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Moore, of Exeter Coll. Oxford, grandson of Col. Moore, above mentioned. Yours, &c. J. D. PARRY.
East Winch Vicarage, near Lynn, Dec. 9. AT page 410 of your 12th Vol., New Series, is the following paragraph:
"Dr. Young, of Whitby, with some of his friends, whilst examining a subterranean Forest which was found during the excavation of a capacious bonding-pond at South Stockton, discovered one of the oaks to have been cut in two, which had evidently been done previous to its being covered by the earth. He supposes the forest may have been cut down by the Roman soldiers, as they were in the habit of laying timber on the low swampy grounds for the purpose of making roads. Be this as it may, it is certain the hand of man has been exerted on the timber, and it may form a fertile subject for the lover of ancient history and the geologist to speculate on."
The above passage brought to my mind the recollection of a fact that I now beg to communicate to you; and which, as it carries us back to a more remote period than that in which the Roman soldiers may be supposed to have been wood-cutters in our land, you may not think unworthy of insertion in your valuable Miscellany.
In ages very remote, the land along the coasts of Lincolnshire and Norfolk extended much further out than it does at present; and whole forests once existed in places which are now entirely occupied by the ocean.
In the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1799 is a very interesting account of these submarine forests, by Joseph Correa de Serra. This paper relates only to the Lincolnshire coast; but roots, trunks, and branches of trees are found to extend along the northern shore of Norfolk also, as far as from the Wash to Thornham, and perhaps further.
trated by the spade. They lie in a black mass of vegetable matter, which seems to be composed of the smaller branches, leaves, and plants of undergrowth, occupying altogether a space of five or six hundred acres.
At low water these may be approached from the shore on foot; and about twelve years ago, accompanied by a friend, I walked to examine them. At about a mile from the high-water mark we arrived at the forest, where we found numberless large timber trees, trunks, and branches, but so soft that they might easily be pene
But what I would particularly requarian readers is, that in the prostrate commend to the notice of your antitrunk of one of these trees, imbedded about an inch and a half by its cutting edge, I found a British flint celt, which is now deposited in the Norwich Mu
Much difference of opinion has arisen as to what purpose these ancient implements were applied, and by what people, and at what time they were in
If the above curious fact should lead to further inquiry it may be of interest to many of your readers, and to none more, Mr. Urban, than
Yours, &c. GEORGE MUNFORD.
MR. URBAN, Aug. 31. THE names of some places in this Island are very singular; appearing, on the face of them, to have been formed from familiar words of our present language; and so conveying the notion that such names, although they must be of modern date, comparatively, have reference to some fact, or legendary tradition, of very ancient times but such a reason for these names being not at all apparent, or probable, they have given rise to many unfounded, not to say ridiculous, tales and stories relating to such places.
This has arisen from the various people who have become the occupiers of this country, since the Britons, speaking a different language from them, and from each other. Such vernacular and homely names may, in most instances, it is thought, be traced to the British language, and may be considered as corruptions thereof. This has not been sufficiently regarded by our antiquaries; and consequently many of them has been led into absurd conjectures, and have been the means of sanctioning, if not of inventing, the many popular, but untrue accounts, that have been mixed up with the history of some places.
As an illustration of these observations, I shall advert to some places in this Island, remarkable for their depth and declivity, in the names of which
his Satanic majesty's appellation bears a conspicuous part, as if he had been concerned with them, in some inexplicable way, or had some property in them, viz. the Devil's Dike; the Devil's Punch-Bowl; the Devil's Arse-a-peak; the Devil's Den, &c. Now these names are nothing more, I confidently submit, than a corruption, as far as the word "Devil's," (thus put in the genitive case,) of DIPHWys, the British for a steep or precipice. And there are many similar words in that language to express depth, profundity, &c. (probably the parent of our word, deep.)
THE DEVIL'S DIKE, near Brighton, is well known as a deep cavity, steep and precipitous.* Another Devil's Dike, in Norfolk, is described in the Archæologia, vol. xxiii. p. 372.
THE DEVIL'S PUNCH BOWL, is on the Portsmouth road, near Hindhead (in Surrey, I believe); and is a place of the like character. The term bowl seems also of British origin, from PWLL or BWL, signifying a bason-like cavity in the ground. Punch is obviously a facetious addition of modern times.
THE DEVIL'S-ARSE-A-PEAK (to say the least, an indelicate, as well as an unmeaning name) is in Derbyshire, as is well known. Those who have not witnessed it, have, for the most part, read of it. The name seems to me compounded of the aforesaid word DIPHWYS, and of ARSWYD, the British for dread, terror, &c. So that the present homely though indecent name is a corruption of some British words, expressing the terrible and awful depth and steep descent of this celebrated place. The addition "a Peak," has probably reference to its situation near the lofty and precipitous Peak, (which in the British is written PiG;) or more likely it was intended to include that.
In addition, I shall add that some high ground, to the south of Dorking, is called Claygate Hill; on one de
See the legend connected with this, and the poetical version of it by the late William Hamper, esq. F.S.A. of Birmingham, in Gent. Mag. vol. lxxx. pt. i. p. 513. It is also observable that, in the British language, PWLL DIWAELOD, means a bottomless pit.
clivity of which is a large and deep pit, in which now grows underwood. It appears to have been dug out, i. e. formed artificially. CLADD, in the ancient British language, means a pit or digging. The common people, thereabouts, call this pit, THE DEVIL'S DEN. This is another proof of the etymology I am contending for. The word Den is, in all probability, a corruption of Dell," a pit. So that Devil's Den (or rather the words from which the name arose) means nothing more than the steep, or deep pit.
It is but an act of justice to our ancestors, to rescue them from the imputation of superstition, which these mysterious names have led to their being charged with, and which has arisen merely from the accidental circumstance of the original names resembling in sound the present awful ones. J. P.
Goodrich Court, MR. URBAN, Oct. 30. A MOST interesting and satisfactory communication was made to your Magazine of November 1840, displaying the usual accuracy and indefatigable research of your Correspondent J. G. N. In this he has proved that in the picture at Chiswick falsely attributed to Van Eyck, the portraits are not those of Lord and Lady Clifford, but Sir John and Lady Donne, of Kidwely, in the county of Caermarthen.
He shews how this curious picture may have come from the Clifford family into the possession of the Earl of Burlington; but adds, "from what cause the portraits assembled in this picture were ever ascribed to the Lord Clifford and his family,' it would be difficult to guess." Now, Sir, I happen to be at this time engaged in correcting the press for the publication of the Visitation of Wales, in the time of Elizabeth, by Lewys Dwnn (or Donne,) deputy herald for that purpose appointed.
This curious collection will make its appearance under the patronage of the "Welsh MSS. Society," for whom I have undertaken the editorship. It contains a very ample pedigree of the Donne family, to whom the compiler was related. From this I find myself enabled to dissolve what has appeared
lowing lines, written by Sir Nicholas
panying Plate. Over the arch, engraved on grey marble, were the fol
HÆC CUM PERFECIT NICOLAUS TECTA BACONUS,
DE AMICITIA. [1.]
In amico admonendo, melius est suc-
From the Porch an ascent of four or
Ulterius qui me non sinit esse rudem;
The Gallery was panneled with oak,
"Syr Nicholas Bacon Knyghte to his very good ladye the Ladye Lumley sendeth this."
Amor, insana amicitia: illius affectus : istius ratio, causa: at ea sola amicitia durat, cui virtus basis est.
At the head of the next page is the following title:
Over a gate leading into the orchard, which had a garden on one side and a wilderness on the other, under the statue of Orpheus stood these verses : Horrida nuper eram aspectu latebrææque ferarum,
"Sentences painted in the Lorde Kepars Gallery at Gorhambury, and selected by him owt of divers authors, and sent to the good Ladye Lumley at her desire."
Ruricolis tantum numinibusque locus. Edomitor faustò huc dum forte supervenit Orpheus,
The sentences themselves, which are thirty-seven in number, and each bearing a title, as DE SUMMO BONO, DE AMBITIONE, are transcribed in Miss Grimston's book; and we believe facsimiles of some of them have been published by Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A.
The two following are specimens: and they are given because they were omitted (no doubt accidentally) by Miss Grimston.
In the Orchard was a little Ban
queting-house, adorned with great cu-
Some notices of the literary pursuits of Joanna Lady Lumley will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. CIII. ii. 495.
Lex sum sermonis, linguarum regula certa,
Ingenium exacuo, numerorum arcana recludo,
Divido multiplices, res explanoque latentes,
Mitigo moerores, et acerbas lenio curas,
Me duce splendescit, gratis prudentia verbis,
Corpora describo rerum, et quo singula pacto Apte sunt formis appropriata suis. ARCHIMIDES, EUCLID, STRABO, APOLLONIUS.
Astrorum lustrans cursus viresque potentes, Elcio miris fata futura modis. REGIOMONTANUS, HALY, COPERNICUS, PTOLEMY.
From the paper already inserted, it has been shown that the house was not finished until 1568. Four years after, as is supposed, it received its first visit from Queen Elizabeth. Her intention of so doing is recorded by the following letter of the Lord Keeper to the Lord Treasurer :†
"After my hartie comendacions. Understanding by comen speche that the Quenes Matie meanes to come to my howse, And knowyng no certentie of the tyme of her comyng nor of her aboade, I have thowght good to praye you that this bearer my servaunt might understond what you knowe therein, And yf it be trewe, Then that I myght understond yor advise what you thinke to be the best waye for me to deale in this matter. For, in very deede, no man is more rawe in suche a
matter then my selfe. And thus wisshing to yo L. as to my selfe, I leave any further to trouble you at this tyme. From my howse at Gorhamburie this xijth of Julij 1572. Yo' L. assured
N. BACO C. S.
The date is altered from the xt to the rij& the Lord Keeper has added to the letter, which was written by his secretary, the following hasty postscript.
"I have wrete thys bycause I wolde gladly take y cours yt myght best pleas hur Matie, weh I knowe not how better to understond then by yo' help.
Addressed, "To my very good L. the L. of Burghley."
No particulars of the Queen's en
tertainment on this occasion are preserved; except the remark which her Majesty made on first surveying the mansion. It appears to have been less than she expected, or than many others of the aspiring structures of that magnificent æra in domestic architecture. So she said, "My Lord Keeper, you have made your house too little for you." He replied, with the characteristic humility of one whose motto was MEDIOCRIA FIRMA,-" Not made me too big for so, Madam, but your Majesty has my house."
The Queen was again at Gorhambury in 1573-4, her charter to the town of Thetford being dated at Gorhambury, March 12, in the 16th year of her reign.
Previously to the Queen's next visit the Lord Keeper had complied with her suggestion. He erected for her reception a Gallery, 120 feet in length, and 18 in breadth, but its materials were only lath and plaster. At either end was a small apartment. Under the whole were Cloisters, in the centre of which (in a niche) was a statue of King Henry the Eighth, cut in stone, with gilt armour, and at the upper end were busts of Sir Nicholas and his second wife, inserted in the wall. From the antechamber, which communicated with the Gallery, were two doors; one, on the left, intended for common use; the other, on the right, for her Majesty to enter; and after her departure Sir Nicholas, with the refined flattery of the times, caused that door to be closed, that no other step might pass the same threshold.
This visit took place from Saturday the 18th of May 1577 to the following Wednesday; and this account of its expenses is preserved in the Lambeth Library:
"The Charges expended at Gorhambury by reason of her Matie comynge thither on Saturday the xviijth of Maye 1577 before supper, and contynewinge untill Wednesday after dynner followinge, warranted by a booke of particulers :
Pantry and Pastry.-First for wheatt in the Pantry and Pastry
The original is in MS. Lansd. 14.
The Queen came to Gorhambury from the Lord Treasurer's own mansion at Theobalds. On her visits to that celebrated place, which in the time of her successor became a royal palace, see our vol. VI. p. 260. A view of Theobalds was given in vol. V. p. 147.
GENT. MAG. VOL, XXIII.