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ture, in the council of which the rev. doctor was long an active member. A good historical article in the Edinburgh Review, last year, described the original endowment of the society by George IV. with the truly royal bounty of eleven hundred guineas a year (ten pensions to distinguished authors of one hundred guineas each, and a hundred guineas for two gold medals); and regretted that this munificent patronage had ceased with the life of the founder. The present accession will in some measure repair the loss; for it will enable the council to print, annually, perhaps, some valuable inedited MS., agreeably to Dr. Richards' will.

SYRO-EGYPTIAN SOCIETY.

Dec. 3. The first meeting of a Society bearing this designation, was held in Mortimer Street, Cavendish Square. The learned orientalist, Dr. John Lee, delivered upon the occasion an introductory address, in which he particularly pointed out the advantages which might and have accrued to the progress of discovery in regard to Egypto-Syrian antiquities and history, by the labours of persons residing in this country, as well as by travellers. Upwards of seventy members had inrolled their names, including many distinguished travellers and oriental scholars, such as Profs. Grotefend, Lassen, Bournouf, Koeppen, Lepsius, the Venerable Archdeacon Robinson, the Rev. Samuel Lee, Professor of Hebrew, and the Rev. Thomas Jarrett, Professor of Arabic, at Cambridge, the Rev. Drs. Renouard and Hincks, and Messrs. Ainsworth, Floyd, and Campbell, late members of the Euphrates Expedition. He stated that it was not contemplated originally that the Society should be more than a private association of those interested in Syro-Egyptian history and remains; but that, in consequence of the facilities now afforded to travellers, so great an interest had been evinced in the plans and objects of the society, that it was

deemed advisable to open the doors to all who take pleasure in observing the changes which are now going on in the East-to establish lectures and conversazione, and to admit ladies as well as gentlemen. The Hon. Secretary, Dr. Holt Yates, then delivered an introductory address.

INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS.

Dec. 2. J. B. Papworth, esq. V.P. in the chair. This was the opening meeting of the session. B. Green, esq. of Newcastle upon Tyne, was elected a Fellow; and prizes (books) were delivered to Messrs. Baker and Deane, students to the Institute, for the best architectural composition, and for the best series of sketches, on subjects proposed by the Council. Drawings were exhibited illustrative of GENT. MAG. VOL. XXIII,

Dr. Holt Yates, as hon. secretary, then communicated a detailed plan of the views and objects of the society, which proposed to itself to encourage and advance literature, science, and the arts, throughout anterior Asia and Egypt, as well as to increase our knowledge in all matters relating to the antiquities, history, natural history, and present condition of those countries. This was followed by an inaugu ral dissertation of considerable length, detailing the progress of discovery within the last half century in these very remarkable countries, the cradle of the human race, and the first home of the arts and sciences. He gave a summary account of the Euphrates Expedition, and pointed out the importance of promoting education among the natives, and of establishing medical practitioners in Syria and Egypt. He mentioned that a hospital had lately been opened at Damascus, under British auspices, and had received the sanction and co-operation of all the authorities; that 2,500 patients had been relieved there during the last four months, and that a course of medical lectures (the first, perhaps, ever delivered in Syria) had been commenced by Dr. Jas. B. Thompson, on the 1st of October last.

MR. BRITTON has discovered the time and place of interment of JOHN AUBREY, which have long been sought, and regarded as desiderata relating to that distinguished Antiquary. He has also met with many facts and letters concerning him, which will tend to give much interest to the Memoir he is preparing for the Second Volume of the Wiltshire Topographical Society's Transactions.

ARCHITECTURE.

the painted decorations in the church of S. Francesco di Assisi, and a description was read, communicated by C. H. Wilson, esq. with some observations on the polychromatic decorations of the early Italian churches in general. The church at Assisi was the work of Jacopo l'Alemanno, father of the more celebrated Arnolfo da Lupo, and is remarkable as one of the most perfect examples of an architectural monument of that age, completed by the

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painter. The entire church, withinside, is covered with colour, the work partly of Greek artists, and partly that of Cimabue, Giotto Giottino, and Guinta Pisano, and their assistants, constituting it a most precious monument of the art of those early times. The importance and merit of these works by Cimabue, have been recognized by all the writers on art. The fervour of Italian art had given vitality to the inanimate forms of the Greeks, and the figures introduced are greatly superior in style, although the arabesque decorations with which they are combined are altogether Byzantine in character, and decidedly inferior to those of earlier date in St. Mark's, at Venice. In the ornaments of Giotto and his school in the Scovigni, and Chapel of St. George, at Padua, in those of Spinello Aretino, in St. Miniato, at Florence, and elsewhere, and in the works of Fra Beato Angelico, we have indications of a more refined taste and of progress.

Dec. 16. Mr. Papworth in the chair. James Walker, esq. F.R.S. President of the Institute of Civil Engineers, was elected an Honorary Member.

A model and drawings were exhibited of the mode adopted by Mr. Murray in moving the lighthouse at Sunderland.

A paper was read by Mr. J. J. Scoles, "On the Monuments existing in the Valley of Jehosaphat, near Jerusalem." These monuments might possess little interest if viewed merely with regard to their dimensions or architectural merits, but, as they are almost the only buildings of any antiquity remaining in or about Jerusalem, and as tradition has invested them with the names of Absalom and Zachariah, it becomes an object of some interest to the archæologist to ascertain, if possible, the period at which they were really executed. In style, they are strangely mixed, the Greek orders being blended with the Egyptian character and form. The most remarkable," the Pillar of Absalom," exhibits engaged columns of the Ionic order, Doric frieze, an Egyptian cavetto cornice, and a high conical roof, the whole being excavated and detached from the solid rock. "The Tomb of Zachariah" is of the same general character, but less decorated, and surmounted by a pyramid. There are several other tombs, but their features are less peculiar. One excavation, however, exhibits a pediment decorated with foliage of Greek character. On reviewing the architectural details, Mr. Scoles was of opinion that they are to be referred to the period of the Roman dominion in Syria and Egypt. The pyramidal form was very frequently used by the Romans in monumental structures.

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A coloured drawing of a piece of old needlework, supposed to be part of a cope, now used as an antependium, from H. L. Styleman Le Strange, esq. was submitted to the meeting.

A paper was then read by the Rev. F. W. Collison, M.A. Fellow of St. John's College, on the History of Altars. He adduced them from ancient writers in chronological order, which mentioned the material of the altar; showing that stone and wood had been simultaneously used in most ages of the Church; and proving that Bingham is on more than one occasion wrong in inferring from particular passages that wood was the more common material. Examples were enumerated of altars in wood, stone, gold, silver, and even in earth; and much interesting information about ancient churches was contained in the passages which were quoted. Mr. Collison next showed that Ridley's injunction for breaking down altars could not be binding upon other dioceses. He sketched the history of the disputes respecting altars from that time to the accession of William of Orange, assigning each order or counter-order bearing on the subject to its right place. One point he satisfactorily established: that stone altars were distinctly enjoined by the last enactment of the Church, at the revision in 1662; at which the Rubrick enforcing the use of such ornaments of the Ministers as were in use in the second year of King Edward VI. was strengthened by the remarkable insertion of the words " ornaments of the Church." No one could deny that a stone altar was such an ornament in the year referred to; and this Rubrick of 1662 is the only authoritative standard of the Church, repealing absolutely any intervening canons, precedents, or injunctions. In the course of some remarks on this paper, it was stated that stone tables are at this day

almost universally used by the Protest ants abroad (as was also argued by Durel in his "Government of Foreign Reformed Churches," p. 30, ed. 1662), while the altars of the Roman Catholics are universally cased in wood.

The President adverted to a report, about which questions had been asked, concerning a legacy of 6,000l. which was said to have been left to the society; communications had been received which authorised him to say that he believed it to be true, though not of such a nature as to justify the committee in announcing it officially. Sixty members have been added to the society this term.

gives a pleasing effect, and in a great measure compensates for the simplicity of the details. The buttresses and other projections are bold and massive, and throughout solidity of construction and boldness of outline and proportion appear to have been studied rather than highly ornamented finish. The roof, which is of a high pitch, is covered with slab slates, which have the same general effect as lead. Though the details are in themselves simple, they have considerable variety, and the windows to the east end of the transepts are of large size and ornamental character. The entrance through the north porch is groined with stone, the carved boss bearing the arms of Mr. Storie the Vicar. The nave is supported on each side by five arches, resting on alternately round and octagonal pillars, with carved capitals. The tower is supported by four massive clustered columns of the hardest and most solid stonework, and the space below the tower is groined with stone. The remainder is covered with highpitched open roofs, plain in their design, but massive in construction. Low open seats or pews, chiefly of oak, fill the nave. The pulpit is of oak, and its panels contain paintings, on porcelain slabs, of our Saviour and the Four Evangelists, which, with an encaustic floor in the chancel, were presented by Mr. Thomas Garrett, of Herne-bill. The chancel is fitted up with oak stalls in the sides, for choristers. The communion table is of stone, on pillars of the same, behind which is a screen of stone, containing the Commandments in illuminated characters. The west window contains stained glass, chiefly antient, and preserved from the old church. A fine organ has been erected.

CAMBERWELL CHURCH.

The new parish church of Camberwell, dedicated to St. Giles, is the most magnificent ecclesiastical structure recently completed in the neighbourhood of London. It is built on the site of the old church, which was destroyed by fire early in 1841. Shortly after that occurrence a rate for 20,0007., in addition to the amount received from the insurance of the late church, was voted for the work. It was then intended to accommodate 2000 persons, and an addition was to have been made to the churchyard to render it capable of receiving it. The spire would have been 225 feet high, and the whole structure carried out in a style of which modern funds rarely admit. Unfortunately, however, when every preliminary was completed, a protest was entered against the rate by a malcontent parishioner, founded on some alleged want of technicality in taking the rates at the vestry; and the objection being confirmed, in some measure, by legal opinion, it was thought most prudent to appeal again to the vestry, when, to avoid needless disputes, a compromise was agreed to, reducing the rate to 12,0007., and the accommodation to 1500 persons. The present design, by Messrs. Scott and Moffatt, is in the style of the latter half of the thirteenth century, being the transition between the early-English and the Decorated style. The plan is cruciform, having a central tower and spire. This plan has been adopted partly as the most suitable to the present site, in which a western tower would be much hidden by surrounding buildings, and partly as being the usual form in ancient times for the mother church of a large district containing other subordinate churches. The mass of the walls is built of rubble-work of Kentish rag stone, mixed with the materials from the old church. The exterior is faced with hammer-dressed stone from Yorkshire, with dressings of Caen stone. The relief produced by the two descriptions of stone

NEW CHURCH AT MARKINGTON.

The new church of St. Michael, at Markington, in the parish of Ripon, which was consecrated by the Bishop of Ripon on the 29th Oct. is a very beautiful little structure, erected from the design of Mr. A. H. Cates, of York, in the early or geometrical Decorated style. It stands on a commodious and picturesque site, closely adjacent to the village, the gift of E. H. Reynard, esq. The plan consists of chancel, with sacristy on the north, nave, and south porch. The western gable is surmounted by an open belfry with two bells. The chancel, elevated by one step, is of full size, with priest's door on the south, and is parted from the nave by a good carved oak rood-screen. The altar is of stone, raised on three steps, and having the five crosses patée incised on the table. In the south wall are a piscina and two sedilia, On the south side of the chancel arch, within the nave, is a double

stone reading-pew, where the prayers are said towards the north, and the lessons read to the people towards the west. On the other side of the chancel-arch a stone pulpit projects from the wall, with access from the sacristy. On the left hand, entering the church from the porch, stands the stone font, of good design. The porch is fitted with stone seats on the sides. All the roofs are open, of admirable pitch, forming equilateral triangles. The trusses of the nave roof are of oak, resting on stone corbels; the other timbers are of deal stained. The roofs of the chancel and porch are boarded upon the spars, those of the nave and sacristy ceiled between the spars. The east window is a copy of the well-known window at Dunchurch, in Gloucestershire. It is filled with stained glass from the works of the Messrs. Wailes, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and is worthy of the admiration it has received from all who have beheld it. In the centre light is a figure of Christ on the cross, with the four Evangelistic symbols at the corners, and surmounted by an Agnus Dei. In the lower part is a figure of St. Michael and the Dragon. In the dexter light is a figure of the Blessed Virgin, above which is the monogram of Maria; and in the lower part the Agony in the Garden. In the sinister light, a figure of St. John the Evangelist, surmounted by his badge, a winged serpent issuing from a chalice;

and below, Christ bearing his Cross. In the heads of these two side-lights are angels bearing scrolls, with the scripture, "Non mea voluntas,"-" sed tua fiat." In the centre of the tracery, in the head of the window, the triangle trefoiled has the shield of the Trinity. The upper spherical triangle has the usual representation of the Trinity, surrounded by the sun, moon, and stars; and the two at the sides, angels bearing scrolls, with Scriptures. The side windows are lancets, with cusped heads. The west window, of two lights, is copied from the very elegant decorated windows at Great Haseley, Oxfordshire. The church has kneelings for more than 200 worshippers, and has been erected for less than 9007. including also the expense of the walls round half an acre of burial ground, the communion plate, &c. &c. The family of the late Wm. Wilberforce, esq. give 10007. towards the endowment. The Ven. R. J. Wilberforce, Archdeacon of the East Riding, said prayers on the day of dedication, and the Ven. S. Wilberforce, Archdeacon of Surrey, preached. The sermon, at the unanimous request of the Bishop, clergy, and laity assembled, is to be published. It is intended to proceed with the erection of a parsonage-house forthwith, for which E. H. Reynard, esq. has also given a suitable site of two acres of land.

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY.

Dec. 19. Lord Albert Conyngham, K.C.H. President, in the chair.

A letter from the Rev. Henry Christmas to C. R. Smith, esq. was read, on three inedited coins. One, a blundered coin of Eadgar, but which Mr. Christmas saw reason to believe was struck at Bury, and if so, adds another to the list of mints employed by that sovereign. Another, a penny of Henry III. having the reverse retrograde HALLI ON. RVLA. In remarking on this coin Mr. Christmas gave several reasons for assigning the pennies with the short cross on the reverse to Henry III. instead of to his grandfather, and quoted several analogies of the Scottish coinage to support his opinion. He considered it possible that there would one day be discovered specimens of two distinct English coinages of John, the latter closely resembling the first of his son. The third coin was the long looked for halfpenny of Edward VI. and Mr. Christmas observed that it differed considerably from what was expected; instead of having the arms on the reverse, and a

rose on the obverse, it bears on the obverse, the head of the King in profile, looking to the right, and the legend E. D. G. ROSA. SINE. SPINA. On the reverse, the cross and pellets, with the legend CIVITAS. LONDON, thus not only adding a coin never noticed before to the English series, but extending the series of London coins with the cross and pellets, and the name of the city, from the first to the last Edward.

Mr. C. R. Smith exhibited impressions of British silver coins found on the coast of Sussex, near Alfriston, one of the same series in brass found at Springhead, near Gravesend, and a new variety (in silver) of the coins of Cunobelin. Mr. Smith observed that he had collected the casts, (being unable to procure the actual coins,) with a view to record the localities in which these obscure and unappropriated British coins were found, in order to assist, by a collection of specimens and facts, their proper classification. An almost total disregard of this essential precaution in the numismatists of past days, detracted considerably from the value of

the British coins preserved in our cabi. nets, and those engraved in numismatic works. The Sussex coins have helmeted heads (not unlike some of the Gaulish) on one side, and grotesque horses and scrolls on the other; they weigh 20 grains and 10 grains. The only coins of this peculiar type that have been brought before the public are those of Dr. Mantell, figured in the Numismatic Chronicle, and the specimens now produced; all were found in Sussex. The brass British coin found at Springhead, Mr. Smith stated to be a new variety; it bears on the obverse (incuse) a horse, between the legs of which are the letters CAC; on the reverse, the wheatear, and indications of the letters CAM. The remaining coin is also a new addition to those of Cunobelin; it has on the obverse a well-executed horse with head turned back, beneath, cVNO ; on the reverse a flower, in which Mr. Birch traces a resemblance to the silphium upon the coins of Cyrene; across the field CAMV. Mr. Akerman remarked that the Numismatic Society had certainly been the means of directing the energies of numismatists in their investigation of the British coins to a proper channel. A generation since scarcely one British or Gaulish coin was understood; now a vast number of the latter were appropriated to localities or chiefs, and many of the former had been explained, including the hitherto mysterious one with the word TASCIOVAN, So happily read by Mr. Birch; and he made no doubt but that others would ere long be interpreted by means of ascertaining correctly the localities in which they are discovered. He (Mr. Akerman) had recently been closely examining all the recorded varieties of Gaulish and British coins, with a view to their publication, and he was convinced that ere long many doubts and obscure points would be cleared up or removed. In pointing out the distinctive characters of Gaulish and British coins, Mr. Akerman stated that the label in which we frequently found words or letters upon British coins, he had never noticed upon a Gaulish specimen. Mr. Birch considered the coins exhibited valuable and worthy of being engraved.

Mr. Smith then stated that, by leave of the central committee of the British Archæological Association, he was enabled to lay before the meeting an account of a discovery of upwards of 1200 Roman coins near Gloucester, on the property of Mr. Thomas Baker, of Watercombs House, Bisley. The coins were found in an earthen jar or vase in one of the apartments of an extensive Roman building in progress of excavation, under the superinendance and at the expense of Mr. Baker.

A plan of the chambers of the buildings which have been laid open was exhibited. The coins range from the Tetrici to Allectus, including most of the intervening emperors, and are all in fine preservation; of the first there are many hundreds, of the last, only one specimen. This single coin of Allectus was, however, Mr. Smith observed, a new variety. It reads, Obv. IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG. Rev. VICTORI GER. Victoria Germanica. This reverse occurs on the coins of Carausius, but had never before been noticed on those of his successor. Mr. Akerman said, that he was reluctantly compelled to consider many of the inscriptions upon coins of Allectus and Carausius to be borrowed at random by the artists from the coins of preceding reigns. Mr. Smith said that in some instances these coins might deserve to be regarded as mere copies, like particular types of most of the Roman emperors; but in other cases they bore every sign of adaptation to the circumstances they referred to, and he thought might be relied on as affording historical evidence. Thus, the specimen exhibited was probably struck to record an advantage gained over some of the German tribes which already infested the coasts of Britain, either by sea, in their own territories, or on occasion of their making a descent on Britain. Mr. Bergne remarked, that it was singular how uniformly coins, when discovered in large quantities, were found to agree with the received scale of rarity. It was the case in the present instance, and it was seldom or never that a rare coin was rendered common by fresh discoveries.-Several new members were proposed, and the meeting adjourned to Jan. 23.

The Coin Forgers.-A notice has just been received from France, to put collectors and antiquaries in England on their guard against a fresh issue from the Paris forgers' mint, of well-executed imitations of rare Saxon and English coins. One of the gang who in the west of France recently bore the name of Noffman or Hoffman, is now on his road to this country with a large quantity of these forgeries, mixed up, to lull suspicion, with some genuine coins. It is supposed he is connected with a clever forger of ancient coins named Rosseau, a man who has not the excuse of poverty or want of educa tion to shield him from the dishonour that attaches to such pursuits. By a recent law, the obtaining of money by passing forged coins is a serious offence, and the injured party is empowered to obtain a magistrate's warrant for the apprehension of the swindler, who is liable to transportation upon conviction.

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