumed interpretation of the prepositions repì and augi. That the first of these, in its Homeric application with an accusative case, has generally a meaning different from that which is included in the idea of an entire orbit, or in other words does not mean circularly round the object which it governs, will not admit a doubt. It is not easy to describe a circle round a river, or round a long wall, as in τὰ περὶ καλὰ ῥέεθρα and περὶ τεῖχος. The anonymous author in the Edinburgh Review has, however, established the possible fact of an entire circuit, as the test of the real meaning of Teρì, and as, according to this writer, Troy was situated in the midst of a level plain, was itself not on a hill, and from its site would, therefore, readily permit such a passage, he determines that Hector was pursued entirely round (Tepì) Troy. The argument is borrowed from Prof. Heyne, who, many years before, had said: "the expressions repì and ảμpì imply only something indeterminate in regard to the place, provided other circumstances do not more accurately mark it out." From his own view of the topography of Troy, he assumed the converse of the position above stated. ancient Troy was accessible only on the side next the sea, and in the quarter of the Acropolis was surrounded by abrupt precipices, Teρì in this place could not have meant circularly round." In answer to both arguments, I will observe, that the conclusion is entirely gratuitous, and that the possibility of a circular passage does not necessarily connect that meaning with the preposition repi. The first of the six examples of its use in the narrative of Hector's flight seems alone sufficient to invalidate the whole hypothesis, from which the abovementioned opposite conclusions are derived. There is no reason to suppose the goal or boundary described in the simile, X. 162. could not be entirely compassed, and yet repì répμa means only half surrounded. That the répua in the chariot race had a passage round it is clear from the description (Y. 326.), as it was a dry pole with a
1 See Schol. x. 6. It may be doubted whether worl wrókos X. 198. generally translated prope, does not mean erga, an important difference; as προτὶ ἄστυ, Σ. 266.
white stone on each side, and yet repì répμa occurs also at 466: when we know that a circular passage was not made round it.
Dr. Vincent decides, that "one instance is as good as a thousand," and that because repì oñμa, occurring in various places, (as n. 16. 51. 416. 755.) meant all round, this interpretation should, therefore, be adopted in all other places. It has never been denied that repì has occasionally this meaning, but from what has already appeared it must be evident that no such unqualified conclusion can be warranted by any knowledge we are able to gain on this subject. From the general context of Homer we may further decide, that in his particular uses of the word, alone, or in composition, Homer never had in view an entire orbit or circle. At II. 448. Jupiter says they are fighting repì ǎaru, when, if the poet's description may be trusted, we know they were not fighting round the city. In the passage B. 801, Iris (who had not like Juno occasion for equivocation,) says, the Grecians are about to fight περὶ ἄστυ. As all the movements are accurately described, we may safely pronounce that, in this instance, repì did not mean all round the city. The whole contest in both these cases was confined to the space between the ships and the Scaan gates. So likewise in the passages μαρνάμενοι περὶ ἄστυ, and φθινύσουσι περὶ πτόder (Z. 256. and 327.) we are informed that the battle took place between the Simois and Xanthus, (Z. 4.) There is, however, one instance which may safely be considered as conclusive, against the orbicular interpretation of περί. It occurs Odyssey E. 473., and alludes to the ambuscade of which Ulysses formed one party. It will not be contended that in the use of repì åσru, it was meant that three persons encompassed the city of Troy.
In all the examples of its application in connexion with Hector's flight, and even in the watch appointed by him (unless we admit this peculiar case to be an exception) we may adopt a more indeterminate and less extensive meaning. It is evident that Homer himself did not consider Tepè as sufficiently emphatical to bear, in itself, the interpretation of circularly round. The περίδρομος ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα, whatever may be the meaning of the passage, shows the insufficiency of reρí: whether ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα (Β. 811.) are required to make the βατίσια entirely open on all sides, or that these words annul the implied power of repì, by describing a passage open in certain parts only. The
• Pindar Olymp. xiii. 78, 79, says: τὰ δὲ καί ποτ', ἐν ἀλκᾷ πρὸ Δαρδάνου τειχέων ἐδόκησαν, &c.
weρì návrn (N. 799.) seems to convey a meaning not necessarily included in repì, a remark which more decidedly applies to the repì àμpì (P. 760. X. 165, &c. Y. 191.) It is not quite clear that repì with a dative does not more uniformly mean all round, than with an accusative. In περί σφισι (Σ. 66.) Πατρόκλῳ, (Ρ. 6. 137. 286. 355.) Χροί, (Ν. 25. 241, Ξ. 25.) δούρατι, (Ν. 77.) πόρτακι, (Ρ. 4.) the notion is that of all round, and the same is true in numberless other places. But the frequent use of appì, of which the meaning is precise, confirms, it is maintained, the hypothetical interpretation of repi. That àupi is at least as indeterminate in its meaning as repè needs little illustration. In the examples ἀμφὶ δέ τ' ἄκρας (Δ. 425.) ἀμφὶ νῆες (Π. 276.) πάντας (Ν. 126.) Αχελώϊον (Ω. 616.) ῥοὰς ποταμοῖο, (Λ. 781.) ῥέεθρα (Η. 135.) κελεύθους (Ν. 335.) ἅλα (Α. 409.) Σκάμανδρον (Η. 329.) reixos (H. 449.) &c. this circular relation is wholly inadmissible. So also in ἀμφὶ ἄστυ ἔρδομεν ἱρὰ θεοῖς (Λ. 706.) ἀμφὶ αὐτὸν Τρῶες ἕπονθ ̓ (A. 473.) àμpìs éovoa, (H. 342.) this idea must be wholly excluded. With these and many other authorities it may be permitted us to question the supposed meaning of åμpì móλiv I. 526. X. 381. N. 784.
. 442: and if at N. 789. Y. 256. åμpì πvpǹv be said to describe àn entire orbit, we readily admit such an occasional meaning, but derive nothing in proof of its signification in the cases more immediately under examination.
Neither do we feel authorised to adopt the supposed meaning from a consideration of its uses in composition. Hector speaking of the actions of the Trojans says: "Diov åμpeμáxovтo (Z. 461.), which, even if it relate to the entire series of actions from the first arrival of the Grecians, supplies no definite evidence on the subject. Achilles in his account of these actions says he had destroyed twelve cities by sea, and eleven by land, κατὰ (not περὶ or ἀμφὶ Τροίην ἐρίβωλον, (I. 328.) and in the Odyssey (A. 498.) he gives an account of his deeds évì Tpoin evpein. We know from Homer's descriptions that in the tenth year no engagements took place round Troy, aud Achilles, though he has elsewhere used the expression "Ιλιον αμφιμάχωμαι, ex pressly declares his intention, even at the moment of his highest indignation, to do all possible mischief Ιλίου προπάροιθεν, uot περὶ or ȧμpì "Iλcov, D. 104. When Hector is reproaching Paris for supineness, he says: the battle äorv åμpidédye, (Z. 329.) on your account, though we know its locality was in front of Troy.
Two or three instances occur in Homer, which prove that in composition dugì did not describe an entire circle, and others may be found which indicate its application to two sides of a circle. At II.
777. it is said of the sun μérov ovpavòv àμpißeßáøket, a quarter of an entire circle. The same expression occurs C. 68. a line which Pope translates "Half the vault of Heaven." In dμpiéλioσai (O. 549.) ἀμφοτέρωθεν, &c. only two sides are included. In ἀμφὶ as well as περὶ a sort of reduplication is in general necessary to describe a complete circumvolution as in wávrη 8' aμpí. (N. 806. Y. 34. 110, &c.)
I may conclude by remarking that the idea of circularly round is (as in the instance of repì) more frequently included in the connexion of dupì with a dative, than with an accusative case, as we may see in ἀμφὶ ποσσὶ (Ν. 36.) ἀμφὶ αὐτῷ Π. 109. P. 359. ἀμφὶ Μενοιτιάδη, Ρ. 267. &c. &c. &c.
From the sum of these arguments, I conclude, that a circular flight round the city of Troy was never in Homer's contemplation.'
ON THE IAMBIC METRE OF PHEDRUS.
I PROPOSE in this paper to consider some of the most prominent features in the Metre of Phædrus. To judge from the authority and example of many scholars, his professed imitators, it seems that little more has been thought necessary to the construction of his Iambic Metre, than to preserve a pure Iambic always in the last place. But Phædrus, however easy, and even negligent to a certain extent, in his versification, has still set certain bounds to the liberties, which he has taken in this respect. Indeed throughout his Prologues and Epilogues, he takes occasion to pride himself on the polish of his senarian lines, and on the powerful influence of his numbers;3 and on this account, no less than on the merit of his invention, he builds his claim to the applause of
1 Bryant has a very probable conjecture on the subject of xar' åμ¤ğıtòv as alluding to the place of that name in the Troad. It may be remarked that Pindar employs the same word under the interpretation commonly assigned to it in Homer: μanpá μoi violaι naт` åμağızóv. Pyth. iv. 439. See Var. Lectt. in Il. ii. 791. 5. Heyne.
2 Hanc ego polivi versibus senariis. Prol. L. 1.
3 Ut liber animus sentiat vim carminis. Prol. L. 3.