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dial invitation from the people, with the assistance and help authoritatively of lawful church judicatories, until such time as God shall grant a patent way to return to our own charges. And 2d, that presbyterian ministers may have access to his majesty for representing just grievances, which press heavily our consciences, and the consciences of the people, his majesty's loyal and faithful subjects in the land :-In granting of which necessary and just desire, I, your grace's servant, shall be a humble supplicant at the throne of grace, for the preservation of his majesty's person, the establishing of his throne in righteousness; and that the Lord would pour forth the spirit of righteous judgment on your grace, that the Lord may be blessed, and your grace may find mercy in the day of visitation.

J. BURNET."*

XXII. JOHN BROWN.

[Perhaps there are few of his cotemporaries who, for talents, learning, and piety, can be put into comparison with John Brown. For many years previous to the restoration, he was minister of Wamphray, in Annandale; and not only in that parish, but also in the whole district of country where it is situated, had his labours been abundant and successful. Upon some trivial offence given to the prelatic party, who then governed the church, he was, in 1662, summoned before the Council, and forthwith sent to prison. Here he remained five weeks, when the failure of his health, by reason of the confinement, caused him to supplicate for liberty. This, however, was acceded to only upon his obliging himself, to remove from the king's dominions. He accordingly, shortly after, went over to Holland, at that time the asylum of the persecuted covenanters. But even there, he was not free from annoyance. In 1676, an application was made to the States-general to banish him, along with other two, from that country. The application was ultimately successful; and by an act of that body, he was doomed to leave Rotterdam in March, 1677. It seems, however, that on the attestation of a physician that his health would be injured by the removal, he was allowed to remain in the country, and, it would appear, took advantage of this opportunity to prepare the following very valuable Testimony, which is dated in that year.] "Reader,-Because some, not knowing what was the true cause of my silence and speaking nothing in public, as my worthy and dear. brother, Mr. M'Ward did, while we were both of us to depart out of Rotterdam, in order to our going out of the United Provinces, (in obedience to the resolution of the States-general, taken in compliance with the importunate urging of the king of Britain, contrary to their own inclinations, being sufficiently convinced of the injustice of the thing,

• Faithful Witness-bearing Exemplified, pp. 188-196.

blood, runneth through all the veins of this defection to this day, I mean that horrid sin of covenant-breaking, whereof the land and the inhabitants thereof stand in a high measure guilty before the Lord. It pleased the Lord to choose that land, and to set his love upon it, because he loved it; and we became a special people to himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth, so that, though all the earth be the Lord's, yet we became a peculiar treasure unto him, above all people, when he took us into covenant with himself, when all our tribes, officers, and rulers, our wives, and little ones stood before the Lord, that they should enter into covenant with the Lord their God, and into the oath of the Lord to be his; and avouched the Lord in that day to be our God, and to walk in his ways, and to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and to hearken to his voice; and the Lord did avouch us in that day to be his peculiar people, to make us high above all nations which he had made, in praise, in name, and in honour; and that we ought to be a holy people unto the Lord. Thus the Lord, after he had redeemed us for a people to himself, to make himself a name, and had done great things and terrible--when he redeemed us from Egyptian darkness, -did confirm us unto himself, to be a people unto him for ever, and the Lord Jehovah became our God. This, even this, was our glory above all nations: for, what great nation was there, that had the Lord so near unto them as the Lord our God was unto us, in all things, that we called upon him for? When we were as no people, and no eye pitied us, being cast out in the open field, and lying polluted in our blood, it pleased the Lord to say to us even then, live; for it was a time of love, and he spread his skirt over us; yea, he sware unto us, and entered into a covenant with us, and we became his he washed us, and anointed us with oil-he clothed us, and decked us with ornaments, and made our renown go forth for our beauty, for it was perfect through the comeliness which he had put upon us. What a wonderful mercy was this, that the Lord should have made choice of Scotland, above all other lands, to be his peculiar covenanted people; and that he should have avouched us for his people, and caused us to avouch him to be our God, by a solemn covenant, and that so frequently; for at five several times did the Lord bring that land into covenant with him, and moved them to devote themselves to the Lord to be his, to own and stand for the crown, privileges, and prerogatives of Jesus Christ, to receive and submit to his doctrine, discipline, and government, and to have all things done in the house of the God of heaven, according to the mind and command of the God of heaven. This, sure, was a crown, whereof we might have gloried in the Lord above all people or nations, that are, or have been upon the face of the earth since the rejection of Israel. And what a singular dispensation of love and favour was it, that the Lord should have carried on this work so far, as at length to have brought the neighbour kingdoms of England and Ireland into the same bond of the covenant, whereby these islands became the Lord's in another manner, and more nighly related to him, than was the whole continent beside. Thus, were the uttermost parts of the earth given for a possession to Jesus Christ, in a singular

manner, as his peculiar subjects, openly and formally owning and acknowledging Christ as King in Zion, and as only head of the church,embracing his laws, ordinances, and institutions; and rejecting all men's inventions, all superstition, and dregs of popery, and every thing that materially or virtually did impugn, or was inconsistent with Christ's sole right and authority, as King and Lawgiver in his house and kingdom. And what a wonderful dispensation of providence was it, that the king himself should have become a covenanter with God, and that in these lands in their most public capacities, in their parliaments and high councils, should have owned this glorious and honourable relation and subjection to the Lord God! Was not this the peculiar glory of these lands, to have the God of the whole earth so nearly related unto, and engaged for them; and they to become his espoused land, his peculiar inheritance, and covenanted kingdoms! But now, behold, not only hath there been in the year 1660, and since,—a manifest, shameful, wicked, and impudent departing from our oaths, vows, covenants, promises, engagements, resolutions, declarations, attestations, proclamations, acts, and actings; and a doing contrary to what we had sworn, and that solemnly, with hands lifted up to the most High God, with direful imprecations if we should not stand to the covenant, and promised under the pain of all the curses contained in the book of God, and as we should answer to him in the great day, when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed, attesting the Searcher of hearts of the reality and sincerity of our intentions herein: but also, there hath been an open, deliberate, plain, and avowed renouncing of that covenant; a parliamentary annulling and rescinding of it, beside other affronts done unto it, as if we could not have been satisfied with a simple cancelling of our contract and obligation, and with an open declaring before all the world, angels, and men, that we would no more own the Lord Jehovah for our God, nor any longer abide his people, devoted unto him: but such was our wickedness, spite, and rage, that we would have the same covenant that was so solemnly sworn, and ordered to be printed and translated into Latin, that the nations about might see and understand in what relation we stood unto the great God, and what we had vowed and sworn to do and to be for him; yea, and affixed publicly, in an open place, in the parliament house of England, and in every church and chapel throughout the same, that parliaments, when assembled, might be kept mindful of their obligation, and steer their course in all their parliamentary consultations, deliberations, votes, and resolutions, according to the solemn league and covenant; and that people, when assembling to worship the Lord, might see and read their obligation, and remember their engagements to the Most High, before whom they were appearing,-such, I say was our rage, that we would have this covenant taken and burned publicly by the hand of a public hangman, (thus was it dealt with in England) in testimony of our souls' perfect and pure abhorrence of the same; for, a greater declaration of detestation and abhorrence could not be devised to be done to the most blasphemous, hellish, and devilish pamphlet that ever was or could be penned. O! will not the Lord God be witness against us, even the Lord from

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his holy temple? Was ever the like of this heard? Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this; be horribly afraid, and be very desolate, for we have not only forsaken the fountain of living waters, but we have done it with all the indignity and effrontery imaginable. Pass over the isles of Chittim and see, and send unto Kedar and consider diligently, and see if there be any such thing. Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods? But we have changed our glory for that which doth not profit.' Will not the Lord plead with us and with our children, yea, and with our children's children, upon this account? Will not the Lord deal with us, as we have done, who have thus despised the oath, in breaking the covenant? Will he not judge us with the judgments of a woman that breaketh wedlock, and give us blood in fury and jealousy? May we not fear that the righteous and jealous God shall punish us, till he make his fury towards us to rest, that all lands may be taught, not to do after our lewdness: and because we have forgotten him, and cast him behind our back, make us bear our lewdness and our whoredoms? Can this wickedness be paralleled in any history, divine or human? Where shall we read that the same individual persons who had so solemnly (what solemnity could be imagined to contribute to give a deeper impression of the weight and worth of the matter?) sworn and covenanted with God, upon no temptation, have so resolutely, deliberately, and wickedly, not only renounced the same, but also done it with such circumstances of solemnity as might bear a declaration to all the world, that this was no rash or inconsiderate deed, but deliberate rather, and such as they would own, avow, and stand to? What more could be devised to declare our open doing despite unto the Lord, and putting him, who is blessed for ever, to open shame? And where shall we find, that a people so solemnly engaged to God, have so quickly, so solemnly, and so formally renounced their interest in, and relation to Jehovah; and not only so, but also in their public and authoritative capacities compelled by laws, declarations, and penalties, all under them, to run with them to the same excess of perjury and wickedness; and not only materially break their vows, oaths, and covenants made to and with the living God, but even formally to renounce and abjure the same; that so the whole land, from the highest to the lowest, may come under this formal guilt of whoredom and apostasy, and lie under all the curses, plagues, and judgments denounced in the word against revolters from God, covenant-breakers, inquirers after vows, oathviolaters, treacherous dealers, perfidious backsliders, and forsakers of God? Should not this so heinous iniquity be testified against by all, who would not be charged with the guilt thereof, in the day of their appearance before the tribunal of Jesus Christ? And should not all, who have not utterly sinned away all the faith and fear of God, mourn, because of this abomination, and because of all the acts, declarations, or proclamations made by parliaments or councils to this end, and for carrying on of this design, lest they be charged with the guilt, and partake of the plagues that will undoubtedly fall upon the lands, because of this iniquity?-of which, if any doubt, let them weigh in the balance of judgment and of the sanctuary, these few of

many passages, pointing forth both the heinousness of the sin, and the dreadfulness of the judgments attending it :-Deut. iv. 23-28. Ezek. xvi. throughout. Ezek. xvii. 11-22. Deut. xxix. throughout. 1 Kings xix. 10, 14-17. Psal. lv. 19, 20, 23. and Ixxviii. 37, 56-64. Jer. xi. 2-4, 8-12. Jer. xxii. 5-12. and xxxiv. 8. to the end. Hos. iv. 2, 3. and x. 4. Zech. v. 3, 4. Rom. i. 31. 1 Kings xi. 11. Josh. ix. 15, 19. compared with 2 Sam. xxi. 1— 10. 2 Kings xvii. 14-18, &c. Judg. ii. 20, 21. Amos i. 9, 10. Josh. xxiii. 16. Hos. vi. 7-10. and viii. 1. Deut. xxiii. 21, 23. Prov. xx. 25. Eccles. v. 4. Levit. xxvi. 25.

II." Next, That work of reformation, public and private, in church and in state, which was intended by the covenant obligation, and in the same sworn to be endeavoured by all ranks of people, in their several places and capacities, was, so long as we remained faithful and singlehearted in prosecuting the ends of the covenant, owned and countenanced of the Lord;-endeavours to promove it were blessed, and the work was carried on with signal demonstrations and appearances of the Lord from heaven, to the comfort and establishment of his people, and to the conviction and terror of enemics. The Lord was

with us and for us, fighting our battles, so long as we were with him, and abode faithful in our engagement. And this work, thus owned, countenanced, and carried on by the signal hand of divine providence with remarkable success and great glory, did lift us up in the eyes of the nations, who looked upon us with amazement, wondering at the great things the Lord was pleased to do for us and among us, and drew all their eyes upon us, when they observed such an extraordinary dispensation of divine power, love, and grace among us. And as we were thus looked upon by other reformed churches, as a pattern worthy to be imitated, and as the measure of their desires and wishes; so, we became the greater terror unto the kingdom of antichrist, and all the followers of the beast and of the false prophets; being so closely knit and united in such a sure bond and covenant, and obliged by sacred oaths to extirpate that abomination, root and branch; and against every thing that might countenance the same, or contribute the least to its approbation or establishment. But, oh! now how are the tables turned, all of a sudden! How is this whole work overthrown! How are the bulwarks of our defence against popery removed! And how is the work of reformation, that had cost no small expense of blood, watchings, tears, prayers, and fastings, overturned in a moment, yea, and razed to the very foundations! How are we now become a laughing stock, the reformed churches wondering and amazed at our inconstancy; and papists rejoicing in the hope of reducing again under the yoke of the Roman antichrist, all these lands, once sworn away and solemnly devoted unto the Lord! How are these locusts now, finding this advantage, strenuously playing their game, and diligently plying their time, and that with such success, that, if the Lord prevent it not, they cannot miss their end, and fail of their intentions, and so at length come again unto their wonted cruelty and bloody practices, even to imbrue their hands in the blood of protestants, and re-act their former bloody tragical massacres, to the establishing of the

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