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able to appreciate. This was probably the most happy portion of his life.

But this period of happiness and exemption from anxiety and care was not to continue long; the health of Mrs. Callow began to give way, and neither the assiduities of her indulgent husband nor the skill of her medical friends could ward off the afflictive stroke-she died in the year 1816, and was interred in the churchyard of St. Anne, Soho.

Circumstances not long afterwards compelled a removal from Crown Court. The clean, well-conducted, genteel they might be called, shopkeepers, began gradually to disappear; the shops were occupied by a less respectable grade of persons; there was more of noise, more of dirt and disquiet, than heretofore, and Callow was under the necessity of leaving a place where he had enjoyed much of happiness and good fortune. Here it is true he had met with difficulties, but those difficulties had been mastered, and he had the gratifying reflection that he had risen to distinction and consequence, in a position which in his early years held forth no flattering promises of advancement or success; and he unwillingly withdrew from the spot whence his first and most durable pleasures arose.

The house to which he removed was in Prince's Street, the north-west corner of Gerard Street. This removal took place about Christmas, 1818, some time previous to which Callow had married a second wife. This change of condition did not contribute to his comfort or happiness. It rather tended to increase his expenses, and to withdraw him from that close attention to business which had distinguished him through life. The little cottage at Brompton was given up, and a more expensive house entered upon in Church Street, Chelsea, and it was obvious to his friends that Callow had not the same freedom from anxiety as formerly. Age marked itself more distinctly upon him, and his countenance was careworn and oppressed.

In 1824 Callow retired from business, leaving as his successor Mr. John Wilson, who has since transferred the establishment to Mr. John Churchill. In a few years Callow was

deprived of his second wife, and in the year 1834, in very moderate reduced circumstances, he died at the age of 75 years. He was interred in Sir Hans Sloane's burying-ground, King's Road, Chelsea. Yours, &c.

S. M.

MR. URBAN,

AT a time when the costume of the Middle Ages attracts so much attention as at the present, it is desirable to ascertain the precise meaning of the several terms by which the different parts of dress and armour were distinguished. A well-executed glossary of them would be a valuable acquisition, but research and discrimination would be indispensable for it.

Not to occupy more of your columns by such remarks, permit me to say a few words upon the coif de mailles. Not long ago I gave some attention to the various kinds of armour used in the 12th and 13th centuries, and satisfied myself, on what I thought good grounds, that the coif de mailles and the chaperon or capuchon de mailles were essentially different; the former being a bowl-shaped cap, and the latter (for the chaperon and capuchon were I think identical) a hood covering the neck as well as the head. Yet I observe the term coif is not unfrequently used by modern archæologists to designate the hood. I will not trouble you with instances in detail. That this and some other terms should be misapplied in the Hints of the Cambridge Camden Society, (see 4th edit. pp. 36 and 37,) ought not perhaps to be a matter of surprise, as ancient armour is there a very subordinate subject; and it is only on account of the extensive dissemination of that useful little work that I here refer to it: but I see in the last No. of the Archæological Journal, p. 199, what I should have called the chaperon de mailles, in the Trumpington brass, is called the coif de mailles by the eminent Director of the Society of Antiquaries, to whom we are indebted for the article on Brasses, and whose general accuracy and extensive ac. quaintance with such subjects make the matter important enough to be, by your permission, noticed in your pages.

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The coif was, as I understand it, a skull-cap of mail (de mailles) or of plate (de fer), and worn generally over the upper part of the chaperon de mailles. Instances will, I think, readily occur to such of your readers as are familiar with effigies of the 13th century. In the Temple Church are two examples of the coif de mailles, and also, if I mistake not, two of a peculiar kind of coif de fer. The chapel de fer was conical, or nearly so, and is thus distinguished from the coif de fer. If, contrary to my conviction, the coif and chaperon de mailles are identical, I would ask, what is the name of that piece of armour which I suppose to be the coif de mailles?

I am unwilling to extend this letter, but must request leave to add a remark on the genouillieres represented in the Trumpington brass. Whether those knee-pieces ought to be termed genouillieres or poleyns I will not stop to inquire; the former term is the more significant, and it is appropriate, if it be not exclusively applicable to the armour for the knees at a later period. What I would know is this; supposing, as I think is the fact, that such coverings for the knees were not parts of the chaussons, of what material were they made? Some, and among them the gentleman above mentioned, say, of plate. If so, how could the knee be bent? That they did not prevent this necessary use of the knee might be expected; and it is shown by several effigies in which knees so covered are represented in that position. I have not been able to satisfy myself either as to the material or construction of these defences. Perhaps some of your readers can explain them.

Yours, &c. W. S. Walford

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MR. URBAN, Nov. 25. UNDERSTANDING that the church of Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire, is about. to be rebuilt, I presume to send you a description. I am not aware why it is proposed to be rebuilt, in place of enlargement. I remember that the present exemplary Archdeacon of Bedford, Dr. Bonney, recommended a new aisle on the south side, for which there was sufficient room. No doubt there may be very good reasons for a difGENT. MAG. VOL. XXIII.

ferent arrangement. The church was certainly much too small for the increased population of the parish, amounting to 1100 or thereabouts, and a very considerable portion, nearly all the gallery, was occupied by the inmates of a boarding school in the village.

This church was pretty fully described in "Parry's History of Woburn, the Abbey, and Russell Family," &c. 1831, p. 151. It consists of a short nave and north aisle, with three arches only, a middle-sized chancel, and a tower, which will probably remain. It is of decent height for the church, with a very slender leaded spire, and of great strength, the walls towards the top being a yard and a half thick. It contains four bells, the three first not very good, but the tenor, weighing 16 cwt. of pretty good and deep tone.

There is a view of this church in the Antiquarian and Topographical Cabinet, from a drawing by G. Shephard, taken from a hill above the west end, in which the tower formed a prominent and picturesque object.

The church is dedicated to St. Botolph (a saint, according to my own experience, rather more popular in the eastern and north-eastern parts of this kingdom than any other). From the shape of the arches and the octagonal columns, I should suppose it not to be older than the 15th century. Octagonal columns, apparently of the later period, are found in the church of Flemersham, Beds; which village contained the seat of the late excellent antiquary and botanist Mr. Marsh, a most pleasing specimen, to all who ever saw him, of quiet primitive simplicity, varied learning, and Christian kindness. The west front is a grand specimen of the Early English.

There is also a window of two lights on the south side of the chancel at Aspley, the flowing contour of the upper part of which seems to indicate the 14th century. Also an altar tomb in a continuation of the north aisle, with a recumbent effigy in chain mail, supposed to be that of one of the Guises, of about the time of Edward the Third. Arms on the tomb, On a bend, three escallop shells in a bordure engrailed. The other monuments are three. On the north side of the chancel a brass tablet for William Stone, F

of Burnham-by-Sea, Norfolk, and about thirty years rector of this parish, in the 17th century, with the following excellent Latin hexameters :

ES MIHI MORS LUCRUM. Subjacet inclusus Gulielmus Stonus in urna, Cui natale solum Norfolcia, villaque Burnham Oceanum juxta; non ampla stirpe creatus; Veste Magisterii quem Cantabrigia cinxit: Sederat hic hyemes decies ter-quinque peractas,

Septuaginta duos vitæ compleverat annos, Cum tria Jacobus moderasset lustra BritanSpe certa fidens virtute resurgere Christi, [nos; Et cum cœlicolis æternam ducere vitam.

A heavy marble monument in the north aisle for a person who was killed by the overturn of a carriage, "Currus eberso;" a large and handsome tabular one for the late respected and generous Mr. William Wright, who is styled the "second founder of Aspley School." This school, a private grammar, &c. school, was established soon after the commencement of the last century, and was ornamented with extensive and appropriate buildings by Mr. Wright, and has had formerly upwards of 200 scholars. Many persons from every part of the kingdom, including, no doubt, some of your readers, have been educated at it, also many respectable foreigners. The present master and proprietor is the Rev. R. Pain, B.C.L. of Pembroke Coll. Oxon.

There is one benefaction of about 127. per ann. for bread, I think on St. Thomas's Day; and a field of two acres is left, for taking care of the church clock, to the parish clerk.

The only feature which redeems the church from insignificance is, or was, a double tier of small circular windows, filled with quatrefoils, under the battlements of the nave. In the churchyard is the tomb of Lieut.-Col. Arthur Owen, of a Welsh family, a former inhabitant of this parish, much esteemed for the honour and humanity of his disposition.

Aspley is situated in Manshend Hundred and Deanery of Flitt, 2 miles N. of Woburn. It receives its second

• Would it not be well, when any one is inclined thus to lay up treasures "where no moth or rust can consume," if any landholder, by joining with him and obtaining deservedly nearly half the praise, should grant him a rent-charge, the surest investment, for a fair sum?

name from the Gyse or Guise family. The manor was anciently in the Beauchamps, as parcel of the Barony of Bedford. Simon de Beauchamp surrendered it by way of a composition to Guy de Walery, who had laid claim to his whole barony: Reginald de St. Walery gave it to Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, and Grand Justiciary of England, whose widow, Margaret, dau. of the King of Scots, died seised of it as her dower, in 1259. After this Aspley became the property and chief seat of the Gyses or Guises, ancestors of the Gloucestershire family of that Anselm de Gyse had this manor in marriage with a daughter of Hubert de Burgh above named. In 1540 John Guise, esq. gave the manor of Aspley to Henry VIII. in exchange for lands in Gloucestershire. It is probable that the King granted it to Sir Ralph Sadleir, whose descendants are still possessed of it.

name.

Aspley had for a short time a market, perhaps for about fifty years, which speedily fell into disuse or decay, on the grant of a market to the Abbot of Woburn (two miles off.) It has been popularly believed that the market was transferred to Woburn, but this is a mistake; the fact simply being, as Browne Willis once observed to an inhabitant of Aspley, "You see the Abbot's market swallowed up yours."

Aspley has no antiquarian relics, unless the fossil earth or petrified wood be considered so, as having been commemorated by Drayton in his "Poly-Olbion."

"That little Aspley's earth we anciently. enstyle, Midst sundry other, things a wonder of our

isle."

The fuller's earth pits are not now in this parish. There exists only a hollow filled with trees and brushwood, which was the original one. Those now in use, though only about 200 yards distant, are in the parish of Wavendont and county of Buckingham.

In this parish-the conscientious and talented Rector of which, the Rev. J. Fisher, is not unknown in the literary world is a good instance of compensation to the poor on enclosure. About forty or fifty years ago a portion of heath, on which the poor had the right of digging

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The parish of Aspley, containing above 2000 acres, is very healthy, the soil being principally sand and gravel, and the water lying low down, from 30 to 60 feet. It is chiefly celebrated for its beautiful "wood," which was diffusely celebrated by the late Mr. J. H. Wiffen in a beautiful poem in the Spenserian stanza, entitled "Aonian Hours." It is very extensive, abounding with oaks and various other trees, including alleys of larch, and, in one very extensive dell, cedars of Lebanon. Above is a riding, from which about 20 church towers and spires can be seen on a clear day. In this wood are also a profusion of that pleasant and wholesome wild fruit called here huckle-berries, and elsewhere whortleberries and bil-berries; also "lilies of the valley," (for which it is especially famed,) wild hyacinths, primroses, &c. &c. and those poetical accessories the "nightingale" and the "glow-worm."

The "Black Watch,"-Sidier Dhu -now the 42nd Highlanders, great part of which mutinied from an encampment at Highgate, after having been scandalously and cruelly treated by the ministers of George II. in being lured to London for the purpose of being sent abroad after a solemn promise to the contrary, are said to have parted in this wood, after passing through the Duke of Bedford's park, and to have stayed some time in its recesses. And it is believed that some little action took place between them and a party of the King's troops, either in its north-western part, near the beautiful heathy dell, or the immediate vicinity.

The farms, at least those principally within the parish, are generally small, there being only one, I believe, exceeding 150 acres. There are, however, some large plantations of fir and larch, besides the great wood. Game is very plentiful. Of water there are only a few very small ponds. There is one

turf, was conveyed to the then Duke of

Bedford on condition that he should deliver yearly, for ever, 100 tons of coals, free of carriage, to the poor of Wavendon. As coals are sold there in the winter to the poor by the petty dealers at 18. 9d. or 2. per cwt. it is considered that they have gained by the bargain,

windmill. I am not certain whether there is anything worthy of being called a brook-of which there are some considerable ones with mills on them in the neighbourhood-flowing through the parish.

Partly in this parish, and partly in that of Wavendon, lies the hamlet of Hog's-stye-end, containing about 300 inhabitants, a small number of respectable houses, and an ancient Quakers' meeting-house, in a pleasant situation, of homely and dwellinghouse appearance, said to be coeval with the rise of that respectable body. There is also a good inn, which has also been a boarding school, which, before the railroad days, had a considerable traffic. The hamlet stands on the old high road to Manchester, Liverpool, Chester, &c. which runs through Woburn and Newport Pag

nell.

The former interesting little town, well worthy a visit, has also suffered heavily, like some others, from the "mammon" of railway speculation, now needing all the patronage and influence which can be afforded by the Bedford family, its natural protectors, some of whom have done so much for its ornament and benefit.

As, however, this name appeared cacophonous to its more polite inhabitants, attempts have been made more than once to "reform it altogether" to "Woburn Sands," or "The Sands," and partly with success. Still

"Quo semel est imbuta recens servabit Testa diu ;" [odorem and "Hog's-stye-end," vulgarly dissyllabled into "Hogs-teen'd," yet lives.

At Aspley is a strong petrifying spring, from which the petrified ladder at Woburn Abbey was taken. Aspley is well known for a considerable distance round as conspicuous for the number of genteel families which it contains. Here was, but I believe no longer is, the library of the late R. T. How, esq. an excellent and benevolent specimen (of which also there was another) of the Society of Friends, containing five or six thousand volumes of various descriptions, including illustrated French, Italian, and Dutch ones, a few rich illuminated manuscripts, and sixty editions and translations of the Bible. Amongst the volumes was a grand folio of great size and thickness,

finely bound, called, if I recollect rightly, "Succia Illustrata," or "Depicta.' It contained three or four hundred large views, not only of all the principal churches, palaces, &c. &c. in Stockholm,-three or four to some, including interiors, as of the Ritterholms Church, but in all the principal towns of the kingdom, and the villas and armorial bearings of the principal nobility. Several of the plates were very large views of entire places, including Stockholm under various aspects, with the islands and course of the Maelar Lake (Lacus Maleoticus.) On the whole, it was a far grander work than anything of the kind yet published in England, and its value could scarcely have been less than 100l. It therefore excited some surprise that a small and not rich northern country should have produced such a one. The date, I think, was somewhere about 1740, and the titles and explanations were in Latin. It contained the former old palace, with the great and lofty tower of Drie Kronen, or The Three Crowns (Turris Trium Coronarum.) It seems probable that this fine work was not known to, or it would have been alluded to by, Dr. E. D. Clarke; whom the writer had the honour of knowing whilst living, and writing a brief sketch of after his lamented death.* There were also one or two similar works, but much inferior in size and beauty, on Holland, including views and plans of gardens. The motto of this gentle man, whose family had been Dutch, was (if I spell it right) “Unda, freyheit, freyhende." - Virtue, Liberty, Peace.

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The "Great House," an excellent mansion, with large walled gardens, came by purchase from the family of Scott (who have a hatchment in the chancel,-motto Honestas est Optima Polititia) to Mrs. Smith, daughter of Mr. Harvey, of the adjoining parish of Hulcot, the patronage of which

church, consolidated with Salford, i in the family, and it is now possessed by the eldest son, the Rev. E. O. Smith. Their ancient seat is engraved in "Fisher's Collections." They were intimately connected with the honourable families of Boteler and Charnock, of whom some account will be found in the work twice mentioned above. Some charities have been left, yearly added to by the present possessors of the estates; and to this family the church of Hulcot, built by one of the Charnocks, was lately indebted for complete new fittings of fine old carved wainscot. But not having seen this work, or knowing from whence it was brought, I cannot speak of it personally. Two persons above mentioned, Browne Willis and Mr. Marsh, were related to this family.

Here is also a solid and handsome mansion, with gardens built by the late Col. Moore, of the Bedfordshire Militia, two cottages ornées, belonging to W. F. Kerr, esq.; and there are some other good houses, including the parsonage house, which is close by the church gates; also a handsome house built by T. Parker, esq. who is, I believe, nearly, if not quite, the father of the medical gentlemen in this county, enjoying in viridi senectute the respect for talents and humanity of all classes of men.

The living of Aspley was about fifty years ago consolidated with Husborn Crawley, about 14 mile distant, the service at the latter being performed in the middle of the day, between two at Aspley. The church of Crawley, much superior to that of Aspley, stands on elevated ground, nearly equally distant from the two places, and has a lofty tower, conspicuous in most directions, and a fine peal of six bells, which can be heard at a considerable distance, and are very popular in the neighbourhood. Of this building also a full description was given as above.

* In the Literary Gazette 1821; also of Mr. J. H. Wiffen, translator of Tasso, &c. in the same, 1836; also of the late benevolent and generous Duke of Bedford, in the Morning Chronicle 1839; and (second shorter notice) of the excellent Mr. Tate, of St. Paul's, formerly of Richmond, in the Times of September last.

The lately deceased rector of Aspley, the Rev. T. Farmer, (formerly rector of St. Luke's, Old Street,) was nephew of the celebrated Dr. Farmer, of Emanuel Coll. Cambridge, and, though of somewhat brusque manners for a clergyman, had much integrity and kindness of heart. The present rector is, I understand, the Rev, John Vaux

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