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d Gal. 3. 4.
e 1 John 2. 23.
f Rom. 16. 17.
1 Cor. 5. 11.
& 16. 22. Gal. 1. 8, 9. 2 Tim. 3. 5. Tit. 3. 10.
g John 17. 13.
1 John 1. 4.
3 John 13.
Ιησοῦν Χριστὸν ἐρχόμενον ἐν σαρκί· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πλάνος καὶ ὁ ἀντίχριστος.
12 5 Πολλὰ ἔχων ὑμῖν γράφειν οὐκ ἐβουλήθην διὰ χάρτου καὶ μέλανος· ἀλλὰ ἐλπίζω γενέσθαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ στόμα πρὸς στόμα λαλῆσαι, ἵνα ἡ χαρὰ ἡμῶν ᾖ πεπληρωμένη. 13 'Ασπάζεταί σε τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἀδελφῆς σου τῆς ἐκλεκτῆς.
This the Gnostics denied: see Ignatius, ad Smyrn. 6, and note on 1 John iv. 2.
οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πλάνος] this is the deceiver and the Antichrist who now specially desires and endeavours to seduce you, and against whom I specially warn you: see above, 1 John ii. 22. 26; iv. 3.
8. Iva un àwoλéonte] in order that ye may not lose what ye wrought, but may receive a full reward. Elz. has these verbs in the first person plural, "in order that we may not lose;" but the second person, "Ye," is authorized by A, B, and Irenæus (iii. 16. 8), and by many Cursives and Versions; and so Lach., Tisch. As to the meaning of the words, see above, 2 Cor. v. 10. Eph. vi. 8. Col. iii. 25, and note on 1 Cor. iii. 12-15.
9. mas d rроάywv] every one who goeth before, and doth not abide in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. Every one that goeth before, роάywν: so A, B, and Vulgate, and so Lach., Tisch. Elz. has mapaßaivwv.
There seems to be a gentle touch of irony in the word #poάywv. These False teachers are not content to abide in the doctrine of Christ, but they set themselves up as leaders; and on the specious plea of making progress they carry men away from their stedfastness (2 Pet. iii. 17), and lead them astray (λavŵow) from the right path. They who are wolves, set themselves up as shepherds, and lure Christ's sheep away from those spiritual pastures in which they ought to abide, and from the spiritual fold in which alone they can have rest and safety: poάywv is a pastoral word. Mark x. 32, and John x. 4. Cp. Matt. xxvi. 32; xxviii. 7.
10, 11. εἴ τις ἔρχεται πρὸς ὑμᾶς] If any one cometh to you and bringeth not this doctrine, do not receive him into your house, nor bid him God speed; for he that biddeth him God speed communicateth in his evil deeds.
St. John here treats heresy as an epyov Tovnpov, a wicked work; as sound faith is a good work, see John vi. 29. Vain therefore is the notion of those who separate practice from faith, and say that a man may lead a good life without a sound belief. A sound faith is the only root of virtuous practice; and heresy is the source of immorality. Cp. 2 Pet. ii. 1-14, and the remarks of Dr. Waterland on the Trinity, chap. v. St. John, the beloved disciple, the Apostle of love, and who (as Dr. Waterland expresses it, v. p. 108) was all love, meekness, and charity, yet severely condemns the heretics of his own times, either such as denied Christ's Humanity, or impugned His Divinity. He calls them Antichrists (1 John ii. 18. 22; iv. 3. 2 John 7), liars (1 John ii. 22), seducers (1 John ii. 26), false prophets (1 John
iv. 1), deceivers (2 John 7). See above, Introduction, pp. 103, 104.
This precept may be illustrated by St. John's own example, who one day-as is recorded by S. Irenæus-having met Cerinthus at the bath, retired without bathing, "for fear lest the bath should fall, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, was there." Iren. iii. 3. Euseb. iii. 28. Theodoret, Hær. fab. ii. 3; and Bede here.
A like story is told by S. Irenæus of S. Polycarp, St. John's disciple; who, when he was accosted by Marcion, the Archheretic, and was asked by him, "Dost thou not know me?" replied, "Yes, I know thee the first-born of Satan" (S. Irenæus iii. 3. Euseb. iv. 14). So cautious (adds Irenæus) were the Apostles and their followers to have no communication, no not so much as in discourse, with those who adulterated the truth. Dr. Waterland on the Trinity, ch. iv. vol. v. p. 91; see also p. 108; and compare note above on 1 Cor. v. 11.
12. χάρτου] paper. The Egyptian βύβλος or πάπυρος. It therefore seems that the original of this Epistle was not written on parchment (pergamena).
On the ancient materials of writing, see Jer. xxxvi. 18. 23. Isa. viii. 1. 2 Cor. iii. 3. 3 John 13. Cp. Jahn, Archæol. §§ 86 -88. Winer, R. W. B. ii. p. 421.
ἐλπίζω γενέσθαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς] I hope to come and stay with you. Elz. has ἐλθεῖν, but γενέσθαι, which is more expressive, and not likely to have been introduced by a copyist, is in A, B, and many Cursives, and received by Lach., Tisch. On the idiom in yevéσla πрds, literally, "fieri apud," cp. John x. 35. Acts xxi. 17; xxv. 15. 1 Cor. xvi. 10.
On the supposition that this Epistle is addressed to a Church, and that the Church to which it is addressed was a Church in Babylonia (see above on v. 1), there is no reason for surprise that St. John should intend a journey thither. The inhabitants of that country had come up to Jerusalem, and had been evangelized by the Apostles there on the day of Pentecost (Acts ii. 9). St. Peter in his old age had gone to Babylon, and thence to Rome; see pp. 37-40. And if St. John was now in Asia, as is probable, he was at about a middle point between Babylon and Rome; and if he had "many things to write," he would not consider a journey from Asia to Babylon as long. 13. ȧordferal oe] The Children of thine elect sister greet thee. See on v. 1.
St. John calls his own spiritual children his Térva, 3
THE THIRD EPISTLE OF ST. JOHN.
THIS Epistle is of a moral and disciplinarian character. In it the holy Apostle, who has revealed to the Church the sublimest mysteries of Christian doctrine, applies those principles to matters of practical detail in the regimen of the Church.
"Gaius," or Caius, "the beloved" is commended for walking in the Truth, and for bringing forth the fruits of the Truth, in a life of love to the brethren and to strangers. Especially does St. John confide in his Christian charity towards the Ministers of the Gospel, who go forth preaching to the Gentiles, without claiming maintenance from them.
The character of Gaius is contrasted with that of Diotrephes, who had resisted the authority of St. John, and would not receive the brethren, who were probably recommended by the Apostle himself, but even ejected from the Church those who received them.
But St. John announces his intention of bringing Diotrephes to a sense of his duty by a speedy visitation, and by an exercise of his Apostolic authority.
Even in Apostolic times, the spirit of pride and the lust of power made themselves felt in the Church of Christ. God suffered His holy Apostles to be tried by the unruly temper and refractory conduct of false brethren. St. Paul had to contend with an Hymenæus, an Alexander, a Philetus, an Hermogenes, and a Phygellus'; even St. John had a Diotrephes. No wonder that a like spirit should show itself in later days. Here is the test of loyalty and love. Beloved, do not imitate that which is evil, but that which is good. He that doeth good is of God, but he that doeth evil hath not seen God "." The Divine Lord and Master of St. John will come and call all men to account, who, in despising those whom He has sent, have despised Him'; and He will salute "His friends by name," with a greeting of everlasting peace.
11 Tim. i. 20 2 Tim. ii. 17.
3 3 John 11.
a 2 John 4.
1 ̔Ο ΠΡΕΣΒΥΤΕΡΟΣ Γαΐῳ τῷ ἀγαπητῷ, ὃν ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ.
2 ̓Αγαπητὲ, περὶ πάντων εὔχομαί σε εὐοδοῦσθαι καὶ ὑγιαίνειν, καθὼς εὐοδοῦταί σου ἡ ψυχή· 3* ἐχάρην γὰρ λίαν ἐρχομένων ἀδελφῶν καὶ μαρτυρούντων σου τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, καθὼς σὺ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ περιπατεῖς. 4 Μειζοτέραν τούτων οὐκ ἔχω χαρὰν, ἵνα ἀκούω τὰ ἐμὰ τέκνα ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ περιπατοῦντα.
5 ̓Αγαπητὲ, πιστὸν ποιεῖς, ὃ ἐὰν ἐργάσῃ εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς καὶ τοῦτο ξένους, 6 οἳ ἐμαρτύρησάν σου τῇ ἀγάπῃ ἐνώπιον ἐκκλησίας, οὓς καλῶς ποιήσεις προπέμψας ἀξίως τοῦ Θεοῦ. 1 Ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ὀνόματος ἐξῆλθον μηδὲν λαμβάνοντες ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνικῶν. Ἡμεῖς οὖν ὀφείλομεν ὑπολαμβάνειν τοὺς τοιούτους, ἵνα συνεργοὶ γινώμεθα τῇ ἀληθείᾳ.
1. ὁ πρεσβύτερος] The Elder : on this title adopted by St. John, see 2 John 1.
Gaius to justify his general confidence in his character, yet he is
Γαίῳ τῷ ἀγαπητῷ] to Gaius, or Caius the beloved. He seems to have borne much resemblance in character and acts (see v. 5) to Gaius of Corinth (Rom. xvi. 23), and to Philemon the Colossian friend of St. Paul (Philem. 7). A Gaius was appointed by St. John to be Bishop of Pergamum. Constit. Αpost. vii. 46. The word ἀγαπητὸς, beloved, is repeated four times in this short Epistle; the word ἀγαπᾶν, to love, occurs twenty-eight times, and the word ἀγάπη, eighteen times in St. John's First Epistle. The sternness of his language in condemnation of the Heretics of his age, is made more striking by its contrast with this inculcation of the duty of love; which shows that the words of rebuke are uttered in a spirit of love for the souls of those committed to his care, and of those also whom he reproves. Cp. St. Stephen's language, Acts vii. 60, and above, pp. 104, 105.
The words καὶ τοῦτο, and this too (the reading of A, B, CElz. has καὶ εἰς τοὺς), enhance the praise of Gaius. He was affectionate and helpful toward the brethren, and that also to strangers who were unknown to him. On this use of καὶ τοῦτο and καὶ ταῦτα, see Rom. xiii. 11, and on 1 Cor. vi. 6. 8, καὶ τοῦτο ἀδελφούς. Matthia, Gr. Gr. § 471. 7.
6. ἐνώπιον ἐκκλησίας] in the presence of the Church; in the public congregation; probably at Ephesus, where St. John dwelt; see Introduction to his Gospel, pp. 266, 267.
οὓς καλῶς ποιήσεις] whom if thou speedest on their journey in a manner meet for God (whose servants they are), thou shalt do well. On προπέμπειν, cp. Titus iii. 13; on ἀξίως τοῦ Θεοῦ, cp. 1 Thess. ii. 12. Col. i. 10.
2. περὶ πάντων] in all resperts. This translation seems preferable to the other rendering, “ above all things;” for which sense of repl there is no authority in Prose writers. Cp. Winer, § 47, p. 334. Lücke (2nd ed.), and Huther, p. 246.
εὐοδοῦσθαι] prosper, literally, on a journey (ὁδός). Cp. Rom. i. 10. 1 Cor. xvi. 2. St. John wishes that in all things the affairs of Gaius may go well, as they do in spiritual respects.
7. ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ὀνόματος ἐξῆλθον] for they went forth on behalf of the Name—the adorable NAME of Jesus Christ, “ the Name that is above every Name,” Phil. ii. 9. See on Acts r. 41, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος ἀτιμασθῆναι, and the words of St. John's disciple, S. Ignatius, to St. John's Church of Ephesus, c. 3, δέδεμαι ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι, and cp. ibid. c. 7, εἰώθασι γάρ τινες δόλῳ πονηρῷ τὸ ὄνομα περιφέρειν, ἄλλα τινὰ πράσσοντες ἀνάξια Θεοῦ, and then he proceeds to declare the Person and Natures of Christ. Cp. Ignat. ad Philad. δοξάσαι τὸ ὄνομα. These words of S. Ignatius seem to have been suggested by St. John's language in these two verses, vv. 6, 7.
3. ἐχάρην γὰρ λίαν] for I rejoiced greatly. See 2 John 4. 4. μειζοτέραν] On this form of the comparative, see Eyh. iii. 8. Winer, § 11, p. 65. Greater joy have I not, than these things, that I hear my children are walking in the truth. On the use of iva, compare Luke i. 43. Cp. John xv. 8. 13; xvii. 3. 1 John iv. 17. Winer, § 44, p. 303.
5. πιστὸν ποιεῖς] thou art doing a faithful part in whatever | thou mayest have wrought (ἐργάσῃ, the reading of B, C, G, K) towards the brethren, and that also towards persons who are strangers to thee.
This is the only example of πιστὸν ποιεῖν in the New Testament. Cp. τὸ καλὸν ποιεῖν, Rom. vii. 21; xiii. 3, 4. Gal vi. 9 ; and the combination used by St. John of role with a substantive, such as δικαιοσύνην: 1 John ii. 29; iii. 7. 10; and Rev. | xxii. 15, ποιῶν ψεῦδος.
St. John expresses his confidence that whatever labours Gaius may have performed, or may be performing, toward the brethren, they are done by him as a faithful workman and servant of Christ.
On ἐργάζομαι εἰς, ep. Matt. xxvi. 10.
The tense of ἐργάσῃ, thou mayest have wrought, implies, that though St. John has heard enough of the good deeds of
μηδὲν λαμβάνοντες] taking no wages from the Gentile (plural, adjective); i. e, the Gentile Christians. Elz. has ἐθνῶν, but ἐθνικῶν is in A, B, C, and received by Lach., Tisch.
On the purport of these words-intimating that they, to whom St. John refers, demanded no ministerial maintenance from the Gentile Christians, to whom they ministered the Word and Sacraments---see note above, on 1 Cor. ix. 6.
8. ὑπολαμβάνειν] to receive, entertain, and treat them hospitably, with reverence and love. There seems to be a slight paronomasia between λαμβάνοντες and ὑπολαμβάνειν : cp. Philem. 20. Elz. has ἀπολαμβάνειν ; but ὑπολαμβάνειν is in A, B, C*, and is received by Lach., Tisch.
ἵνα συνεργοί γινώμεθα] in order that we may be fellowlabourers with them in the Truth. By receiving God's Ministers we become fellow-workers with them in the Truth which they preach, and "he that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward.” Matt. x. 41.
9 *Εγραψά τι τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ· ἀλλ ̓ ὁ φιλοπρωτεύων αὐτῶν Διοτρεφὴς οὐκ ἐπι-
Isa. 1. 16.
1 John 3. 6, 49.
13 Πολλὰ εἶχον γράψαι σοι, ἀλλ ̓ οὐ θέλω διὰ μέλανος καὶ καλάμου σοι c 2 John 12.
by all men, and by the Truth itself. A contrast to Diotrephes.
9. ἔγραψά τι] Ι wrote somewhat to the Church. Elz. omits τι, which is in A, B, C, and so Lach., Tisch.
The purport probably of this writing was to exhort those of the Church, of which Gaius was a member, to receive the brethren who laboured in the Gospel. But Diotrephes, who aspired to have the pre-eminence there, took advantage of St. John's absence, and conducted himself in a very different temper to that of Gaius (see v. 5), and would not obey St. John's commands, and would neither receive the brethren commended by St. John, nor would he allow others to receive them, and was casting out of the Church those who did receive them. Wherefore, says the Apostle, if I come, as I intend to do very soon (see v. 14) to the place where you and he are, I will call to remembrance (see John xiv, 26) his works which he doeth, prating vainly against us with wicked words.
On the word φιλοπρωτεύων, see Wetstein, p. 731; and on φλυαρῶν, see ibid., p. 343, and on 1 Tim. v. 13. It has properly a neuter sense, to prate idly, but like some other neuter verbs in the New Testament, it is here put intransitively (Winer, § 38, p. 225); and so it implies that the idle words are uttered by the speaker in a contemptuous tone against another.
What St. John wrote to the Church is no longer extant. Cp. note on 1 Cor. v. 9, where St. Paul refers to an Epistle written by himself which is not now in existence.
10. ἐκ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐκβάλλει] he casteth out of the Church, by excommunication. S. Hippolytus, Bishop of Portus, speaks of some who were ἔκβλητοι τῆς ἐκκλησίας, by his own spiritual | authority. Philosoph. p. 290.
It seems that Diotrephes was a Minister of the Church in which Gaius resided; and that this Epistle was written to maintain in that Church the authority of St. John as an Apostle and | Metropolitan of Asia, in which character he was commissioned by Christ to write the Epistles to the Asiatic churches in the Apocalypse, Rev. i. 11, and chaps. ii. and iii.
11. μὴ μιμοῦ τὸ κακόν] Do not imitate that which is evil, as the example of Diotrophes is ; but that which is good. Cp. Heb. xiii. 7. 1 Pet. iii. 13, and Martyr. Polycarp. 19, τὸ μαρτύριον μιμεῖσθαι.
I had many things to write to you now, but I am not willing to write them with ink and pen, under such circumstances as these, when I hope very soon to see you to whom I am writing. Cp. 2 John 12.
15. ἀσπάζονται---ὔνομα] salute the friends by name. The good pastor imitates that Good Shepherd, who "calleth His sheep by name." John x. 3. Cp. Phil. iv. 21.
12. Δημητρίῳ] A good testimony hath been given to Demetrius
The Truth here is no other than the Spirit of Truth abiding in St. John. Christ promised to send to His Apostles, "the Spirit of Truth to guide them into all Truth ” (John xvi. 13), and He did send the Spirit to them on the Day of Pentecost, and that Spirit enabled them to discern the spirits of men (1 Cor. xii. 10), as St. Peter discerned the spirit of Ananias (Acts v. 3), and to pronounce judgment upon them.
The Spirit, says St. John, is Truth (1 John v. 6). And since St. John himself had the Spirit, he asserts, that “whoever
knoweth God heareth us; and whoever is not of God heareth
καὶ ἡμεῖς δὲ μαρτυροῦμεν] and not only so, but we bear testimony, and ye know that our testimony is true.
The Spirit of Truth in us bears testimony, and we, the human ministers by whom the Spirit speaks, bear testimony. So the Apostles speak at the Council of Jerusalem, "It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us.” Acts xv. 28.
13. διὰ μέλανος καὶ καλάμου] with ink and pen, properly reed. Cp. above, 2 John 12. It does not follow from these expressions that St. John wrote his Epistle with his own hand. He may have done so. Cp. note above on Gal vi. 11. 2 Thess. iii. 17. Col.
γράψαι σοι] to write to thee now at this time.
So A, B, C.--Elz. has γράφειν : and vice versa, at the end the paragraph Elz. has γράψαι, and A, B, C have γράφειν, which expresses a habit.
THE EPISTLE GENERAL OF ST. JUDE.
I. THE Epistle of St. Jude bears a remarkable resemblance in matter and language, and also in order of arrangement, to the Second Epistle of St. Peter; as will appear from the passages placed at the foot of this page'.
1. From a comparison of these passages it seems most probable that the Epistle of St. Jude was subsequent to that of St. Peter.
For example, St. Peter speaks prophetically of the false Teachers who would "privily bring in destructive heresies, denying the Lord that bought them." But St. Jude describes these false Teachers as already in existence and full operation. "Certain men (he says) crept in, who were long ago foreordained to this condemnation ""
2. Besides, St. Jude appears to make a special reference to St. Peter's Second Epistle. “ Beloved, remember the words that were spoken before by the Apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, that they told you, that in the last time there shall be scoffers walking according to their own lusts of unholiness"."
Hence, as was observed by Ecumenius' in ancient times, this Epistle appears to have been written after the Second Epistle of St. Peter.
3. This opinion has been adopted by many learned men of later days. If it is correct, then the Epistle of St. Jude cannot have been written before A.D. 66 or 67, the date of St. Peter's Second Epistle.
3. πᾶσαν σπουδὴν ποιούμενος.
4. Indeed, on an examination of internal evidence, it seems to be later than that time. The picture which is drawn in this Epistle, of the heretical doctrines and licentious practices of the false Teachers, represents them as developed in the fulness and boldness of inveterate and dominant malignity, after a previous growth of some years.
8. κυριότητα ἀθετοῦσι, δόξας δὲ βλασφημοῦσι.
9. δ δὲ Μιχαὴλ ὁ ἀρχάγ· γελος, ὅτε τῷ διαβόλῳ διακρι