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i ch. 15. 1, 6, 7. & 19. 7.
k Gal. 4. 26. Heb. 12. 22. ch. 1. 10.
23 12 8 21.1.
1 Εzek. 48. 31.
9 : Καὶ ἦλθεν εἷς τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀγγέλων τῶν ἐχόντων τὰς ἑπτὰ φιάλας γεμούσας τῶν ἑπτὰ πληγῶν τῶν ἐσχάτων, καὶ ἐλάλησε μετ ̓ ἐμοῦ λέγων, Δεῦρο, δείξω σοι τὴν νύμφην, τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ ̓Αρνίου.
10 * Καὶ ἀπήνεγκέ με ἐν πνεύματι ἐπὶ ὄρος μέγα καὶ ὑψηλὸν, καὶ ἔδειξέ μοι τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίαν Ἱερουσαλὴμ, καταβαίνουσαν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ, 11 ἔχουσαν τὴν δόξαν τοῦ Θεοῦ· ὁ φωστήρ αὐτῆς ὅμοιος λίθῳ τιμιωτάτῳ, ὡς λίθῳ ἰάσπιδι κρυσταλλίζοντι· 12 ' ἔχουσα τεῖχος μέγα καὶ ὑψηλὸν, ἔχουσαν πυλῶνας δώδεκα, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς πυλῶσιν ἀγγέλους δώδεκα, καὶ ὀνόματα ἐπιγε. γραμμένα, ἃ ἐστι τῶν δώδεκα φυλῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ· 13 ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν πυλῶνες τρεῖς, καὶ ἀπὸ βοῤῥᾶ πυλῶνες τρεῖς, καὶ ἀπὸ νότου πυλῶνες τρεῖς, καὶ ἀπὸ * May 16. 18. δυσμῶν πυλῶνες τρεῖς· 14 m καὶ τὸ τεῖχος τῆς πόλεως ἔχον θεμελίους δώδεκα, καὶ ἐπ ̓ αὐτῶν δώδεκα ὀνόματα τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῦ ̓Αρνίου.
Eph. 2. 19, 20.
Further Description of the BRIDE, or the HOLY CITY, the New, Heavenly, JERUSALEM.
9-27.] And one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues came and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will show thee the Bride, the Lamb's wife.
And he carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the Holy City, Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; and having a wall great and high, and having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve Angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve Tribes of the children of Israel. On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. And the wall of the city hath twelve foundations, and in them the names of the Twelve Apostles of the Lamb.
And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof. And the city lieth foursquare, and the length as large as the breadth; and he measured the city with the reed, to twelve thousand furlongs; the length and the breadth and the height of it are equal. And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred fortyfour cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an angel.
And the building of the wall of it is jasper: and the city pure gold, like unto clear glass.
And the foundations of the wall of the city are garnished with every precious stone. The first foundation, jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald ; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprasus ; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst.
And the twelve gates are twelve pearls; every several gate of one pearl and the street of the city pure gold, as it were transparent glass.
And temple saw I none in her for the Lord God Almighty is her temple, and the Lamb (is her temple). And the city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten her, and the Lamb is her lamp.
And the Gentiles shall walk through her light: and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honour unto her. And her gates shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there. And they shall bring the glory and honour of the Gentiles into her. And there shall in no wise enter into her any thing that defileth, and he that worketh abomination, or a lie; but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life.
9. καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς] And one of the Seven Angels came: observe the contrast of this Vision with that above, xvii. 1. In that Vision, the faithless Church is displayed; in this Vision, the faithful Church. Let the two Visions be placed side by side, and no doubt can be entertained of the writer's design to contrast the one with the other.
Here is the Νύμφη, or Bride, contrasted with the Πόρνη, οι
Here is the Holy City, contrasted with the Great City.
Here is the great and lofty Mountain, on which the one sits in security for ever, contrasted with the dreary Wilderness and the tumultuous Waters (vv. 1 and 15), on which the other is enthroned, Here is the Bride espoused to the Lamb, contrasted with the Harlot seated on the Beast.
The one is a Church; the other is a Church also. The one faithful to Christ her Lord; the other unfaithful to Him. The one is the true Catholic Church; the other is that Church which usurps the name.
Both these Visions are displayed by one of the Angels who had the Seven Vials, full of the seven last plagues. The Angels who had the Vials were executioners of divine Judgments on the empire of the faithless Church (see xvi. 119); but their work is completed in a Vision of divine Love, the Vision of the faithful Church in glory.
10. τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίαν] the holy City: so the best MSS. and Editions. Elz. has μεγάλην, the great City; but that phrase is restricted in the Apocalypse to the mystical Babylon. See xi. 8; xviii. 10. 16.
11. φωστήρ] her light; like to a most precious stone, to s jasper like crystal; as God Himself was described above, iv. 3. This is the Light of which he here speaks, see v. 23, where the LAMB is called its λύχνος, or Lamp; and compare Isa. Ix. 19, The LORD will be to it for an eternal light ;" and Ezek. xliii. 26. On the word φωστήρ, see above, Phil. ii. 15.
13. ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν] On the east, three gates: the city has three gates on each of its four sides. The heavenly City turns an equal face to each of the four quarters of heaven, showing the equality of God's favour to all, and the Universality of the Church. Many will enter the Holy City from all the four quarters of the world. 'Many will come from the East and the West, from the North and the South, and sit down with Abra ham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of God" (Luke xiii. 29).
There are three gates on each side, as in the vision of Ezekiel (xlviii. 30-34). These three gates may signify (as some ancient Interpreters suggest) that the Entrance into the Church is by Faith, publicly professed in Baptism into the Name of the Three Persons, the FATHER, the SON, and the HOLY GHOST (Matt. xxviii. 19).
The number Three bespeaks the number of Divine Persons in the Ever-Blessed Trinity; the number Four represents all space lying within the Four corners of the Earth (see note at end of chap. xi.); and the number Twelve, being the product of Three multiplied into Four, represents the Twelve Apostles and their lawful successors in an Apostolic Ministry, who were sent by Christ with a commission to "go and teach all Nations" in the four quarters of the Earth, baptizing them in the Name of the Triune God. “These are the labourers (says Aug. in Ps. Ixix.) who were to be sent on a Mission to the four corners of the Earth, to bring them into the one Faith of the EverBlessed Trinity.” See above, on Matt, x. 1.
Therefore the Twelve Apostles are mentioned as the Twelve foundations of the Universal Church glorifed in heaven.
14. θεμελίους δώδεκα] twelve foundations : or foundation. stones (so that there would be three on each side of the City; cp. v. 19, 20), and in them twelve names of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb. Compare the three standards of three of the Twelve Tribes on each of the Four sides of the Tabernacle. See above, on iv. 4. On the ellipse of λίθοι ep. Eph. ii. 29. This is the foundation of the Church glorified, the City
15 η Καὶ ὁ λαλῶν μετ ̓ ἐμοῦ εἶχε κάλαμον χρυσοῦν, ἵνα μετρήσῃ τὴν πόλιν, καὶ η Ezek. 40. 3. τοὺς πυλῶνας αὐτῆς, καὶ τὸ τεῖχος αὐτῆς.
Zech. 2. 1.
16 ° Καὶ ἡ πόλις τετράγωνος κεῖται, καὶ τὸ μῆκος αὐτῆς ὅσον καὶ τὸ πλάτος· ο Eph. 3. 18. καὶ ἐμέτρησε τὴν πόλιν τῷ καλάμῳ ἐπὶ σταδίων δώδεκα χιλιάδων· τὸ μῆκος καὶ τὸ πλάτος καὶ τὸ ὕψος αὐτῆς ἰσά ἐστι,
17 Καὶ ἐμέτρησε τὸ τεῖχος αὐτῆς ἑκατὸν τεσσαρακοντατεσσάρων πηχῶν, μέτρον ἀνθρώπου, ὅ ἐστιν ἀγγέλου.
18 Καὶ ἦν ἡ ἐνδόμησις τοῦ τείχους αὐτῆς ἴασπις· καὶ ἡ πόλις χρυσίον καθαρὸν ὅμοιον ὑάλῳ καθαρῷ.
19 Καὶ οἱ θεμέλιοι τοῦ τείχους τῆς πόλεως παντὶ λίθῳ τιμίῳ κεκοσμημένοι· ὁ θεμέλιος ὁ πρῶτος ἴασπις, ὁ δεύτερος σάπφειρος, ὁ τρίτος χαλκηδών, ὁ τέταρτος
which hath the foundations-that for which the Patriarchs looked-whose Builder and Maker is God (Heb. xi. 10).
Here is a proof that no one Apostle is the foundation-stone of the Church; much less can he be the foundation itself, which is CHRIST; see above, on 1 Cor. iii. 2. 12, and Eph. ii. 20, and on Matt. x. 2, and xvi. 18. See also above, the description of the Church, displayed as wearing a crown of Twelve stars, xii. 1.
The names of the Twelve Apostles of the Lamb, engraven on the foundations of the new Jerusalem, show that the Twelve Apostles are the Patriarchs of the Tribes of the true Israel, and that the glory of Sion has passed into the Christian Church.
This truth is also exhibited by the quality of these Twelve Foundation-stones. They are Twelve precious stones; and they are mainly the same precious stones as those which adorned the sacred Breastplate of the High Priest, and on which the names of the Twelve Tribes of Israel were engraved, Exod. xxviii. 15-21. The breastplate of the Hebrew High Priest, garnished with its oracular gems, was like a beautiful garment which might be put off; but these Apostolic precious stones of the Twelve Tribes of the Israel of God are immoveably set as the very foundation-stones of the heavenly Jerusalem, and are inscribed with the names of the Apostles, who are the progenitors and Fathers of the Spiritual Israel; because by preaching the Word, and by the life-giving Sacraments of the Gospel, they execute the ministry of Regeneration, by which Christ Himself is formed and born in all Nations of the world. See above, on xii. 5. Matt. xxviii. 19. The Heavenly City is built on these Twelve Foundationstones. Therefore whosoever is not built on the foundation of Apostolic Faith and Discipline is not a lively stone in the heavenly Jerusalem,
16. ἐπὶ σταδίων δώδεκα χιλιάδων] unto stadia of twelve thousands: that is, extending to (Winer, § 49, p. 363) stadia of 12,000, the genitive of the quality (Winer, § 34, p. 212). This amount expresses the dimensions of the City in every direction, height, breadth, and length. See Andreas, Bengel, Hengstenberg.
The number twelve thousand has already been used to signify the Apostolic company of those sealed from each of the twelve tribes (see vii. 5-8); and this solid cubical form of the City (as distinct from the walls) denotes the perfection of that number.
In those three dimensions some ancient Interpreters supposed a symbolical reference to the spiritual graces and qualities of the Christian Church. Here (say Primasius, Bede, and Haymo) the solidity of Truth is represented, on which the Church is firmly built, in the length of Faith, the breadth of Charity, and the height of Hope, so as not to be moved by any winds of doctrine; and where any one of these dimensions is lacking, the perfect stability of the Church does not exist. Cp. Eph. iii. 18.
17. ἐμέτρησε τὸ τεῖχος αὐτῆς] He measured her wall : he had just been speaking of the measuring of the City; that is, of the whole glorious assemblage of buildings and suburbs of the heavenly Jerusalem, like pure gold (v. 18), illuminated by the glory of God.
But, as the literal Jerusalem had an inner wall or fortification (reixos), the city of David, so has the heavenly Sion.
as now, by any carnal and earthly calculations, but by a spiritual and divine Arithmetic, and by a heavenly and angelic Mensuration. They will measure all things with the Golden Reed of Divine Knowledge, like that in the hands of the Angel measuring the heavenly City.
18. évdóμnois] The superstructure of the Wall is jasper. The word évdóunois occurs in Josephus (Ant. xv. 9. 6), who applies it to the superstructure of a mole of a harbour. It is that part of the walls which is built on the foundations. On the jasper, see iv. 3, and here v. 19.
He had spoken (in vv. 12. 15) of the Gates and Foundations of this wall. He then proceeded to describe the dimensions of the City; and he now specifies the height of the Wall, which is 144,000 cubits.
- μéтроv ȧv0рúπov] measure of a man, which is also measure of an Angel. In the heavenly City men will be equal to the Angels (Luke xx. 36). They themselves will be like unto Angels in measure and stature, and in all the qualities and graces of soul and body; and they will reckon and measure all things, not, VOL. II.-PART IV.
19. oi eμéxio] The foundations of the wall of the City are adorned with every precious stone; according to the typical adornment of the literal Temple of Jerusalem (1 Kings x. 2. 10, 11), and to the prophecy of Isaiah, liv. 11, 12. Cp. Tobit xiii. 16-18.
- ¿ Oεμéλios & πрŵros] The first foundation-stone of jasper, the second sapphire.
These Twelve Foundations appear to be the same as those mentioned above, as engraven with the names of the Twelve Apostles of the Lamb. See v. 14, and note.
St. John has already said, in v. 19, that the Foundation was garnished with every precious stone, and then he specified twelve precious stones, indicating that the Twelve Apostolic Foundations represent every spiritual grace bestowed by God upon His faithful servants, who are His Jewels (Mal. iii. 17). In the variety and beauty of the precious stones is symbolized the ToλUTOKIOS ropía of God (Eph. iii. 10), and His multiform love in supplying all the xapiruara, gifts and graces (Rom. xii. 6. 1 Cor. xii, 4-9. 28. 30), vouchsafed by Him to the several Apostles, and shining in brilliant lustre in their several places, like Jewels set in beautiful symmetry and harmony, for the adorning of the heavenly Jerusalem, and laid in strength and stedfastness for its solid construction, and everlasting endurance.
A description of these precious Stones is given by S. Epiphanius, de xii. gemmis Rationalis (Toû λoyelov).
See also the xxxviith book of Pliny's Natural History; and the Treatise of Faustino Corsi, Pietre Antiche, Roma, 1828, p. 137 seqq., and the authorities quoted here by Wetstein, N. T. ii. pp. 843-845.
The Jasper has been specified above in the description of the glorious appearance of God; and also the Sardine Stone, iv. 3.
The Sapphire (celestial blue, lapis-lazzuli, i. e. l'azzurro, or azure) is mentioned in the description of the pavement under the feet of God in Exod. xxiv. 10, and in the description of His Throne, Ezek. i. 26. Plin. xxxvii. 39, "in sapphiris aurum punctis collucet cæruleis."
The Emerald, oμápaydos, has been described above, iv. 3. The Sardonyx is mentioned Exod. xxxix. 13. Ezek. xxviii. 13, of a flesh colour, tinged with hues of white. Plin. xxxvii. 23. The Sardius has been described above, iv. 3.
The Chrysolite is mentioned in Ezek. xxviii. 20; it is described by Pliny, 1. c. c. 42, as "brilliant, like the lustre of gold."
The Beryl: see Exod. xxviii. 20. Ezek. xxviii. 13; it is rendered by the LXX in Gen. ii. 12 by xíeos pάowos, and is described by Pliny (1. c. c. 20) as like sea-green.
The Topaz, Exod. xxviii. 17. Ezek. xxviii. 13. Job xxviii. 19, described by Strabo and others in Wetst. p. 845, as like gold; and by others as having a bright green tinge like glass.
The Chrysoprasus is compared by Pliny (xxxvii. 20) to the beryl, but more pale; and yet has a tint of the purple Amethyst. The Jacinth has been described above, ix. 17.
The Amethyst, Exod. xxviii. 19, of a purple or violet colour. As was already observed on v. 14, the Twelve precious Stones here specified, appear to be the same, or nearly so, as those on the Breastplate of the High Priest, Exod. xxviii. 17-20.
p Isa. 60. 19. Zech. 14. 7. ch. 22. 5.
q Isa. 60. 3.
s Exod. 32. 32. Ps. 69. 29.
σμάραγδος, 20 ὁ πέμπτος σαρδόνυξ, ὁ ἕκτος σάρδιον, ὁ ἕβδομος χρυσόλιθος, ὁ ὄγδοος βήρυλλος, ὁ ἔννατος τοπάζιον, ὁ δέκατος χρυσόπρασος, ὁ ἑνδέκατος ὑάκινθος, ὁ δωδέκατος ἀμέθυστος.
21 Καὶ οἱ δώδεκα πυλῶνες δώδεκα μαργαρίται, ἀνὰ εἰς ἕκαστος τῶν πυλώνων ἦν ἐξ ἑνὸς μαργαρίτου· καὶ ἡ πλατεῖα τῆς πόλεως χρυσίον καθαρὸν ὡς ύαλος διαυγής.
22 Καὶ ναὸν οὐκ εἶδον ἐν αὐτῇ· ὁ γὰρ Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ ὁ ναὸς αὐτῆς ἐστι, καὶ τὸ ̓Αρνίον. 23 P Καὶ ἡ πόλις οὐ χρείαν ἔχει τοῦ ἡλίου οὐδὲ τῆς σελήνης, ἵνα φαίνωσιν αὐτῇ· ἡ γὰρ δόξα τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐφώτισεν αὐτὴν, καὶ ὁ λύχνος αὐτῆς τὸ ̓Αρνίον.
24 4 Καὶ περιπατήσουσι τὰ ἔθνη διὰ τοῦ φωτὸς αὐτῆς· καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς ΣΙΑ: 60 11, 20. φέρουσι τὴν δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν αὐτῶν εἰς αὐτήν· 25 · καὶ οἱ πυλῶνες αὐτῆς οὐ μὴ κλεισθῶσιν ἡμέρας, νὺξ γὰρ οὐκ ἔσται ἐκεῖ· 26 καὶ οἴσουσι τὴν δόξαν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰς αὐτήν· 27· καὶ οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτὴν πᾶν κοινὸν, καὶ ποιῶν βδέλυγμα καὶ ψεῦδος, εἰ μὴ οἱ γεγραμμένοι ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ 4 15 5 4 20. 12. τῆς ζωῆς τοῦ ̓Αρνίου.
Isa. 35. 8.
Joel 3. 17.
Phil. 4. 3. ch. 3. 5.
& 22. 14, 15.
a Ezek. 47. 1.
Zech. 14. 8.
b Gen. 2. 9.
Ezek. 47. 12.
ch. 2. 7.
& 21. 21.
XXII. 1' Καὶ ἔδειξέ μοι ποταμὸν ὕδατος ζωῆς λαμπρὸν ὡς κρύσταλλον, ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκ τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ̓Αρνίου. 25 Εν μέσῳ τῆς πλατείας αὐτῆς καὶ τοῦ ποταμοῦ, ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐκεῖθεν, ξύλον ζωῆς, ποιοῦν καρποὺς
Three are mentioned there, which seem to be designated here under other names, viz. the ἄνθραξ (carbunculus), λιγύριον | (λυγκούριον), and ἀχάτης. Many ancient Writers were of opinion | that the Chalcedony mentioned here is a species of Carbunculus ; and that the Jacinth of the Apocalypse is the same as the λιγύριον, and the chrysoprasus is similar to the ἀχάτης, on which see Plin. xxxvii. 54 ; and cp. the authorities in Cornelius à Lapide here.
Some other ancient Expositors have said, that the precious stones of the Aaronic Breastplate are mainly the same as those of the Heavenly Jerusalem; but that there are some differences between the two; and that thus the substantial identity of the Law and the Gospel is represented with some circumstantial variety. See Andreas here in Catenâ, p. 485.
All the glories of the Gospel shine, blended together in a heavenly splendour, on the Breastplate of our Great High Priest, Christ Jesus; all the Graces of Christians are like spangles and scintillations, effulgences and emanations, from His ineffable brightness; and their names are engraven upon His heart (Cant. viii. 6); and here they are set for ever in the foundations of the City of God.
Some ancient Expositors have proceeded to distinguish the symbolical meaning of these several jewels as follows: jasper, an emblem of the brightness of faith ; sapphire, of hope; chalcedony, the flame of love.
Some have endeavoured to discover a symbolical representation of the special gifts of the several Apostles in those precious stones; but this seems to be an attempt of vain curiosity.
Their meaning may be more fully revealed hereafter in the Heavenly City itself. It is now enough to know that the City is adorned with every precious stone; that nothing is wanting in the Church for her growth in grace here, and for her everlasting glory hereafter.
22. ναὸν οὐκ εἶδον] Temple saw I none in her, for God is all in all, 1 Cor. xv. 28. God Himself is her Temple, and the Lamb: a proof of Christ's Divinity.
24. καὶ περιπατήσουσι] and the Gentiles shall walk through her light. "The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light, upon them hath the light shined " (Isa. ix. 2). The people who were covered with gross darkness, on them hath the light shined. "The Gentiles have come to Thy Light, and Kings to the brightness of Thy rising" (Isa. lx. 3); and they "shall walk through the light;" it shall be their element and atmosphere; they will be bathed in a pure ocean of cloudless light.
Some Versions render dià, by means of; but this seems too weak a translation; διὰ is used here as in 2 Cor. viii. 18, διὰ πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν, Acts xiii. 49. Cp. Winer, § 47, p. 338 ; and Andreas here explains the words by ἐν τῷ φωτί.
The sense may be well explained from Isa. lx. 15. 19, "Whereas thou hast been forsaken, and hated, so that no man went through thee, I will make thee an eternal excellency, -the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory."
which began to be fulflled at the Epiphany of Christ, when the
their glory and honour into her.
25. οἱ πυλῶνες αὐτῆς] Her gates shall not be shut by day: for there shall be no night there. The γὰρ, for, explains the gates shall not be shut by day;" and he does not add, "or by reason why he had not mentioned night as well as day. night,"-for, "night shall not be there."
The Church of Christ shall have no longer any enemies to fear; her people will be secure for ever from the assaults of Sin Poets sang of, as a Vision of the Golden Age, with its "apertis and Satan. Cp. Isa. lx. 11. Zech. xiv. 7. What the ancient otia portis,” will then be fully realized.
Observe that the Gates of the heavenly City are not called by
26.] Cp. Isa. lx. 6-13; lxvi. 12.
The RIVER of LIFE. The TREE of LIFE. CH. XXII. 1, 2. καὶ ἔδειξέ μοι] And he showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb; and in the midst of the broadway thereof the tree of life. Contrast this with the πλατεία, or broadway,
δώδεκα, κατὰ μῆνα ἕκαστον ἀποδιδοῦν τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ φύλλα τοῦ ξύλου εἰς θεραπείαν τῶν ἐθνῶν.
& Matt. 5. 3
3 Καὶ πᾶν κατάθεμα οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι· καὶ ὁ θρόνος τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ̓Αρνίου ἐν © Zech. 14. 11. αὐτῇ ἔσται· καὶ οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτοῦ λατρεύσουσιν αὐτῷ, 44 καὶ ὄψονται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν· δ° καὶ νὺξ οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι, καὶ οὐχ ἕξουσι χρείαν λύχνου καὶ φωτὸς, ὅτι Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς φωτιεῖ ἐπ' αὐτοὺς, καὶ βασιλεύσουσιν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.
1 Cor. 13. 12.
Isa. 60. 19, 20. Zech. 14. 6, 7. ch. 21. 23.
& 19. 9. & 21. 5.
6' Καὶ εἶπέ μοι, Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι πιστοὶ καὶ ἀληθινοί· καὶ Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς τῶν τα 1 1. πνευμάτων τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλε τὸν ἄγγελον αὐτοῦ δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει 75 καὶ ἰδοὺ ἔρχομαι ταχύ μακάριος ὁ τηρῶν g ch. 1. 3. & 3.11. à év τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου.
Κἀγὼ Ἰωάννης ὁ ἀκούων καὶ βλέπων ταῦτα· καὶ ὅτε ἤκουσα καὶ ἔβλεπον, η Acts 10. 26. ἔπεσα προσκυνῆσαι ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν τοῦ ἀγγέλου τοῦ δεικνύοντός μοι δη. 19. 10.
of the Great City, where the dead bodies of the Two Witnesses lay (xi. 8).
Here the types of Paradise, as depicted in the Old Testament (see Gen. ii. 9, 10; iii. 22), are fulfilled. Here is the Tree of Life, and the River flowing out of Eden. Here, therefore, is a testimony to the truth and divine origin of the History of Genesis.
Here also is an evidence of the harmonious symmetry and perfect unity of Holy Scripture, from the beginning of Genesis, the first book of the Old Testament, to the end of the Apocalypse, the last book of the New.
The Two Witnesses agree in their testimony. The Book of Genesis reveals Almighty God, the Creator of all things very good; Adam, formed from the earth; Eve, taken from his side; the Serpent in Paradise; Man tempted, and a curse pronounced on him for disobedience in eating the fruit of the forbidden tree; and driven from Eden; and the way of the Tree of Life guarded by a flaming sword; and the promise made in mercy, that the seed of the Woman should bruise the Serpent's head.
Pass now from the first chapters of Genesis to the last of the Apocalypse. The same God is revealed, seated on His throne: Heaven and Earth adore Him: Man also is there; Adam is there in Christ, the Second Adam: Eve also is there, in the Bride of the Second Adam, the Church: Paradise also is there, not lost, but regained and the Tree of Life, no longer fenced with a flaming brand, but open to all, for the healing of the nations. And there "is no more curse.'
We have also seen the discomfiture of the Old Serpent (xx. 2).
According to the first prophecy of Scripture, Christ has bruised the Serpent's head, and has chained him, and has cast him into the lake of fire and brimstone, there to remain for ever (xx. 10).
Here is clear evidence of oneness in the design and texture of the Sacred Volume; and when we consider, that a period of more than five thousand years separates the events of the Book of Genesis from those of the Apocalypse, we may here recognize a proof, that the History and the Prophecy are from the same Divine Hand, and that the events which they describe are under the control of Him with Whom "a thousand Years are as one Day." (Ps. xc. 4. 2 Pet. iii. 8.)
The River of Life flows from the throne of God and the Lamb. All grace and glory given to men flows from the Father, through the Son. See above on 2 Cor. xiii. 13.
In the earthly Paradise there were four rivers issuing from one source, and flowing out of Eden.
There is but one River in the Heavenly City; and it does not flow out of the City. All drink there of the same joys as out of a river (Ps. xxxvi. 8); and no one who is outside the city can taste them; see v. 15.
The River of life flows through the broadway of the City, and the Tree of Life stands on each side of the River, and bears perennial fruitage, in never-ending succession; expressed by every month," and "twelve fruits:" and this supply is accessible to all, to satisfy the hunger and thirst of all for life everlasting. "Blessed are they that do hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled." (Matt. v. 6.)
• тà púλλа тоû ¿úλov] the leaves of the Tree are for the healing of the Nations. The Tree of Life in the midst of the heavenly Jerusalem, is like a pattern of the Cross of Christ, on the Earthly Calvary, which was outside the literal Jerusalem. For the virtue
& 14. 14.
of the Cross is not limited to the Jews, but it extends to all Nations of the Earth, who are within the Christian Sion. Here is "gloria sanctæ crucis," says Bede, through the ministry of the Apostles. In the preaching of the Gospel, the Tree of the Cross is ever bearing leaves for the healing of the Nations. Cp. Aug. ? The Cross of Christ was outside the literal Jerusalem, because Christ died for all who, in the day of grace, would believe in Him. (1 Tim. iv. 10.)
But the Tree of Life is in the inside of the heavenly Jerusalem; for it is accessible only to those who, in the time of their earthly probation, have accepted God's offers in Christ.
The Tree of Life in the book of Genesis, and the Cross of Christ, are both described by the same word, túλov. Cp. Gen. ii. 9, LXX, and Gal. iii. 13, where see note. 1 Pet. ii. 24.
By eating of the fruit of the forbidden Tree, the first Adam was excluded from Paradise, and from access to the Tree of Life. But the Obedience of the Second Adam more than compensated for the Disobedience of the First Adam. Christ, by His Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, and by hanging on the Tree in Calvary, and by His glorious Resurrection from the Grave in the Garden, has restored us to Paradise and raised us to Heaven. The Tree of His Death has become to us the Tree of Life. It grows on both sides of the river, because it is efficacious for the salvation of all men in every age and country. The Cross of Christ is like the Cities of Refuge on both sides of the River Jordan (Deut. xix. Josh. xx.). It bears fruits for Eternity; its leaves are for the healing of the Nations, who before were "without Christ, aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, strangers from the covenants of promise" (Eph. ii. 12), like the traveller on his journey from Jerusalem to Jericho, lying half dead by the wayside (see Luke x. 30); but now they are made nigh by the blood of Christ, and are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints (Eph. ii. 13. 19), and have come unto Mount Sion, unto the City of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of Angels, to the general assembly and Church of the first-born, which are written in heaven" (Heb. xii. 22, 23); in the "Jerusalem which is above, which is the Mother of us all" (Gal. iv. 26).
3. καὶ πᾶν κατάθεμα οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι] And there shall no more be any curse. In Paradise, Almighty God pronounced a curse on the first Adam after the Fall. "Cursed is the ground for thy sake in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life" obedience, in eating of the forbidden Tree. But the Second (Gen. iii. 17). That curse was pronounced on him for his disAdam, Who died on the Tree, has taken away, by His obedience, the curse pronounced on the first Adam and his race for disobedience. It was indeed said, "Cursed is he that continueth not in all that is written in the Law," and "Cursed is he that hangeth on a tree" (Deut. xxvii. 26; xxi. 23). But by "being made a curse for us," Christ has taken away the curse, that all
may be blessed in Him, and live for evermore (see on Gal. iii.
4. καὶ ὄψονται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ] and they shall see His Then face, the face of God; which the wicked will never see. faith will be swallowed up in sight; in the beatific Vision of God. And His Name shall be upon their foreheads-an eternal trophy of their Victory and glorious reward in heaven for their constancy and courage in boldly confessing Him before men. Cp. note above on xiii. 16.
7. idoù Epxoμaι Taxú] Behold, I come quickly: and still He is not yet come. See above, i. 1, and 2 Pet. iii. 8.
i Dan. 8. 26.
& 12. 4. ch. 1. 3. k 2 Tim. 3. 23.
1 Isa. 40. 10. & 62. 11.
ch. 20. 12.
m Isa. 41. 4.
Ο Καὶ λέγει μοι, Ορα μή σύνδουλός σου εἰμὶ, καὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν σου τῶν προφητῶν, καὶ τῶν τηρούντων τοὺς λόγους τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου· τῷ Θεῷ προσκύνησον.
10 : Καὶ λέγει μοι, Μὴ σφραγίσῃς τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου· ὁ καιρὸς γὰρ ἐγγύς ἐστιν· 11 * ὁ ἀδικῶν ἀδικησάτω ἔτι, καὶ ὁ ῥυπαρὸς ῥυπαρευθήτω ἔτι· καὶ ὁ δίκαιος δικαιοσύνην ποιησάτω ἔτι, καὶ ὁ ἅγιος ἁγια 8 σθήτω ἔτι· 12' ἰδοὺ, ἔρχομαι ταχὺ, καὶ ὁ μισθός μου μετ ̓ ἐμοῦ, ἀποô δοῦναι ἑκάστῳ ὡς τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῦ ἔσται. 13 m Ἐγὼ τὸ ̓Αλφα καὶ τὸ Ω, ἀρχὴ
Στα 448. 11. καὶ τέλος, ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος.
ch. 1. 8, 11.
& 21. 6.
n1 John 3. 23.
14 η Μακάριοι οἱ ποιοῦντες τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ, ἵνα ἔσται ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς, καὶ τοῖς πυλῶσιν εἰσέλθωσιν εἰς τὴν πόλιν. 15 ο *Εξω οἱ κύνες καὶ οἱ φαρμακοὶ, καὶ οἱ πόρνοι καὶ οἱ φονεῖς, καὶ οἱ εἰδωλολάτραι, καὶ πᾶς φιλῶν καὶ ποιῶν ψεῦδος.
16 P'Eyà tòv Ἐγὼ Ἰησοῦς ἔπεμψα τὸν ἀγγελόν μου μαρτυρῆσαι ὑμῖν ταῦτα ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις· ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ῥῖζα καὶ τὸ γένος Δαυΐδ, ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ λαμπρὸς ὁ πρωvμîv
9. opa un] see thou do it not.
See note above, on xix. 10. σúvdovλós σov eiuí] I am the fellow-servant of thee, and of thy brethren the Prophets.
The Prophets were St. John's brethren, and this spiritual brotherhood is displayed in the Apocalypse. He and they were inspired by the same Spirit, and, as is here observed by an ancient Expositor, how many words of Isaiah, how many words of Zechariah, do we read in this book of St. John!" See above, Introduction, pp. 150-152.
Here is one of the many uses of the Apocalypse, "the Revelation of JESUS CHRIST" (i. 1). In it Jesus Christ Himself, the Everlasting WORD of God, avouches the Divine Inspiration of the Old Testament. Here the Incarnate Word sets His seal on the Written Word. By adopting the language of the ancient Hebrew Prophets in the Apocalypse, and by using it as His own, He proclaims it to be the language of God.
10. μὴ σφραγίσῃς τους λόγους] Seal not the words of the Prophecy of this Book. For the reason of this prohibition see above, on x. 4.
11. ¿ ádikŵv adiknoάтw ĕri] he that is unjust, let him be unjust still, and he that is righteous, let him work righteousness still. Elz. has dikαiwonτw here; but A, B have dikaιoσúvηy Tоinσάтw, and so many other MSS. and several Versions, and Griesb., Scholz, Lach., Tisch.
Here is a remarkable testimony to the liberty of the human will; and this testimony is coupled with emphatic declarations of the abundance and freeness of divine grace (see v. 17).
These words supply a Divine reply to the objection made by some to the Christian Dispensation, on the plea of the prevalence of evil in countries professing Christianity, and using Christianity itself as a pretext for the commission of evil.
"The objections against all this (says Bishop Butler), from the perversion of Christianity, and from the supposition of its having had but little good influence, however innocently they may be proposed, yet cannot be insisted upon as conclusive, upon any principles but such as lead to downright Atheism, because the manifestation of the law of nature by reason, which upon all principles of Theism, must have been from God, has been perverted and rendered ineffectual in the same manner. indeed, I think, truly be said, that the good effects of Christianity have not been small; nor its supposed ill effects, any effects at all of it, properly speaking. Perhaps too, the things themselves done have been exaggerated, and if not, Christianity hath been often only a pretence; and the same evils, in the main, would have been done upon some other pretence. However, great and shocking as the corruptions and abuses of it have really been, they cannot be insisted upon as arguments against it, upon principles of Theism. For one cannot proceed one step in reasoning upon Natural Religion, any more than upon Christianity, without laying it down as a first principle, that the Dispensations of Providence are not to be judged of by their perversions, but by their genuine tendencies; not by what they do actually seem to effect, but by what they would effect, if Mankind did their part: that part, which is justly put and left upon them. It is altogether as much the language of one as the other: he that is unjust, let him be unjust still, and he that is holy, let him be holy still' (Rev. xxii. 11). The Light of Reason does not, any more than that of Revelation, force men to submit to its authority: both admonish them of what they ought to do and avoid, together with
liberty to act just as they please, till the appointed time of the consequences of each, and after this they leave them at full general rule of Government" (Bishop Butler, Analog. part ii. Judgment. Every moment's experience shows, that this is God's ch. i.).
12. ὁ μισθός μου μετ ̓ ἐμοῦ] My reward is with Me. See Isa. xl. 10; liii. 11, and Clemens Romanus, § 34.
14. μakápio] Blessed are they that do His commandments, that their authority (n éovola avтŵr) may be upon (eri) the Tree of Life (i. e. may extend to it, and may be exercised upon it, so that they may take and eat of its fruit), and that they may enter by the gates into the City.
The reading of this text is somewhat doubtful.
Elz. has οἱ ποιοῦντες τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ, they that do His commandments; and this reading is authorized by B and many cursive MSS., and by the Coptic, Syriac, and Arabic Versions, and by Tertullian, Cyprian, and Andreas. It seems also to be hope to regain an approach to confirmed by the consideration, that by breaking God's commandment, Man lost his access to the tree of life, and that he cannot keep the commandments" (Matt. xix. 17). ments. As our Lord Himself says, except by keeping His command"If thou wilt enter into life,
But the Alexandrine MS. and have of TλÚVOVTES Tàs gate, Armenian, and Ethiopic Versions: and this reading has σTOλàs avтŵy, they who wash their robes; and so some few Cursives (one in Scrivener, p. 560, has Tλúvavтes), and the Vulbeen adopted by Lachmann, Tischendorf, and Tregelles.
likely that a copyist would have been perplexed by the latter reading, which is clearly explained by another passage in the The other reading seems to be preferable. It is not so Apocalypse (vii. 14), where there is no such variety in the MSS. But some transcribers might perhaps have been embarrassed by the other reading, as seeming, in their opinion, to give some countenance to Pelagian tenets; and might therefore have altered it to the reading in A and N.
The doctrine of the text, as compared with other passages of Holy Scripture, clearly is, that though it is by the Death of Christ alone, that men have access to the Tree of life; yet none can derive any benefit from that only access, unless they walk in the way of Obedience to God's Commandments. The Gate is opened to all; but it is open in vain to those who do not go along the Road which leads up to the Gate, and passes through it.
15. čεw oi kúves] without are dogs. See Phil. iii. 2. Matt. vii. 6; xiii. 48. This is quoted by S. Hippolytus, de Christo, Away, ye dogs! as ékás, ékás éσte, Béßnλoi, § 66, p. 35, ed. Lagarde. The words may perhaps be rendered este profani." "Procul, o procul Cp. the comment above, ix. 14; xvi. 12; and Ps. vi. 8; cxix. 115, and the inscription on the doors of Belgian Churches, "Hunden uyt Godt's Tempel," and Düsterdieck here,
"Hinaus die Hunde."
16. è̟yú eiμi] I am the root and the offspring of David: being
SaoTnp] the bright and Morning Star. Which rose from