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cursions of a numerous and savage nied in places by Roman forts. population, may here be quoted. Gwaith, from which the name is cor.
1. That line of entrenchment to rupted, in an extended sense, according check the devastation of the provinces to Richards, means a battle. The of Gaul by the Helvetii which Cæsar "ditch of battle” would be very threw up, nineteen miles in length, significant for such a work.Ş This extending from Lake Leman to Mount was the prototype of Offa's Dyke, Jura. "Interea eâ legione quam secum Clawdd Offa, and, indeed, in some habebat, que militibus qui ex provincia places, is seen running parallel with convenerant a lacu Lemano
quem it. Offa's Dyke extends from the fiumen Rhodanum influit ad montem Dee to the Severn, near Chepstow.ll Juram qui fines Sequanorum ab Hel- It was constructed as a territorial vetiis dividit, millia passuum decem et boundary against the Welsh about the novem murum in altitudinem pedum year 780, by Offa, King of Mercia. sexdecim fossam que perducit.' Tradition and history ascribe such a 2. That wall and rampart con
work to that monarch ; but it appears structed by Lollius Urbicus, Governor quite incredible that it should have of Britain, in the time of Antoninus been executed in twelve days, as MatPius, between the friths of Forth and thew Paris relates. “ Rex Offa ad Clyde, extending from old Kirkpatrick, cautelam inter ipsos duos exercitus comon the Clyde, to the borders of the muni assensu unum fossatum longum Forth, a distance of thirty miles ; a nimis et profundum effodi jussit aggere position previously defended by a chain terrestri versus Wallenses eminenter of sorts designed by that great Roman elevato. Quæ omnia prout temporis strategist, Agricola. This is the Grim- brevitas exigebat ante natale Domini, ma's (corruptly Graham's) or Wizard's videlicet duodecim diebus licet brevissiDyke of after-ages, which thus assiga mis sunt completa.” As this line com. its construction to diabolical agency. prised an extent of at least 100 miles, The same superstitious belief attaches the soldiery employed by Offa per. to many Roman works, and designates formed their work with a celerity with them as Devil's banks, ways, and which modern "navigators,” as delvers dykes; and this is one circumstance in of tunnels, sewers, and railroads are favour of a Roman origin for the somewhat whimsically termed, cannot Devil's Dyke at Newmarket.
compete. We must suppose, however, 3. The wall of Severus, in juxta that they really did little more in the position with the earlier work of twelve days than set out the boundary Hadrian, so well known as the Picts' line. Many notices of the remains of wall, extending from Wallsend, near Offa's Dyke occur in the publications Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to Bowness, in of tourists in Wales. They appear to Cumberland, a course of eighty miles.t be very slight as compared with the
Waasdyke, in Wiltshire, has in all Devil's Dyke. We are told that the probability a Roman origin ; the name traveller would pass it near Mold, in is from the British word Gwahan, de- Flintshire, unnoticed if not pointed noting a separation. Watt's Dyke, out: “all that remains is a small on the borders of Wales, was also of hollow which runs along the cultivated Roman construction, and is accompa- fields, perhaps not above 18 inches
deep in the centre, or more than 20 * Comment. de Bello Gallico, lib. I.
yards in breadth.”** + See the Rev. John Hodgson's Ac. count of the Picts' Wall, Hist. Northum- § See Richards's Thesaurus, in voce berland ; and that from an actual survey Gwaith, who quotes Taliessin for the by the late Wm. Hutton, F.S.A., noticed word in that acceptation. in Gent. Mag. for 1802, p. 633.
II Warrington, vol. i. p. 163. It has been noticed in one of the re- | Matt. Paris, in Vit. Offæ Secundi, views of topographical works which I have edit. Watts, p. 17. from time to time contributed to these ** Offa's Dyke extended from the river pages, that there are numerous dykes run- Wye along the counties of Hereford and ning parallel with Wansdyke all ditched on Radnor into that of Montgomery. It the north-eastern side, that is, against the passed by Chirk Castle, crossed the Dee interior extent of the country, shewing near Plas Madoc, now forms part of the that they marked the gradual onward ac- turnpike road to Wrexham, and terminates quisitions of foreign invaders.
at a farm near Treyddin Chapel, in the The first mention of the Devil's Dyke glected, and an opinion might be formed in history is found in the Saxon Chro- whether they were mere outworks of nicle under the year 905, which tells us the Master Dyke. that the land of the East Angles was An instance of the adoption, in laid waste between the dyke and the modern times, of a long-extended deOuse, as far northward as the fens. fence by a ditch and rampart is to be The dyke was termed in the Norman found in the military canal formed period St. Edmund's Dyke, because during the late war to cover the marsh the jurisdiction of the Abbots of Bury lands of Kent and Sussex between SandSt. Edmund's extended so far west- gate and Rye. ward. The description of the dyke by I have hitherto omitted to mention, Abbo Floriacensis, a writer of the 10th that I observed some fragments of century who had visited Britain, as Roman tile scattered near the dyke, quoted by Camden, is remarkable for and that it appears to have been cut its brief accuracy:
Speaking of East through in forming the present high Anglia, he says, that on the west “ this road from Newmarket to Cambridge. province joins to the rest of the island, That is some evidence for its very high and consequently there is a passage ; antiquity. I recommend the explorator but to prevent the enemies' frequent of this interesting fortification not to incursions it is defended by a bank fail to visit the dyke at the Links, to like a lofty wall, and a ditch."* A descend into the foss, and obtain the reference to the sketch and section ac- view I have given of its course, ascendcompanying these notes will at a glance ing the rising grounds southward in shew the appropriate character of the direction of Wood Ditton. It will Abbo's words.
then be allowed I have drawn no exThe day is not now, perhaps, very aggerated picture of the work. On remote when our national antiquities the race-course at Newmarket its of the earlier period will be submitted character is not so bold; it has been to more careful investigation than they brokeu through in order to form aperhave hitherto received. These are tures for the running horses at places matters which belong to the chartered to which the general name of gates Society of Antiquaries, and the Society (i. e. gaps) has been given, and the of Archæologists newly established, as rains of centuries have had more effect a body, and to every one of their in reducing its features. If opportunity members in their individual sphere. should occur, I shall be happy at some
A much more careful survey than I future period to survey the entrenchhave had leisure to make of the Devil's ment marked in the Ordnance map at Dyke throughout its course, and ex- Wood Ditton, and to trace the dyke to ploration of the adjacent lows or its termination at Reach. barrows, would probably develope very The question in the meanwhile still conclusive indications of its origin. lies open, whether the Devil's Dyke is In such an examination similar works a Roman or a Saxon work, and any adjacent would not be altogether ne- information tending to settle that point,
conveyed through the medium of the parish of Mold. Watt's Dyke commences in the parish of Oswestry, pursues its course near Wrexham, and terminates † “Immediately under Shorn Cliff, and near the Abbey of Basingwerk. The two within half a mile from Sandgate, comdykes above mentioned run in a parallel mences the new military canal which has course for many miles, and are often con- recently been cut, to impede the progress founded by topographers. Offa's Dyke is of an enemy, in the event of a landing ditched towards the Welsh side ; on which being effected on this shore. It extends side Watt's Dyke is ditched does not from this parish (Sandgate) in nearly a appear from the authorities I have con- straight direction along the coast till it sulted. See Sir Richard Colt Hoare's passes Hythe, when it crosses the Romney Girald. Camb. Notes ; Cambrian Traveller's Road, and, following the course of the Companion, under Mold. (See also notices hills which skirt the extensive flat forming of Offa's Dyke by the late Rev. Thos. D. Romney and Wallend marshes, terminates Fosbroke, F.S.A. who resided in its at Cliffe End, in Sussex, a distance of vicinity, in the Gentleman's Magazine, about 23 miles. Its breadth is about 30 Vol. CII. ii. 501 ; Vol. III. New Series, yards, and its depth six, with a raised p. 490.-Edit.)
bank to shelter the soldiery." Brayley's Camd. Britannia by Gibson, p. 407.
Kent, p. 1114.
Gentleman's Magazine, will be received stall of a small shop. Among them with satisfaction. The generations of was a medical book, which he had a mankind rapidly pass away, but the mind to purchase, and he went into monuments which their labour has the shop to ask the price. The shop erected on the surface of the earth door opened between two bow remain.
Tradition generally affords windows ; that on the right hand was an uncertain or exaggerated view of used as a place of deposit for books, their origin, if remote, or, at a loss for that on the left served as a sort of its traces, proclaims them the work of counter, at which was seated a spare, demons. Written records are some- very neat young man, repairing a times scanty, or altogether wanting. watch. A respectable looking woman Documents and relics are often worth- attended to serve the book customers, less, if not submitted to critical analysis. and of her W. M. made the purchase. In many cases the aid of actual survey This was the first medical book which and delineation, and of the mattock was sold by John Callow, the father and spade, must be resorted to. of our medical booksellers, and the
Coins, military weapons, (observing first who published a separate salewhether these be of brass or iron, catalogue of medical books. relics of domestic utensils or sepulchral At this time, W. M. was in the rites, may then be sought for, and, as heyday of youth and comeliness ; these are evidences generally capable of his mind was active and intelligent, comparative and chronological classifi- and his manners pleasing; a brilliant cation, they become of importance, prospect of success and distinction in and in the hands of a judicious collector his profession was just opening before are no longer rubbish unfit to occupy him; he was eager for all scientific that most valuable of commodities en- acquirements, and he sought in books trusted to our husbandry,-time. for such means of improving his
A. J. K. mind as books could yield.
There was something so neat, so MR. URBAN, B. S. G. S. Nov. 5. orderly, and so quiet in Callow's little
IT is now more than fifty years ago shop, as induced W. M. to visit it that W. M. a young medical prac- again and again, and to make other titioner, in passing through Crown purchases ; thus more acquaintance Court, St. Anne's Soho, had his at. grew up, and he soon learnt Callow's teation attracted by some books which little bistory. He was the son of a were exposed for sale in the window respectable farmer at Homer, a small village near Hereford. His education research were fond of meeting and was limited; he had been taught to conversing. read and write, and had been ap- But an inconvenience arose from prenticed to a watchmaker, in the thus collecting a large stock of publicaexercise of which business we find him tions, which Čallow, in the simplicity employed, and by which he added to of his mind and unadvisedoess rethe common means of support of his specting the larger mercantile transwife and himself.
actions, had not foreseen. One evenMrs. Callow had been formerly ing Mrs. Callow called on W. M. in married, and had begun the business great distress of mind, and told him of of dealing in old books during her the great trouble in which her husband first husband's life ; how soon after his was involved; he had made some death Mrs. Kingdon became the wife purchases of new books, and a bill of John Callow is not remembered, which he had given was become due, but she brought her old books as her and he had not the means of meeting dower, which were soon removed to the demand; it was feared that he No. 10, Crown Court, where the joint would be arrested, that other creditors business of watchmaking and book would press upon him, and that ruin selling was carried on.
was inevitable. The propinquity of Crown Court
She was advised to go herself to to the renowned anatomical theatre every creditor, to state all the parerected by Dr. Hunter in Great ticulars of the case, and thus if posWindmill Street, (since converted into sible to stave off the immediate danger MacGowan's Printing Office,) at which threatened. She strictly folwhich Baillie and Cruikshank lowed this advice, and the creditors were at this time conjoint lecturers, agreed to meet and talk the business brought a large number of pupils and over; an evening was fixed, and medical practitioners close by Callow's W. M. though a stranger to such shop; many were attracted by his matters, and to most of the gentlemen book window, and many medical present, but willing to shew his books were offered to him for sale or
countenance and good will to poor in exchange by medical pupils. It Callow, attended the meeting. The often happened that the opinion of highly respectable bookseller of PiccaW. M. was asked respecting some of dilly, John Stockdale, took the lead. the more erudite books, and, if any He saw in the true light how the thing was offered in French or Latin, matter stood. Callow, he said, had or possibly in Greek, information was overstocked himself; if harsh measures sought from him and always cordially were adopted his ruin would ensue, given, so that Callow and his wife and his creditors would be great losers ; considered themselves under great “but give him time and he will pay obligations to their kind friend, and everybody.” Stockdale's recommendawere always very grateful for the as.
tion was acceded to, and such an sistance rendered.
arrangement was made as enabled lo a few years, Callow's shop be
Callow to resume his business and to came stored with books of consider.
pay all his creditors. able value and importance, and it was This was almost the last kind service recommended to Callow by Mr. John that W. M.* was able to afford to his Pearson, the learned and scientific humble friend. In the year 1794, be. surgeon of Golden Square, to establish himself solely as a Medical BookSELLER AND Publisher. This advice * Of the very few pictures painted by was to a great extent followed, and William Doughty, a favourite pupil of henceforth not only were the best old
Sir Joshua Reynolds, I possess one ; it is medical works to be found in Crown
a portrait of W. M. when a boy, caressing Court, but also all the new publica- and is so closely in the style of Sir
a dog. It does great credit to the artist, tions connected with medicine; hence, Joshua, who suggested some improveCallow's shop became the resort of ments in it, as to occasion frequent inprofessional men in search of informa. quiries if it is one of his. Some account tion, and here physicians and surgeons of Doughty may be found in Northcote's of accomplished minds and scientific Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds.
iog in attendance on a patient labour- sermons and divinity that she could ing under a contagious disease, he find, and the clergyman agreed to take took the infection, which insidiously the whole lot at a small sum per pursued its ravages till February, volume. The sum altogether amounted 1800, when death released him from to about 5l. and great was the good his sufferings.
lady's delight at having made such a Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit,
bargain. It proved that this clergyNulli flebilior quam mihi.
man was the Rev. Vicesimus Knox,
who, having compiled and profitably When the Revolution took place in edited the "Elegant Extracts in Verse, France, and docks of emigrants ar. the “ Elegant Extracts in Prose," and rived in England, a great number of the “ Elegant Epistles," was engaged the clergy and others localized them- in preparing for the press a compila. selves in Soho, and many sought to tion of sermons, which he afterwards gain a meagre livelihood by teaching published under the title of “ Family French and Latin. Various an- Lectures." Douncements were suspended in Cal- Callow's business increased so much, low's shop, offering the services of the and the house in which he resided was parties to pupils and others who so loaded with bookshelves, (for every wished to learn or improve themselves corner was filled ; even the staircase in those languages. Perhaps Callow was made to sustain its portion of availed himself of this sort of aid to shelves,) as to render it sometimes a acquire more knowledge of the contents matter of discussion whether it would of Latin and foreign books; at all not be advantageous to remove to a events, either from such instructions larger house; but to this there were or from the attention he was compelled various objections ; Crown Court had to pay to title-pages and indexes, or many attractions, it was quiet and from the various critical remarks made retired, a good business had grown by customers and others, he actually up there, which was carried on at a acquired more information respecting moderate expense : though often talked the contents of learned books than of, therefore, no determined step as might be expected from his original to change of residence was adopted. education and employments.
Nor is it probable that a change During all this time Mrs. Callow would bave added to the happiness of was the assiduous adviser and as. Callow or his wife ; for at this period sistant of her husband ; they lived of their lives they possessed as much happily, and were much respected by of comfort and enjoyment as their their neighbours and all around them. wishes could well embrace. Besides
Among the books which came the house in Crown Court, where by originally with Mrs. Callow, there day he was occupied in business, was a large number of volumes of Callow had taken a cottage situated sermons, &c.; these did oot prove a in a nursery garden at Brompton, in very marketable commodity in Crown which Mrs. Callow was emancipated Court; a few were usually displayed from ber close attention to business, in the window, but the greater number and where he could of an evening were deposited in the garret. It repose and rusticate. It was indeed bappened one day that a clergyman a cottage of very small dimensions ; was observed turning over the leaves but fortunately much of happiness may of some of the religious books in the be met with in a small cottage. In window; he asked the price of them, this casula, this smallest of small and inquired if they had any more to retreats, was stored a small collection dispose of, and if he could see them. of “book rarities ;” and, though he He was told there were many more in could not boast of many of the “rathe garret ; that they could not be rissimi," and of only a few " editiones conveniently looked out then, but if principes,” and those chiefly medical, he would take the trouble to call again yet here was the prized first edition of they should be ready for his inspec- ihe Life of William Bowyer, and other tion. A day was appointed ; Mrs. scarce and choice English publicaCallow was indefatigable in rum- tions, in which Callow took 'delight, maging out all the old volumes of and the beauties of which he was well