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Rambles in Germany and Italy, in 1840, far away over the Thuringian forest,—a

1842, and 1843. By Mrs. Shelley. Doble prospect; and the very site, high2 vols.

raised and commanding, was well-suited THE talents of the author of these to the lofty and unbending soul of the volumes are too well known and

recluse. This chamber is preserved in esteemed to need any fresh panegyric. illustrious guest,

and, except bis bed, his

the same state as when it harboured its Frankenstein is alone sufficient to furniture remains; his table, his stool, render her name imperishable, and his chair, and his inkstand, are there ; and these volumes will form a pleasing if not the stain in the wall, marking his memorial of her knowledge and taste. exploit of throwing his inkstand at the Mrs. Shelley travelled through the Arch-Tempter's head, there is, at least, North of Germany, and Italy; and we the place where the ink was,-some think that as soon as she enters the tourist baving carried off the memorable land of song she becomes inspired at plaster,” &c. once by the loveliness of nature and

II. p. 112. On the Italian Nobles.the beauty of art ; and her volumes

Play is the whirlpool that engulphs increase proportionally in interest. middle of the last century,--as among a

most of them. As with us during the Let us make a few extracts from the certain set of our present aristocracy,– more remarkable scenes.

play is their amusement, their contention, Vol. I. p.51. The Falls of the Rhine.- their ruin. Many of the noblest Italian " What words can express—for, indeed, families are passing away, never more to for many ideas and emotions there are no be heard of the heirs of their wealth words—the feelings excited by the tumult, having lost all at play. New men, mostly the uproar, and matchless beauty of a of Jewish extraction, who have gained by cataract, with its eternal everchanging banking, stock-jobbing, and money lenda veil of misty spray? The knowledge of ing what the others have lost by their its ceaseless flow, there before we were extravagance, are rising on their downborn, there to be after countless genera- fall," &c. tions have passed away: the sense of its P. 158. “One of the most interest. power, that would dash us to atoms with ing paintings in the world has been out altering the tenor of its way; which lately discovered in Florence,--the portrait gives a shiver to the frame, even while of Dante by his friend Giotto. Vasari we gaze in security from its verge ; the mentions, that Giotto was employed to radiance of its colouring, the melody of paint the walls of the chapel of the palace its thunder,- can these words convey the of the Podesta at Florence, and that he impression which the mind receives, while introduced into his picture a portrait of the eye and ear seem all too limited in his contemporary and dear friend Dante their power of perception ? No! for as Alighieri, in addition to other renowned painting cannot picture forth motion, so citizens of the time. This palace has words are incapable of expressing the been turned to the unworthy use of a commotion in the soul. It stirs, like public prison, and the desecrated chapel passion, the very depth of our being ; was whitewashed and divided into cells. like love allied to ruin, yet happy in These have now been demolished, and the possession; it fills the soul with mingled whitewash is in process of being removed : agitation and calm,' &c.

almost at the first, the portrait of Dante P. 207. “ We now entered the depth was discovered. He makes one in a solema of the Thuringerwald, and stopping at procession, and holds a flower in his hand. Eisenach for dinner, had a lounge,-the Before it vanishes all the preconceived distance was not much more than a mile, notions of the crabbed severity of his but the day was wet-to take us to the physiognomy, which have originated in castle of Wittemberg. Luther, on his return portraits taken later in his life. We see from the diet of Worms, was waylaid by here the lover of Beatrice-his lip is his friend, the Elector of Saxony, and proud—for proud every contemporary carried thither as a place of safety. He asserts that he was, and he himself conremained ten months, passing for a young fesses it in the Purgatorio; but there is nobleman, and being employed in trans- sensibility, gentleness, and love-the lating the Bible, and composing other creation breathes the spirit of the Vita works. The castle of Wittemberg is situ- Nuova.” ated on a steep wooded eminence, ascended by a winding road thickly shaded

The author adds, that “the common by trees. The chamber that Luther in- prints taken from this picture are very habited has one large window, overlooking unworthy of it; they seem to subo a wide extent of hill and dale, stretching stitute sensuality for sensibility in the

are

an

lines of the countenance, and that Mr. profession, connected with the foundaKirkup's drawing, made for Lord tion and progress of our universities, Vernon, is excellent."

may be useful and correct; we do not P. 262. Sorrento." It seems to me

deny but that the volumes may afford as if I had never before visited Italy-as sufficient matter to satisfy the curiif now for the first time the charm was osity of the foreign student; but we revealed to me. At every moment the should have scarcely considered it to senses, lapped in delight, whispered to be a work that could be translated me-this is Paradise. Here I find the with advantage. As, however, it is secret of Italian poetry,—not of Dante; presented to us in this form, we shall he belonged to Etruria, and Cisalpine give a sort of tabular view of its conGaul. Tuscany and Lombardy beautiful, they are an improved France, who are alive to the very inte

tents, that may be satisfactory to those abundant sunshiny England; but here only do we find another earth and resting subject of the history and sky. There the poets of Italy tasted the structure of those seats of learning, sweets of those enchanted gardens which

and twin eyes of England, the they described in their poems, and we

Universities of Oxford and Camwonder at their bright imaginations, but bridge. they drew only from reality-the reality The first volume begins with an acof Sorrento. Call to mind those stanzas count of the growth of Universities in of Tasso, those passages of Berni and the twelfth century, with their relation Ariosto, which bave most vividly trans- to the church and the philosophy of the ported you into gardens of delight, and in them you will find the best description of Oxford as

time. This is followed by the history of the charms of this spot. I had visited

an University in the

Saxon times, and an account of its difNaples before, but that was in winter ; and, beautiful as I thought it, I did not

ference from, or similarity to, the systhen guess what this land was in all the

tem at Paris,-of the northern and glory of its summer dress. Here is the southern portions,--of the relation of house in which Tasso was born--what

the universities to the town corporawonder that the gardens of Armida tions, with their jurisdiction and privi. convey to the mind the feeling that the leges. The sixth chapter includes poet had been carried away by enchant- remarks on the universities from the ment to an elysium, whose balmy atmo- middle of the 14th century to the Resphere hung over him, and he wrote under

formation, with the elevation of its influence -so indeed was it-here is tbe radiance, here the delights which he

the colleges. The eighth chapter is describes-here he passed his childhood :

interesting, as it gives a review of the the fragrance of these bowers, the glory universities during the Reformation, of this sky, haunted him in the dark cell

to the end of Elizabeth's reign ; inof the convent of St. Anna," &c.

cluding the reciprocal influence be

tween the universities and the inns of Many more such passages might be

court, and the schools and the church, quoted, shewing the author's percep.

and the other professions : there being tion of the beautiful, both in art and

a fierce struggle between the high nature, and her power and elegance church and puritanical principles, in describing it.

when Leicester was Chancellor. Many

interesting subjects are opened in the The English Universities. From the Ger- various discussions in this volume,

man of V. A. Hecker, abridged and which are worthy of a fuller inquiry translated by F. W. Newman. 3 vols. than the work would admit, consider

THIS work, compiled by a German ing the copiousness and variety of its writer, is, we think, calculated to be matter, and the space occupied by the more useful to readers of that country. author's fondness for entering into col. than of ours ; because the historical lateral details at much length. In part will present little novelty to an chapter ix. the history is continued English scholar, and the critical will from the death of Elizabeth to the Rebe too slight and superficial to afford volution, containing an account of the him instruction. We do not deny that conduct of the universities during the great pains are shown in collecting Civil Wars, and of Archbp. Laud as an information, and that the general view university reformer. The tenth chapter of society, and of religious belief and is employed in an inquiry into the constitution of the universities,

of the of. Life of Christ ; from the Latin of St. ficial personages,- of the rise of the Bonaventure. Newly translated for colleges,-of the academicoffices,-and the use of the Members of the Church of the external regulations of the uni- of England. versities with the crown and the na- WE much mistake if the members tional church. The eleventh chapter of the Church of England will avail renews the history to the times after themselves of the offer here made in the Revolution, and through the their favour, while they can possess a eighteenth century, including the con. Life of Christ written by the Evansideration of many separate questions, gelists. But this Life is suggestive or more or less closely connected with the supplementary to them; ex. gr. the main subject-as the exclusion of dis- Evangelists wrote that the Virgin, senters; and the whole survey is con- when she went to Elizabeth, travelled cluded by miscellaneous observations in haste, επορεύθη μέτα σπουδής. St. of the author, and by a volume of Bonaventure suggests the reason. "She notes and appendices.

was loth, in her great modesty and love That much diligence has been em- of retirement, to be long abroad." The ployed in compiling this work, and wise men from the East offered our that much and various information Lord gold as well as spices. The Saint has been collected, is not to be denied; asks what became of all this gold ? and but, as we have already observed, suggests that the Virgin Mary used it we think that, -however useful it may in bountiful almsgiving. In Scripture, be in Germany, in giving a general re- there is no intimation that Christ apview of the framework of our univer- peared to his mother on the day of the sities to foreigners,-neither in the bis- resurrection. Yet, says the Saint, torical reasoning, nor in the antiqua- though not recorded, it is almost a rian details, will it satisfy the demands result of natural piety to suppose it, of our own countrymen. The general especially as the Holy Spirit says, views may be correct, the outlines not " our Lord did many more things far from the truth ; yet, after all, it will than are written." Let the reader, appear to us the cold resemblance of he says, turn in thought to the nara an inanimate statue, and not of that ratives of the Annunciation, of the which bears the fresh hue of vitality, Visitation, of the Marriage of Cana, and the movement and animation of of the Crucifixion, and again to the reality. There are some serious, and first chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, some mistakes of a lighter character, and surely he will remember passages that might be collected in the volumes. which are at least suggestive of very Assuredly one of the former is, when wonderful thoughts concerning the the author says “ that Unitarianism, mother of God. The Scripture tells though openly avowed by few, is of the visit of Mary to her cousin secretly held by vast numbers nomi. Elizabeth ; but the sacred biographer pally members of the church :" but would have been much surprised had this the Translator has animadverted he found how his outline had been on. On the subject of Locke's ex- filled up out of the imagination of the pulsion, the author or translator modern saint, who tells us, should have transcribed from Lord They seated themselves (after some Grenville's pamphlet: and it is a gross ceremonious apologies) side by side ; then error to say that Gray, when holding succeeded mutual inquiries concerning the Professorship of Modern History, the mysteries of which each had been the never intended to read lectures; subject, and this was a topic of happy whereas it was his constant inten- narration ; and so they passed a long and tion, and a source of perpetual regret joyous day. ... When Elizabeth's full time that his increasing infirmities and ill

was come, she was happily delivered of a health and depression of spirits pre

son, which our Lady received into her arms,

and swaddled with becoming care. The invented his being able to execute it.

fant, as if conscious of the majesty of his This fact is fully declared in Mason's

nurse, fixed his eyes stedfastly on her, so life of him.

taken with her beauty, that when she de-
livered him again to his mother, he still

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looked towards her, as if he could take that they passed their time a-begging? No. delight in Done but her, while she, on We are told by several sacred writers bow the other hand, continued graciously ingenious, as well as industrious, our blessed playing with him, embracing him, and Lady was at her needle and distaff, and cherishing him with her heavenly lips," that she was extremely diligent in work, &c.

ing for the support of her beloved son and As regards the circumstances attend- spouse. This queenly Virgin was so in ing the nativity of Christ, we are told

love with poverty, that she passed her that

time in sewing and spinning. ... And

when Jesus came to be about five years of “We may suppose Saint Joseph, who age, may we not devoutly believe that he was by profession a carpenter, might pro- carried messages for his mother, going bably have made a partition or small en- about in quest of work for her, for what closure for the little party ... and taking other page can we suppose she had? And what bay he could find in the manger, did he not also carry back the work when diligently spread it at our Lady's feet ... done, and in his mother's behalf ask at Hence the ox and the ass, kneeling down, least for half of the price, and receive and laying their heads over the manger, payment." gently breathed upon him, as if endued with reason, and sensible that the blessed

On the return from Egypt: infant stood in need of their assistance to “ They had given notice throughout the warm and cherish him ... Joseph like. neighbourhood some days before of their wise worshipped him; after which he intention to depart, that they might not stripped the ass of his saddle, and sepa. seem to steal away in a clandestine manner, rating the pillion from it, placed it neor which might have looked suspicious. ... the manger of the blessed Virgin, to sit One of the company, who happened to be on; but she, seating herself with her face rich, called the child Jesus to him, and towards the manger, made use of that bestowed a few pence upon him. The homely cushion for support. In this pos. holy child is not a little abashed, yet, out ture our Lady remained some time im. of love to poverly, he holds out his little movable, gazing on the manger," &c. hands, and takes the money, for which he At the Circumcision :

returns thanks !" Among other things was this, which

And after this : has not hitherto been mentioned, that his “As he grew up from his twelfth to his blessed mother, when she laid him in the thirtieth year, he was not remarkable for manger, having no pillow with which to any actions which in the eyes of the world raise his head, made use for that purpose bore any appearance of manly worth. of a stone, which it is not unlikely she may They were greatly astonished, and laughed have covered with hay. This I had from at him, calling him an useless fellow, an a devout brother, who said it in spirit! A idiot, a nobody, a youth of no sense and cushion or pillow, we may very piously spirit; neither did he apply to any learn. imagine, would much rather have been hering, so that it became a kind of proverb choice, had she possessed one."

to say, that he was but a grown-up child," Then again, at the Offering :

&c. “ What do you think the Virgin did

In the Temptation in the Wilderwith all this quantity of valuable gold ? Did she hoard it up, or put it out on "The angels say, 'What wilt thou that usury? Did she lay it out in the purchase we prepare for thee?' To which he reof houses ? No; she was too great a lover plies, Go to my dearest mother, and if of poverty for that. In her zeal for that she have anything at hand, bear it to me; blessed estate, and with her intimate know- for of no food do I so gladly partake as of ledge of her son's will, both revealed to that which she prepares. Then two of her within, and exhibited by infallible the number set out, and in a moment are tokens without (since perhaps he turned with her. They respectfully salute her, away his eges from the gold as if with and bring a mess of pottage, which she aversion), she expended the whole, as I had got ready for Joseph and herself, and judge, in a few days, for the use of the a piece of bread, with a linen cloth, and poor, for it was distressing for her to have other necessaries. Perhaps, too, our Lady such a sum in her possession," &c. procured, if she could, a small fish or Duriog their sojourn in Egypt :

two," &c. “ Whence did they procure a subsistence

Again : for so long a period ? Do you suppose “ Though it was uncertain whose mar

7

ness :

riage it was at Cana of Galilee, let us, for to possess this gift from their mother's meditation sake, suppose it to have been womb; but those who are not so blest need that of St. John the Evangelist, which St. not despair of being made worthy of it; Jerome seems to affirm. ... And our for, if there be an earnest mind, God is Lady going out to her son, who was hum. faithful, and will not suffer us to be bly sitting, as I have said, at the end of the tempted above that we are able, but will table, near the door of the room, she said, with the temptation make a way to escape, to him, My son, there is no wine, and that we may be able to bear it. In the our sister is poor, and I know not where present state of the Anglican Church it we shall get any.' We may gather from may be harder to acquire than elsewhere, her taking notice herself of the want of still the means are the same as ever they wine, that she was not there in the cha- were, and they are such as these : absti. racter of a guest, but as one who had the

nence from the company of the other sex ; management of the entertainment, and that covenant with the eyes, spoken of by observed the want of wine. Had she been the patriarch Job; obedience to the sitting among the women, would she have Church's rules of fasting, together with a observed the want of wine? And there. general low diet; an earnest coveting of fore it is probable that she was not there that most excellent gift of chastity, makas a guest, but that she was engaged in ing it a subject of perpetual prayer ; and arranging the entertainment, for we are (would that it could be added with the told often that she was ever attentive in hope of being practised) frequent confeshelping others," &c.

sion.* One more consideration may be We must make an end somewhere, added, pamely, the habitual contemplation and, as these quotations are sufficient, self, and of his holy mother. If we find

of the chastity of our blessed Lord him. let it be in this place; and all we need few external helps in the present external add is, that besides the extreme im. provisions of our Church, if our churches propriety of the design, nothing can well

are closed against us, and the blessed Euexceed the ignorance of the execution. charist, where we are made one with the The whole account of the manger, of virgin body of our Lord, is rarely celebrated, the hay, and of the lowest ice in the

we must endeavour to fulfil the Church's reroom being near the door, shows an en- quirements in private; and, so doing, we tire want of knowledge of Oriental shall gain time for prayer, and be able, the customs and observances, such as more we renounce the world, to prevail would of itself unfit the author for his

with God to make up to us the disadtask, and has filled his work with vantages under which we lie. Since then errors of various kinds. To those who holy virginity is, as all must admit, a know the manners of the East, we need

great grace, wherever it is possessed, so it

is equally clear that to certain persons it hardly point out the monstrous ab

is in some sense a duty. It would plainly surdity of the observations made on

be a duty in those who are described by the Wise Men's offering of Gold, our Lord as · Eunuchs which were so none of which, we think, will come born from their mother's womb;' and in into the pocket of the publisher. another sense it is ecclesiastically and in

the abstract the duty of the clergy,t not On Holy Virginity; with a brief ac

indeed by divine obligation, but by the count of the Life of St. Ambrose. unvarying practice and reported decrees of By A. J. Christie, Fellow of Oriel councils from the earliest times down to

the division in the Western Church. It Coll. Oxford.

is, indeed, difficult to say how far in the THE dedication of this little work

Anglican Communion modern habits may, is as follows: In honorem beatissimæ et

under the reformation of the canons, be gloriosissimæ superque Virginis Mariæ excusable, or even in particular cases Collegii Orielensis apud Oxonienses Patronæ istum libellum in lucem prosero. J. C." We must give one ex

“ For want of this there is great reason

to fear that the solitude in which the tract from the author's preface, as showing his view on the subject, and

young among the clergy find themselves,

leads to thoughts, if not acts, too apt to how closely it agrees with the work

wean them from all the good resolutions which he translates.

they have made of renouncing marriage." “That the grace of holy virginity is a + The subject of the “ Continence of very great gift no Christian who receives the Clergy” has been followed in its the testimony of Holy Scripture can history in a note in the new edition of doubt. Some are so highly favoured as “ Fleury's' Eccl. History, b. xix. c. 22. GENT. MAG. VOL. XXIII.

I

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