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mined to disappoint him. In fact, so It may appear trilling in us to disdifferent an aspect do her features as- cuss, or even to point out, the meansume every day, that we have reason ing of Abashed, which will be found in to believe he will at length despair in any pocket abridgment of Johnson : his enterprise, though for the present but our object is to show Mr. Hallithe rapid growth of this Archaic Dic. well: 1. The utter hopelessness of tionary has blinded his eyes to the collecting every “form” of spelling; frightful features it has derived from and, 2. The want of exactness of exhis lady-patroness. Even already he planation consequent upon the neglect admits that "it may be objected that of arrangement, and a deduction of too many obviously corrupt forms have secondary senses from the primary, been admitted.”
in short, how that, in neglecting EtyTo exemplify Mr. Halliwell's mode mology, he is neglecting his best of limning the grimaces of his aged friend. beauty, we need only refer to any one His ten entries of this word, which page of his Dictionary ; but to do so occupy in the Dictionary nineteen in the way of extract we will take two lines of explanation, and thirty-six words, the ramifications of which will lines of example, in all fifty-five lines, occupy fully as much space as we can are to our minds thrown away in any afford. They are abashed and abie. dictionary containing the verb of which The former is still so common a word it is a participle. that it perhaps might have been The old - English orthographies above omitted altogether; but Mr. Halliwell enumerated are, in reality, interesting thinks differently, and he has accord- proofs how our two words abase and ingly presented it under the following abash are both descendants of the phases or “ forms :"
French word originally engrafted into “ ABAISCHITE. Ashamed.
our language : whilst the i or y was ABAISSED. Ashamed; abashed. retained in Abaissed, or Abayschid, &c. ABAIST. The same as Abaissed. it was in fact an English participle ABASCHED. Abashed; ashamed. formed on a French verb. ABAsscht. Abashed.
That French verb, Abaisser, is most ABAST. Downcast.
closely resembled in English by Abase : ABAYSCAJD. Frightened.
and this last word we find Mr. HalliABAYSSHETTE. Abashed.
well has given with six lines of explaABAYST. Disappointed.
nation. And again under Abesse with ABAYSTE. Abashed."
six more, in addition to the fifty-five Here are ten entries of a single already enumerated. Now, might not word ; and if ten are admitted, with
all that was necessary have been comsuch slight varieties, we sure that others of at least equal other sixty? something in this way:
prised in about six lines, eparing the claim (and possibly as many in num
A BASE, to bring down, to humble, ber,) must be away,-others which
Fr. abaisser, from à and bas. Hence are as likely to occur to those who may
abaissed (Piers Ploughman), abaischite, refer to the Archaic Dictionary, as the
(Morte d'Arthur), abasched, (MS. “ forms ” which happen to have oc- Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 109), [Modern, curred to Mr. Halliwell in the course
abashed.] &c. &c. Cast down, as with of his own reading.
shame or fear; disappointed. For example, under Abasscht, he
But if not in six, at most in twentyhas given a passage in which the word
six lines, the word (if really to be deemed is written abasshed; why should he not
obsolete) might have been fully explainhave entered that as well as ABASCHED?
ed: with all the important examples, Again, he explains ABAYSCHID, and with references from such“ forms” Frightened," on the authority of the
of spelling as might possibly baffle an Promptorium Parvulorum; but the inquirer. This would have tended ma"form ” in that dictionary is “ Abasch- terially to the proposed purpose of conyd.” Why then, did not Abaschyd
ciseness and economy of space. make yet a twelfth entry in Mr. Ilalli
Then, with a view to · 'the correct well's columns ?
meanings of the words,” Mr. Halli" ABASCHYD, or aferde ; territus, per- well would have found it a material territus. Prompt. Parv.”
assistance if he had determined to de.
duce secondary meanings from pri- is explained as “Downcast," and so mary, and to have informed his read. to abase was “to cast down." He ers (if by arrangement only, that would abasshed his helme"-"injured” it! frequently be sufficient,) why the
he struck it down,-a bas, to the same word, which originally meant
ground. “ lowered” and generally means A still more glaring example, how"ashamed,"sometimes means "fright- ever, of Mr. Halliwell's want of etyened,” sometimes "disappointed,” &c. mological arrangement and connection Lastly, in giving examples of several is furnished by the cognate words abye senses, care should be taken that each and abide, of which his “ forms" are example be applicable to the sense almost endless, and his explanations defined.
sufficiently varied. Notwithstanding In these important respects we have the space they will occupy, we can but a bad account to give of Mr. Hal- only show them fairly by extracting liwell. His sense of “ frightened ” is them: taken, as we have already shown, from
“ ABADE. (1) Abode; remained. (2) the Promptorium Parvulorum, but his
Delay. example of ABAYSCHID is the follow
ABAY. At bay. ing from Wickliffe's New Testament: ABBAY. To bay ; to bark. "And anoon the damysel roos and walk
ABBIGGET. Expiate ; pay for. ide: and sche was of twelve yeer, and
ABE'. To atone for. thei weren abayschid with a great stoneyng.
ABECHED. Fed; satisfied.
ABEde. Abode ; remained, Here there is no authority for the
ABEGE. To atone for. interpretation "frightened;" if we
ABEISAUNCE. Obedience. look to the original, και εξέστησαν εκ- ABESYANS. Obeisance. oráoel peykły (Mark v. 42.) it would ABEY. To abie. rather be, like our present version, ABEYD. To abide. “ astonished.” As we might now say,
ABEYE. To bow; to obey. the witnesses of the miracle were over
ABEYSAUNCE. Obeisance. Skinner thinks come with a great astonishment.
the proper form of the word is abeisance. (And here we may mention, by the
ABEYZEDOUN. Obeyed. bye, that a reference to Wiclif's ver
ABIDANCE. Tarrying ; dwelling.
ABIDDEN. Endured. sion of 1380, supplies yet a thirteenth
ABIDE. (1) To persevere; to endure; “ form,” viz. abaischide.)
to suffer. It is also another form of Probably, in the passage quoted under
abie. (2) To forbear ; to tolerate. ABAYSTB, the sense contemplated by ABIDYNGE. Patent. the author of the Promptorium was ABIDYNGELY. Staying. more clearly implied:
ABIE. To pay for; to expiate. Syr Eglamour es noghte abayste,
ABIGGEDE. Suffer. In Goddis helpe es alle his trayste.
ABIGGEN. To abie.
Abist. Payest for it. Again, under “ ABAYST," the first
ABIT. Abideth. example bears out the sense “Disap- ABITE. (2) To atone for. (4) Abideth. pointed;" but in the second,
ABOADE. Abided ; suffered ; endured. What thyng that ze wille to me saye,
Abode. (1) Delay. (2) Waited for.
ABOGHTEN. Suffered. 3ow thare noght be abayste,
ABOOD. Remained. it is clearly “ashamed.”
ABOUGHT. Sometimes, atoned for, from Yet again, besides his ten interpre- abiggen. tations, Mr. Halliwell has suggested ABOUGHWED. Bowed, obeyed. also“ injured,” when introducing the ABUDE. To bid ; to offer. “form" abasshed to which we have ABUE. To bow; to obey. before adverted. He says,
ABUGGEN. To abie.
ABUY. (1) To bow. (2) To abie. “ It seems to be used for injured in the
ABUYZE. To abie. Morte d'Arthur, i. 366,— He smote Syr
ABYCHE. To suffer for. Palomydes upon the helme thryes, that he
ABYDDE. Abided. abasshed his helme with his strokes.'"
ABYDE. To forbear. where a disregard to the primary or ABYT. Abideth; continueth. etymological sense creates the whole ABYYD. (1) Stay. (2) Suffer." difficulty. In the very next line ABAST When to these “ forms" our lexico
grapher shall have added those which form heads which are presented by he may find commencing with a b, and such words as the verb abie. A stiil others commencing with o, he will greater saving perhaps would have re. bave manufactured a goodly regiment sulted from the omission of such words out of one or two cognate words: but as are found in the early-English lanit is a regiment which has neither the guage employed in the same sense as advantage of a uniform,-we mean in they are still, but merely written in an Mr. Halliwell's interpretations,-nor obsolete orthography, which inno the merit of keeping its ranks, for its case obscures their meaning. The members are scattered like sharp- author has been sadly led astray by shooters, each erecting its head as an his “forms” of spelling, which after independent member of the Archaic all are not forms of speech ; their pervocabulary. The general import offect enumeration is impossible, and the word appears be that of a waiting would be useless if it were not. Acwith patience. Hence its application quaintance with the varieties of anto suffering, and expiation; and some- tient orthography is acquired by readtimes perhaps to obedience, though the ing, and not by a dictionary. word obedience itself has another ori. A third means of economising space gin, in the Latin. Hence also its ap- and cost would have been the rejecplication to continual remaining at one
tion of words that are culled from the spot, and the word abode still in com- canting” or Slang vocabulary : mon use. The bay of dogs also was these might very properly have been their waiting, not their “barking;” as left in that choice repository. now used, it is only a particular species Fourthly, technical words might of “barking," at the most: they bark have been consigned in confidence to while they are kept at bay. As for the technical dictionaries, particularly if sense “to bow," which Mr. Hallis occurring only in works of science. well has introduced under the “ forms" They are generally derived from the ABEYE, ABOUGHWED, ABUE, and learned languages, and their significa. ABUy, it more properly belongs to
tion is therefore seldom obscure. This the verb byg-an, to bow, or bend : rule would have relieved our lexicowords so similar as abey, abow, and obey grapher from many words belonging would naturally fall into some confu
to the law, to mathematics, astrology, sion in colloquial use. Probably " to chemistry, &c. and of a great many bid, to offer,” as under Abude, in belonging to botany or natural hisAnglo-Saxon biddan, is connected with tory. the other verb abidan, inasmuch as the
Fifthly, Mr. Halliwell has incorpoperson making an offer, abided, or rated many solecisms, which we think waited for, its acceptance.
were scarcely deserving that attention. Mr. Halliwell will probably tell us, They are of two origins, either of that these are the very etymological pedantry or euphuism; or else of questions that he professes to avoid. editorial misapprehension and mere But are they not inseparably connected typographical error. Of the first with his proposed "correct
kind is that under ABBREVYATE,ings?" It might perhaps have been “caused Collyngborn to be abbrevyale better if he had avoided all the inflec- shorter by the heade”-a mere cirtions of verbs, and generally all such cuitous expression for “beheaded,” words as are noticed in our best mo. but where our author explains “ Abdern dictionaries, which is the case brevyate, — decreased !” Something with those we have noticed. As it is, like this is the meaning he assigns to be has vainly attempted to explain
a line of Lydgate, every inflection of the language, written “ Alle myscheffes from him to abrigge." in an antique orthography, that he may happen to have met with, at the
Now, every body knows the real imsame time disregarding those opera
port of “abridge;" but Mr. Hallia tions of grammar and etymology to which the “ formos" owe their birth.
“ ABRIGGE. To shield off." We need not say more to shew how The solecisms of the other kind are, much space might have been saved by where he corrects an editorial error, -compressing and coalescing the multi
er A-BOUET and AVELACE. Of GENT. MAG. VOL. XXIII.
these it may certainly be said in ex. though a few choice references of the cuse that a reader might turn to an latter kind may be found, as under Archaic Dictionary to learn whether Ait to the “ Times of Aug. 20, 1844," any knowledge had been acquired of a and under Alley and ANTIENT to word that had baffled an editor : but, the “ Pickwick Papers.” at most, a mere reference in such But we abstain, purposely, from cases would be enough, as " A-Bouet, further observations on particular see Bonet," and the explanation words, as that would lead us far beshould come under the real word, not yond our present limits. We have the imaginary one.
preferred, in this our first notice of an Lastly, for “ Proverbs, and Antient extensive and important undertaking, Customs," surely it was extending rather to discuss its general merits the scheme too widely to include them. and arrangements, and shall be glad We do not, however, find that they if we find that our remarks in have hitherto occupied so much space any respect conduce to greater as one might suppose their incorpora- caution and consideration, and above tion would require. Mr. Halliwell is all to a more lucid arrangement, in not, under letters A. and B., excessively the future portions of the work. Full of wise saws and modern instances,
The Gospel before the Age. By the guments would be wrong, neither honour. Rev. R. Montgomery.- This work is de- able to ourselves nor gratifying to him. dicated to Mr. Gladstone, and a long But there is an earnest tone of piety and dedicatory epistle to him is prefixed, in zeal pervading the spirit of the work, which, among other topics, he explains much learned inquiry, and much important what he means by the title-" The Gospel discussion. The topics in dispute are before the Age"-"that is, that, both theo. fairly stated and temperately argued ; and retically and practically, the age in which the views of the writer on the most im. we live, to a vast extent, treats the Gospel portant of all subjects,-viz, our fallen na. of Christ as it were behind itself, and ture and our regenerated state, which in. hence no longer capacitated to grapple deed is the whole subject of discussion, with the great problems of the day, and the sound divine and the pious Christian satisfy the rising wants of the world;" would equally call their own. and adds, “ A fixed creed, a real Christ, a divine nature, a spiritual home, and a present heaven, these are the satisfying goods, Progress of the Doctrine of Life-Contin
Historical Essay on the Rise and Early the solid blessings, for need of which a blind and haughty generation is now so
gencies in England. By E. J. Farren.
A work full of curious and accurate in. disturbed and unhappy. But our carnal reason cannot discern this, and our self.
formation on the subject, and well worthy confiding hearts will not receive it. Ac perusal. The difference in the calculation
of annuities in the last century is very cordingly, all the elect of God and the living members of Christ proceed to be
curious, as well as the inconsistency and their own electics by endeavouring to
vagueness on which they were formerly
founded. supply their own deficiencies. Hence empiricism, pride, and presumption, are the leading traits of the times,'' &c. This Geology and Geologists ; or, the Visions is the great principle worked out in the of Philosophers of the Nineteenth Cenvolume, through a variety of particulars, tury. By the Author of “ The Goodness under different modes of reasoning, and of Divine Providence.”—This work is not with reference to the various and opposite written in the style that science requires, errors it meets with and confutes, whether nor is the language applied to the illusin the corruptions of the Papal Church, or trious professors mentioned in it such as in the peculiar doctrines of Puseyism or of science gives to her favourite sons. That Evangelicism in our own. We think the there are defects, chasms, errors, in the book is larger than it need have been ; if present geological theories and systems, so, this is a great error, as impeding its we believe; but in the outline of their circulation and consequent utility. It general accordance with probability and discusses such a vast variety of subjects, fact we also have faith, which is not shaken and these lying on the edge and border of by anything advanced by the present aucontroversy, that to say we agree with the thor. His objections to the doctrine of a author in all his statements, views, or ar growing world, or a slowly progressive de
Telopement through successive ages, may our Reformers entertained, that the remis. be seen p. 29.
sion of our sins, and the regeneration of
our souls, is attendant on the baptismal The Cold Water Cure. By E. Lees, rite? Wesley too, I believe, has someEsq.-A second edition of the work. It where said, Who ever denied that we is moderate, sensible, and interesting, ex- were born again in baptism?' Very poshibiting equally the success and failures sibly statements made by these writers of this mode of treatment. We will not at other times may appear inconsistent throw cold water upon it.
with what they have here written ; but
their having but once expressed themselves Theory of the Fine Arts. By W. in this way is most unsuspicious testimony, Dyce. This is an introductory lecture because it is the testimony of reluctant delivered in the Classical Theatre of witnesses." There is also a sermon " On King's College in May. The author in- the Adoption of the Daily Service," a quires first into how far the term scientific practice which of course would be advanwas applied to the fine arts; and, in his tageous to all, and most consolatory to consideration of Christian art, divides it many, but which we should be very into five epochs or schools, which he sorry to see enforced through the numerterms the Christian- Pagan, the Barbaric, ous serious impediments which, in many the Ascetic, the Pagan-Christian, and the cases, would stand in its way.
As a voSensual. The treatise is to be followed luntary exercise of piety, it is to be comby a fuller exposition of the subject in mended, but we think not to be comfuture lectures.
manded by authority either of the Bishop
to his ministers, or by them to the people. Introduction to the Second Edition of the Highlands of Æthiopia. By M. C. Launcelot of the Lake: a Tragedy, in Harris.—This is intended to show the five Acts. By C. J. Reithmüller. We mistakes and malice of his reviewer,- never heard the name of this author every page of whose criticism, he says, before, but we shall be glad to see him abounds with fallacies and sophisms. again in the walks of poetry, for the pre
sent specimen of his poetical powers is Parochial Sermons. By Rev. G. W. full of promise. Perhaps the subject is not Woodhouse, M.A.—These sermons pos. well chosen, and the story too well known sess, we think, the great qualifications to excite surprise, or to admit much dewhich what are called “ parochial” de- viation from the received tradition; but mand,-sound scriptural doctrine, clearly it is well told by the author. The explained and strongly enforced, so that language is correct, the rythm harmo. attention may be awakened, practice nious, the poetical images pleasing, and strengthened, and faith confirmed. We the whole plot conceived and conducted do not know how to select any as superior with judgment and taste. Some of the to the rest, for the same character of style gentle and tender scenes are very beautiand exposition appears in all. We how- ful, and evidently are in harmony with ever may point out Sermon ix. “A due
the poet's genius. We should advise him Sense of Sin possessed with Difficulty,'' to try a subject which will admit a bolder and then xxii. " Thoughts of Comfort for fight, and the struggle of contending inthe Lonely;" and xxiv. "Feelings resulting terests, and the conflict of human passions, from the Knowledge of Christ;" but pro- without any intervention of supernatural bably a second reading would incline us agency: and we heartily wish him success to include many others under the same in his arduous and honourable undertaking. approbation. At p. 124 is an excellent Of the present drama no specimens would note well worthy of attention, on the Dis. be sufficient that are not too long for our cipline of the Church ; and at p. 376 on pages, and we will not do him injustice Baptism, which we extract.-" Calvin by too brief a quotation, says, in baptism God washes us in the blood of his Son, and regenerates us with Early Hours and Summer Dreams.his Holy Spirit. Luther on the 3rd chap- The object of these poems, the author ter of Galatians and the 27th verse writes says, " is to turn the sensual passions into thus: Here he, that is St. Paui, says the channel of more refined affections :" that all baptized persons have put on and he adds, that in early life he was reChrist,' speaking as I said of a putting on, markable for simplicity and purity of chawhich should not be by imitating, but by racter, and, before these valuable qualities being born." And the sermon asks, after were adulterated by a worthless intercourse a reference to the foregoing note and some with the world, he was thrown into the others to the same effect, “Does not this society of a young lady of irresistible Fery strongly countenance the idea which attractions, and favoured with her par