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WITH THE SECTIONS OF THE LAW AS READ IN THE SYNAGOGUES EVERY SABBATH

DURING THE YEAR; ALSO THE DAYS ON WHICH THE

HOUR FOR COMMENCING SABBATH IS ALTERED;
TOGETHER WITH THE CORRESPONDING CHRISTIAN DATES.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED

TABLES FOR CONTINUING THE CALENDAR TO A.M. 6000-2240 C.Æ.

AND

A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,

FORMING A SUMMARY OF JEWISH HISTORY FROM THE FLOOD TO THE PRESENT TIME,

WITH

VARIOUS OTHER USEFUL TABLES;

BY

E. H. LINDO.

בשנת והיו לאתת ולמועדים ולימים ושנים לפ"ק

LONDON:

PRINTED BY L. THOMPSON, 19, GREAT ST. HELEN'S.

TO BE HAD OF THE AUTHOR, 5, HAYDON SQUARE; AND D. N. CARVALHO,
BOOKSELLER, 154, FLEET STREET.

1838.

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PREFACE.

WHETHER in a prospective or retrospective point of view, no Science is more worthy of cultivation and encouragement, than that, which calculating time by the aid of Astronomy, adjusts the results of observations, thus obtained, to the ordinary use and instruction of man in the various relations of historical knowledge, commemorative guidance, or religious observ

ance.

In the latter respect, a correct Calendar is of imperative necessity to the descendants of that People, who are enjoined by Scripture authority to the performance of Rites and Ceremonies upon the periodical return of certain "days, times, and seasons," and which instituted by their Legislator, bear testimony to the latest posterity of the wonderful interposition of Providence in their favour, on the occasions recorded in those Scriptures.

It is on this account (independent of others of high consideration), that the Jews have been proverbially anxious to regulate themselves by the most accurate principles in the formation of their Calendars.

The Jewish Calendar, published by Mr. Nieto, A. M. 5551, -1791, comprising also the corresponding dates of the Christian Era, is now about expiring. From the conviction of the utility of such an Almanack, I was induced, in my leisure hours, to compile a similar one for the use of my family; the materials increasing upon my hands, I improved the plan, without the least idea of giving it publicity, but the urgent request of many respected friends, to whose opinions I defer,

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has emboldened me to offer it to the Public, after obtaining the sanction of the Rev. Dr. Solomon Hirschel, and the Rev. Mr. David Meldola, for whose flattering testimonials (as annexed), I am greatly indebted.

The Introduction to the work will shew, that the Jewish Calendar is much more ancient than many authors suppose it to be; a short account is also given of the present Christian Calendar, and the last alterations made in it.

The Rules for the Jewish Calendar are chiefly taken from the works of Maimonedes, who, following the system of preceding Sages, divided the hour into 1080 parts (as it greatly facilitated their calculations, being divisible by any of the units except 7), which I have reduced to our present division of time; by these Rules our Calendar may be continued to any length of time.

The Tables immediately following, will render it an easy task when required, to continue the Calendar in its present form for 338 years, the corresponding Christian dates having been calculated with accuracy.

That our Festivals and Fasts may be more particularly known, I have added an Index of the various places in Scripture where any allusion to them is made.

The Division of the Sections of the Law and the Prophets, as read in our Synagogues, may be useful to those who, unacquainted with the Hebrew, may be desirous of reading them, at their stated times, in another language.

In the Sections of the Prophets there are some small differences between the Portuguese and German Rituals, which I have pointed out, so as to render the Table equally serviceable to both.

The information as to the hours when Divine Service commences in the different Synagogues, will prove of utility to those frequenting them.

I have formed a Table of the hours at which Sabbath terminates during the year, which I have been enabled to correct from information kindly furnished me by the Astronomer Royal, G. B. Airy, Esq, F. R. S., and which has been sanctioned by the aforenamed authorities; it will also serve as a guide for private Fasts.

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I have added a List of our Religious and Charitable Institutions,* in the hope that, by their being more generally known, they will obtain additional support from the Benevolent, and thereby enable them to encrease the benefits they at present confer; and although some few are exclusively confined to particular Congregations, yet the Members of the others are ever ready with their purses and personal exertions, to contribute their aid to benefit mutually the Societies of each.

In alluding to these Institutions, I am confident I only express the general feeling of the Jewish community in gratefully acknowledging the kind Patronage and the generous support bestowed on several of them by the Members of the Royal Family, and by many benevolent individuals of the Christian public.

The ancient part of the Chronological Table will be found conformable to Scripture authority (making allowance at times for the difference of regnal and current years) and is derived from various Hebrew Chronologists, but chiefly from

(the Table of Generations) סדר הדורות

The modern part is from the most approved Authors; the cruelties inflicted on the Jews under the Romans, recorded in these pages, were the fearful consequences of a brave People struggling to regain their Independence.

In later periods. the persecutions with which they were assailed, will be seen to have been either the acts of Princes who sought to replenish their empty coffers; or the unbridled thirst of a populace seeking for plunder; except in some few instances of a blind fanaticism, where the name of Religion was used, or rather, abused.

To the honour of the Christian Clergy, it should be known, that they were generally more ready to protect, than to persecute, a People, whose crime, in the eyes of the multitude, was an adherence to the Religion of their Forefathers; for the ofttold futile tales of using Christian blood in their Paschal Rites, or poisoning running streams, require no comment in the present Age

* In this List the Gift of Sir Moses Montefiore, in 1823, to the Portuguese Congregation, of the Freehold, Cock Court, Jewry Street, to be appropriated as Alms Houses, has been inadvertently omitted.

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