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cursions of a numerous and savage population, may here be quoted.
1. That line of entrenchment to check the devastation of the provinces of Gaul by the Helvetii which Cæsar threw up, nineteen miles in length, extending from Lake Leman to Mount Jura. "Interea eâ legione quam secum habebat, que militibus qui ex provincia convenerant a lacu Lemano quem flumen Rhodanum influit ad montem Juram qui fines Sequanorum ab Helvetiis dividit, millia passuum decem et novem murum in altitudinem pedum sexdecim fossam que perducit."*
2. That wall and rampart constructed by Lollius Urbicus, Governor of Britain, in the time of Antoninus Pius, between the friths of Forth and Clyde, extending from old Kirkpatrick, on the Clyde, to the borders of the Forth, a distance of thirty miles; a position previously defended by a chain of forts designed by that great Roman strategist, Agricola. This is the Grimma's (corruptly Graham's) or Wizard's Dyke of after-ages, which thus assign its construction to diabolical agency. The same superstitious belief attaches to many Roman works, and designates them as Devil's banks, ways, and dykes ; and this is one circumstance in favour of a Roman origin for the Devil's Dyke at Newmarket.
3. The wall of Severus, in juxta position with the earlier work of Hadrian, so well known as the Picts' wall, extending from Wallsend, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to Bowness, in Cumberland, a course of eighty miles.t
Wansdyke, in Wiltshire, has in all probability a Roman origin; the name is from the British word Gwahan, denoting a separation. Watt's Dyke, on the borders of Wales, was also of Roman construction, and is accompa
nied in places by Roman forts. Gwaith, from which the name is corrupted, in an extended sense, according to Richards, means a battle. The "ditch of battle" would be very significant for such a work. This was the prototype of Offa's Dyke, Clawdd Offa, and, indeed, in some places, is seen running parallel with it. Offa's Dyke extends from the Dee to the Severn, near Chepstow. It was constructed as a territorial boundary against the Welsh about the year 780, by Offa, King of Mercia. Tradition and history ascribe such a work to that monarch; but it appears quite incredible that it should have been executed in twelve days, as Matthew Paris relates. "Rex Offa ad cautelam inter ipsos duos exercitus communi assensu unum fossatum longum nimis et profundum effodi jussit aggere terrestri versus Wallenses eminenter elevato. Quæ omnia prout temporis brevitas exigebat ante natale Domini, videlicet duodecim diebus licet brevissimis sunt completa."¶ As this line comprised an extent of at least 100 miles, the soldiery employed by Offa performed their work with a celerity with which modern "navigators,” as delvers of tunnels, sewers, and railroads are somewhat whimsically termed, cannot compete. We must suppose, however, that they really did little more in the twelve days than set out the boundary line. Many notices of the remains of Offa's Dyke occur in the publications of tourists in Wales. They appear to be very slight as compared with the Devil's Dyke. We are told that the traveller would pass it near Mold, in Flintshire, unnoticed if not pointed out: "all that remains is a small hollow which runs along the cultivated fields, perhaps not above 18 inches deep in the centre, or more than 20 yards in breadth."
* Comment. de Bello Gallico, lib. I.
See the Rev. John Hodgson's Account of the Picts' Wall, Hist. Northumberland; and that from an actual survey by the late Wm. Hutton, F.S.A., noticed in Gent. Mag. for 1802, p. 633.
It has been noticed in one of the reviews of topographical works which I have from time to time contributed to these pages, that there are numerous dykes running parallel with Wansdyke all ditched on the north-eastern side, that is, against the interior extent of the country, shewing that they marked the gradual onward acquisitions of foreign invaders.
§ See Richards's Thesaurus, in voce Gwaith, who quotes Taliessin for the word in that acceptation.
|| Warrington, vol. i. p. 163.
¶ Matt. Paris, in Vit. Offæ Secundi, edit. Watts, p. 17.
** Offa's Dyke extended from the river Wye along the counties of Hereford and Radnor into that of Montgomery. It passed by Chirk Castle, crossed the Dee near Plas Madoc, now forms part of the turnpike road to Wrexham, and terminates at a farm near Treyddin Chapel, in the
The first mention of the Devil's Dyke in history is found in the Saxon Chronicle under the year 905, which tells us that the land of the East Angles was laid waste between the dyke and the Ouse, as far northward as the fens. The dyke was termed in the Norman period St. Edmund's Dyke, because the jurisdiction of the Abbots of Bury St. Edmund's extended so far westward. The description of the dyke by Abbo Floriacensis, a writer of the 10th century who had visited Britain, as quoted by Camden, is remarkable for its brief accuracy. Speaking of East Anglia, he says, that on the west "this province joins to the rest of the island, and consequently there is a passage; but to prevent the enemies' frequent incursions it is defended by a bank like a lofty wall, and a ditch."* A reference to the sketch and section accompanying these notes will at a glance shew the appropriate character of Abbo's words.
The day is not now, perhaps, very remote when our national antiquities of the earlier period will be submitted to more careful investigation than they have hitherto received. These are matters which belong to the chartered Society of Antiquaries, and the Society of Archæologists newly established, as a body, and to every one of their members in their individual sphere.
A much more careful survey than I have had leisure to make of the Devil's Dyke throughout its course, and exploration of the adjacent lows or barrows, would probably develope very conclusive indications of its origin. In such an examination similar works adjacent would not be altogether ne
parish of Mold. Watt's Dyke commences in the parish of Oswestry, pursues its course near Wrexham, and terminates near the Abbey of Basingwerk. The two dykes above mentioned run in a parallel course for many miles, and are often confounded by topographers. Offa's Dyke is ditched towards the Welsh side; on which side Watt's Dyke is ditched does not appear from the authorities I have consulted. See Sir Richard Colt Hoare's Girald. Camb. Notes; Cambrian Traveller's Companion, under Mold. [See also notices of Offa's Dyke by the late Rev. Thos. D. Fosbroke, F.S.A. who resided in its vicinity, in the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. CII. ii. 501; Vol. III. New Series, p. 490.-EDIT.]
Camd. Britannia by Gibson, p. 407.
glected, and an opinion might be formed whether they were mere outworks of the Master Dyke.
An instance of the adoption, in modern times, of a long-extended defence by a ditch and rampart is to be found in the military canal formed during the late war to cover the marsh lands of Kent and Sussex between Sandgate and Rye.t
I have hitherto omitted to mention, that I observed some fragments of Roman tile scattered near the dyke, and that it appears to have been cut through in forming the present high road from Newmarket to Cambridge. That is some evidence for its very high antiquity. I recommend the explorator of this interesting fortification not to fail to visit the dyke at the Links, to descend into the foss, and obtain the view I have given of its course, ascending the rising grounds southward in the direction of Wood Ditton. It will then be allowed I have drawn no exaggerated picture of the work. On the race-course at Newmarket its character is not so bold; it has been broken through in order to form apertures for the running horses at places to which the general name of gates (i. e. gaps) has been given, and the rains of centuries have had more effect in reducing its features. If opportunity should occur, I shall be happy at some future period to survey the entrenchment marked in the Ordnance map at Wood Ditton, and to trace the dyke to its termination at Reach.
The question in the meanwhile still lies open, whether the Devil's Dyke is a Roman or a Saxon work, and any information tending to settle that point, conveyed through the medium of the
"Immediately under Shorn Cliff, and within half a mile from Sandgate, commences the new military canal which has recently been cut, to impede the progress of an enemy, in the event of a landing being effected on this shore. It extends from this parish (Sandgate) in nearly a straight direction along the coast till it passes Hythe, when it crosses the Romney Road, and, following the course of the hills which skirt the extensive flat forming Romney and Wallend marshes, terminates at Cliffe End, in Sussex, a distance of about 23 miles. Its breadth is about 30 yards, and its depth six, with a raised bank to shelter the soldiery." Brayley's Kent, p. 1114.
Gentleman's Magazine, will be received with satisfaction. The generations of mankind rapidly pass away, but the monuments which their labour has erected on the surface of the earth remain. Tradition generally affords an uncertain or exaggerated view of their origin, if remote, or, at a loss for its traces, proclaims them the work of demons. Written records are sometimes scanty, or altogether wanting. Documents and relics are often worthless, if not submitted to critical analysis. In many cases the aid of actual survey and delineation, and of the mattock and spade, must be resorted to.
Coins, military weapons, (observing whether these be of brass or iron,) relics of domestic utensils or sepulchral rites, may then be sought for, and, as these are evidences generally capable of comparative and chronological classification, they become of importance, and in the hands of a judicious collector are no longer rubbish unfit to occupy that most valuable of commodities entrusted to our husbandry,-time.
A. J. K.
MR. URBAN, B. S. G. S. Nov. 5. IT is now more than fifty years ago that W. M. a young medical practitioner, in passing through Crown Court, St. Anne's Soho, had his attention attracted by some books which were exposed for sale in the window
stall of a small shop. Among them was a medical book, which he had a mind to purchase, and he went into the shop to ask the price. The shop door opened between two bow windows; that on the right hand was used as a place of deposit for books, that on the left served as a sort of counter, at which was seated a spare, very neat young man, repairing a watch. A respectable looking woman attended to serve the book customers, and of her W. M. made the purchase. This was the first medical book which was sold by JOHN CALLOW, the father of our medical booksellers, and the first who published a separate salecatalogue of medical books.
At this time, W. M. was in the heyday of youth and comeliness; his mind was active and intelligent, and his manners pleasing; a brilliant prospect of success and distinction in his profession was just opening before him; he was eager for all scientific acquirements, and he sought in books for such means of improving his mind as books could yield.
There was something so neat, so orderly, and so quiet in Callow's little shop, as induced W. M. to visit it again and again, and to make other purchases; thus more acquaintance grew up, and he soon learnt Callow's little history. He was the son of a respectable farmer at Homer, a small
village near Hereford. His education was limited; he had been taught to read and write, and had been apprenticed to a watchmaker, in the exercise of which business we find him employed, and by which he added to the common means of support of his wife and himself.
Mrs. Callow had been formerly married, and had begun the business of dealing in old books during her first husband's life; how soon after his death Mrs. Kingdon became the wife of John Callow is not remembered, but she brought her old books as her dower, which were soon removed to No. 10, Crown Court, where the joint business of watchmaking and bookselling was carried on.
The propinquity of Crown Court to the renowned anatomical theatre erected by Dr. Hunter in Great Windmill Street, (since converted into MacGowan's Printing Office,) at which Baillie and Cruikshank were at this time conjoint lecturers, brought a large number of pupils and medical practitioners close by Callow's shop; many were attracted by his book window, and many medical books were offered to him for sale or in exchange by medical pupils. It often happened that the opinion of W. M. was asked respecting some of the more erudite books, and, if any thing was offered in French or Latin, or possibly in Greek, information was sought from him and always cordially given, so that Callow and his wife considered themselves under great obligations to their kind friend, and were always very grateful for the assistance rendered.
In a few years, Callow's shop became stored with books of considerable value and importance, and it was recommended to Callow by Mr. John Pearson, the learned and scientific surgeon of Golden Square, to establish himself solely as a MEDICAL BOOKSELLER AND PUBLISHER. This advice was to a great extent followed, and henceforth not only were the best old medical works to be found in Crown Court, but also all the new publications connected with medicine; hence, Callow's shop became the resort of professional men in search of information, and here physicians and surgeons of accomplished minds and scientific
research were fond of meeting and conversing.
But an inconvenience arose from thus collecting a large stock of publications, which Callow, in the simplicity of his mind and unadvisedness respecting the larger mercantile transactions, had not foreseen. One evening Mrs. Callow called on W. M. in great distress of mind, and told him of the great trouble in which her husband was involved; he had made some purchases of new books, and a bill which he had given was become due, and he had not the means of meeting the demand; it was feared that he would be arrested, that other creditors would press upon him, and that ruin was inevitable.
She was advised to go herself to every creditor, to state all the particulars of the case, and thus if possible to stave off the immediate danger which threatened. She strictly followed this advice, and the creditors agreed to meet and talk the business over; an evening was fixed, and W. M. though a stranger to such matters, and to most of the gentlemen present, but willing to shew his countenance and good will to poor Callow, attended the meeting. The highly respectable bookseller of Piccadilly, John Stockdale, took the lead. He saw in the true light how the matter stood. Callow, he said, had overstocked himself; if harsh measures were adopted his ruin would ensue, and his creditors would be great losers;
but give him time and he will pay everybody." Stockdale's recommendation was acceded to, and such an arrangement was made as enabled Callow to resume his business and to pay all his creditors.
This was almost the last kind service that W. M.* was able to afford to his humble friend. In the year 1794, be
*Of the very few pictures painted by William Doughty, a favourite pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds, I possess one; it is a portrait of W. M. when a boy, caressing a dog. It does great credit to the artist, and is so closely in the style of Sir Joshua, who suggested some improvements in it, as to occasion frequent inquiries if it is one of his. Some account of Doughty may be found in Northcote's Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds.
ing in attendance on a patient labouring under a contagious disease, he took the infection, which insidiously pursued its ravages till February, 1800, when death released him from his sufferings.
Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit, Nulli flebilior quam mihi.
When the Revolution took place in France, and flocks of emigrants arrived in England, a great number of the clergy and others localized them selves in Soho, and many sought to gain a meagre livelihood by teaching French and Latin. Various announcements were suspended in Callow's shop, offering the services of the parties to pupils and others who wished to learn or improve themselves in those languages. Perhaps Callow availed himself of this sort of aid to acquire more knowledge of the contents of Latin and foreign books; at all events, either from such instructions or from the attention he was compelled to pay to title-pages and indexes, or from the various critical remarks made by customers and others, he actually acquired more information respecting the contents of learned books than might be expected from his original education and employments.
During all this time Mrs. Callow was the assiduous adviser and assistant of her husband; they lived happily, and were much respected by their neighbours and all around them. Among the books which came originally with Mrs. Callow, there was a large number of volumes of sermons, &c.; these did not prove a very marketable commodity in Crown Court; a few were usually displayed in the window, but the greater number were deposited in the garret. It happened one day that a clergyman was observed turning over the leaves of some of the religious books in the window; he asked the price of them, and inquired if they had any more to dispose of, and if he could see them. He was told there were many more in the garret; that they could not be conveniently looked out then, but if he would take the trouble to call again they should be ready for his inspection. A day was appointed; Mrs. Callow was indefatigable in rummaging out all the old volumes of
sermons and divinity that she could find, and the clergyman agreed to take the whole lot at a small sum per volume. The sum altogether amounted to about 51. and great was the good lady's delight at having made such a bargain. It proved that this clergyman was the Rev. Vicesimus Knox, who, having compiled and profitably edited the "Elegant Extracts in Verse,' the "Elegant Extracts in Prose,” and the " Elegant Epistles," was engaged in preparing for the press a compilation of sermons, which he afterwards published under the title of "Family Lectures."
Callow's business increased so much, and the house in which he resided was so loaded with bookshelves, (for every corner was filled; even the staircase was made to sustain its portion of shelves,) as to render it sometimes a matter of discussion whether it would not be advantageous to remove to a larger house; but to this there were various objections; Crown Court had many attractions, it was quiet and retired, a good business had grown up there, which was carried on at a moderate expense: though often talked of, therefore, no determined step as to change of residence was adopted.
Nor is it probable that a change would have added to the happiness of Callow or his wife; for at this period of their lives they possessed as much of comfort and enjoyment as their wishes could well embrace. Besides the house in Crown Court, where by day he was occupied in business, Callow had taken a cottage situated in a nursery garden at Brompton, in which Mrs. Callow was emancipated from her close attention to business, and where he could of an evening repose and rusticate. It was indeed a cottage of very small dimensions; but fortunately much of happiness may be met with in a small cottage. In this casula, this smallest of small retreats, was stored a small collection of "book rarities ;" and, though he could not boast of many of the "rarissimi," and of only a few" editiones principes," and those chiefly medical, yet here was the prized first edition of the Life of William Bowyer, and other scarce and choice English publications, in which Callow took delight, and the beauties of which he was well