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lant adherence to his friends and follow. dices. The combination of solid with ers, and (which was by no means the brilliant qualities is so rare, that people least important with such an assembly as commonly suppose an abundant sparkling the House of Commons) the dignity of his of wit on the surface to indicate a dearth aspect and bearing. So great indeed for of wisdom beneath. The self-love of the many years was his influence, political and vulgar will not brook to acknowledge any personal, in that House and with the one man as their superior in several dishigher classes in general, that, although tinct departments of mind : and thus it was not placed officially at the head of the Go. assumed that the dazzling favourite of the vernment, he enjoyed perhaps a larger House of Commons could not possibly posshare of its credit and power than was sess the qualifications of a sound statespossessed by the First Minister of the The full recognition of his supeCrown; and his loss, while it was sin- riority was further retarded by another cerely lamented on private grounds, be- cause which it must be owned that he had came also, in reference to the conse- himself set in motion--the ill-will of those quential arrangements of the Ministry, a whom his talent for ridicule had annoyed. subject of the greatest political embarrass. The laugh passes away, but the smart rement.”—Lord Eldon called his loss quite mains; and none are more thin-skinned irreparable.
than the thick-witted. Those whom in
the buoyancy of his spirits he had satirised, MR. CANNING.
and among whom were found some mem“ The genius of Mr. Canning was of bers even of his own political party, the largest scope and of the finest order. sought their revenge according to their Upon some of those general principles of nature, and gave him out as a mercurial, politics which have become associated with fighty rhetorician, a mere epigrammatist, his memory, the judgments of mankind wanting in all the solid parts of business.t will probably be ever divided; but, At his entrance into the Cabinet, and for even with the most determined of his op- many years afterwards, the offence was ponents, it has long ceased to be matter still unforgiven, and the disparagement of question, that boldness, originality, and was still reiterated. When the Ministry grandeur, were the characteristics of his began to divide itself into two sections, the policy. That policy, too, was essentially one somewhat rigid in its adhesion to acEnglish. It was upon English principles tual establishments, and the other a little that he upheld authority—it was upon adventurous in experiments and concesEnglish principles that he succoured li- sions, the part taken by Mr. Canning, in berty-it was to English interests, in the favour of the larger and more hazardous most enlarged and generous sense, that theories, led to certain differences of opi. his heart and his energies were devoted nion between him and Lord Eldon; and —and his leading conviction was that of these differences, widened as they had • England, to be safe and happy, must be been by the Cabinet conflicts of September great.' It was not, however, until his 1809, the enemies of Mr. Canning took latter years that he reached the full mea- all possible advantage, sedulously contrastsure of his merited fame. He had at. ing his character, I such as they them. tained no small celebrity at college, and selves had chosen to misrepresent it, with even at school; and had acquired, before the sterling qualities of the Chancellor. he was five-and-thirty years of age, great The Chancellor, it is hardly requisite to literary distinction and a pre-eminent re- say, had no share in these petty attempts putation in the House of Commons. But for no man's mind was more averse that loftier praise, which belonged to him from animosity or intrigue, and no man as a leader of his country's councils, was was less disposed to seek bis own credit reluctantly and slowly conceded. Long by injuring the personal character of a before the public in general had recog. colleague ; but it is among colleagues that nised the real extent of his powers, he had political differences breed most displeabeen characterised by one of the more dis- sure ; and something of a militant spirit cerning and candid of his opponents did certainly disclose itself now and then • the first logician in Europe.' But ordi- between these two distinguished members nary observers clung to ordinary preju- of the Government. In Mr. Canning it
* Lord Holland, in the House of Lords.
+ As Mr. Whitbread, Mr. Hobhouse, Lord Nugent, and those who expired amid the laughs and blows of the Antijacobin.-Rev.
See a Specimen of these parallels in an extract from Cobbett's Register, at the beginning of Chap. XLIX.
Š "Lord Eldon had a strong dislike to Mr. Canning, whose movements throughout
broke out by way of incidental sarcasm and the accessary accomplishments and upon the old-fasbioned tenets of the legal graces of modern literature. It is dignitary; while the Chancellor would in. scarcely an exaggeration to affirm, that in dulge in a little quiet satire on the stirring his single person were united all the genius of the parliamentary leader. But highest gifts of eloquence which nature the fiercest assailants of Mr. Canning were had distributed among the most eminent the low party in Church and State ; who, of his Parliamentary competitors.t A hating him for his anti-revolutionary lucid, close, and forcible logic, effective principles, and galled by his perpetual alike for the establishment of truth and and powerful chastisements of their fore- the exposure of absurdity, hypocrisy, and most pretenders, dogged him with unre- pretension,- an elevated tone of declama. mitting malice, in hopes, by damaging his tion, appealing not so much to passion, as fame, to discredit his authority. They to what was noblest in thought and sentiwere ceaselessly on the watch for the ment,
-a stream of imagery and quotaslightest slip in his parliamentrry or of- tion, rich, various, and yet never overficial course, and, of the few blots he flowing the main subject,-a light ‘ar made, every one was bit. At length, how. tillery of wit,' so disciplined, that not a ever, genius, courage, and time, conquered shot of it flashed without telling upon the all obstructions: and the English people, issue of the cooflict, -an unfailing, yet undeceived as to his character, rendered constantly diversified, harmony of period, to it a complete, though a tardy, justice. and a magical command of those lightning As an orator, he stood beyond rivalry, and words and phrases, which burn themselves, almost beyond comparison.* He com- at once and for ever, into the hearer's bined, as has been happily said, the free mind,—these, and all these in their permovement, spirit, and reality of British fection, were among the powers of that Parliamentary debate, with the elaborate eloquence which death had thus suddenly perfection of the forum and the agora, hushed," &c.
City, Nov. ligious sacrifices, adds, "Ex luto IN your Magazine for April last, I namque Samio, quod est in insula sent a few remarks on the pottery Samo, in rubrum colorem vertente, plucalled Samian, which I was pleased to rima ego observo vasa etiam ad veterum see elicited a continuation of the sub- sacrificia. Quod in talem usum inject from your correspondent E. B. P. serviisset lutum Samium docet Cicero
I am induced to make some further de Rep.” (Apud Non. iv. 434.) observations, as the writer appeared to It is true (as E. B. P. observes) our doubt the authenticity of a quotation author only compiled his elaborate which I made from Pitiscus, and Lexicon little more than a century wished to know, whether it was to be since; but I think it probable he had found in his Lexicon? if so, under some good authority for the remark, what head? as he had referred to se- as his work is one of great research, veral without success.
and replete with valuable information, It is to be found in the Lexicon advancing little without a reference to under the head Simpulum,” where prove the correctness of his assertion. Pitiscus, after giving numerous autho- The writer also seemed to require rities to show that the Samian ware
distinctive evidence that the was used by the Romans at their re- Samian of Pliny was red; but I think
this matter he will be presently found opposing and severely denouncing ; but he disdained to slur bis antagonist with the undeserved imputation of private treachery," vol. ii. p. 87.-And p. 541, “I could have put Canning into Chancery if I had had a set-to with him."
* See Mr. Therry's Memoir prefixed to Mr. Canning's Speeches, p. 175.
+ We have heard the late Lord Farnborough affirm, that he thought Mr. Canning's Parliamentary eloquence superior even to Pitt's ; and no one was a stronger admirer of Mr. Pitt than he was.-Rev.
A Samian patera in my possession recently found in London bears the following impress, SACER • vasitr, which would seem to imply that it had been used for some sacred purpose.
I can show that such was the case colour similar in appearance to what from the quotations he has adduced, is termed bole, or oxide of iron. “ Cui portat gaudens ancilla paropside
E. B. P. is also of opinion, that the Alecem." Mart.
[rubra ware we have so long called Samian And again
is from Cumæ in Campania and the
neighbourhood. I think, had such been “ Rubrumque amplexa catinum
the case, large quantities of it would Cauda natat thynni, tumet alba fidelia have been discovered in the excava. vino." Pers.
tions of Herculaneum and Pompeii, The paropsis rubra and rubrum catinum but I believe few (if any) specimens here mentioned, both refer to dishes have been found there. The following used by the Romans at their meals, quotation shows that the two wares such as Pliny speaks of as Samian; the were distinct : former was a dish or platter to hold " At tibi læta trahant Samiæ convivia teste, pickles or vegetables (paropsis legu
Fictaque Cumana lubrica terra rota.” minis. Suet.), and the other to hold
Tibullus, Jarger viands, such as in this case a
I think we may infer from this, that large fish. The RUBRUM catinum is also
the former was in use at the table, termed in Lucilius SAMIUM catinum,
while the latter was of a more costly " Et non pauperuti, Samio curtoque character. The commentators on the catino :"
passage state the Cumæan to be the a still more corroborative proof. same as that now called Etruscan.
I have before observed I thought it The Etruscan vases were also made of probable some colouring matter was a red earth (rubrica), and afterwards used to give it that beautiful coralline covered with a bituminous substance appearance, but still I am of opinion to ornament them. The following is the the Samian clay was of a reddish hue analysis by Vauquelin; Silica 53 per independent of this adventitious colour, cent., alumina 15, lime 8, oxide of if any were actually used. Pliny cer- iron 24 ; the latter giving it the red tainly speaks of a white earth' from hue. Samos which was used for medicinal Whether these utensils were really purposes, but it would not have been made at Samos, as I imagine, and in from this the pottery was
which, I think I am borne out by the factured : that white was not the gem observations of Pliny; whether, as neral colour of the clay is, I think, others have supposed, they were mafully proved by travellers who have nufactured of Italian clay found in the visited the island. Tournefort, who immediate neighbourhood of Rome; gives an account of it, says,
or, as E. B. P. conjectures, in Cam. does not want for iron mines ; most of pania, they have been every where the land looks the colour of rust; all called Samian ; and the reason for so about Bavonda is full of a bolus, deep calling them must have been from a red, very fine, very dry, and sticks to similarity to the ware made at the the tongue.
Samos was heretofore the island of Samos. We should have famed for earthenware, perhaps it was just as much reason for supposing this earth about Bavonda.” A friend that these vessels were made in of mine possesses a specimen of the London, merely because such abundant veritable 'Samian pure, quantities of specimens are discovered here, which were formerly exported from Caylus had, from finding such quantithe island for the purposes of phar- ties at Nismes, in immediately conmacy, bearing the Sultan's seal or cluding they were manufactured at stamp, which is doubtless the pure that place while under the Roman dounmixed earth : even this is of a red minion.
NOTES ON BATTLE FIELDS AND MILITARY WORKS.
No. II. THE DEVIL'S DYKE, NEWMARKET.
Nec struere auderent aciem nec credere campo,
Eneid. Lib. ir, lin. 42. IN the month of August 1842 I village of Reach, whose appellation, had the opportunity of making some from the Saxon, pæcan, indicates the notes, founded on personal inspection, point to which the dyke reached or of the structure of that very remark- extended, (see the Plan,) so that its able ancient military earthwork on right flank rested on streams and marsh Newmarket Heath, in Cambridgeshire, lands, and its left on a forest tract. popularly called the Devil's Dyke. As The vallum being thrown up on the I am not aware that any particular eastern side, shews that the entrenchsurvey of this strong and very ex- ment was intended to secure the plain tensive line of defence has been made, of Newmarket against an enemy apthe report of my examination of it may proaching from the westward, by a not be unacceptable.
barrier impregnable if properly deI surveyed it at a spot called The fended. Such, indeed, it must have Links, wbere it remains very bold and been, for the escarpment of the perfect, about a quarter of a mile south rampire from the bottom of the ditch ofthe turnpikegate, which stands where in the most perfect places measures it is crossed by the high road from New- not less than 90 feet, and is inclined market to London and Cambridge. I at an angle of 70 degrees. On the obtained in a rough way the following top of the rampart is a cursus or way admeasurements, which cannot, how eighteen feet in breadth, sufficiently ever, greatly err from the truth. wide for the passage of cavalry or
This formidable vallum or rampart chariots. I have been told that some was commenced probably at its south- years since fragments of the bronze era extremity, where the Ordnance furniture of chariot wheels were dug map of Cambridgeshire marks the site up near the line of dyke, but I cannot of an ancient entrenched camp at Wood verify the information. On the top Ditton ; there are also some tumuli of the rampart I thought I could disnorthward of that place in front of the tinguish faint traces of a parapet of turf. dyke, called traditionally “The Two The whole was probably strengthened Captains." Wood Ditton is evidently by a line of palisades or stakes. It will a name associated with the dyke, im. be readily imagined how strong a plying, the wood on the ditch. The desence this steep and bristled wall of work is continued northward, across earth must then have formed. Even Newmarket Heath, in a straight course now, to ascend its outward base from of eight miles, to a stream near the the bottom of the ditch is a feat of no
SECTION OF THE FOSS AND VALLUM.
small difficulty and labour. The ex- (Fleam), as it probably was for the incavation for the work was made in habitants of East Anglia, being an the solid stratum of chalk which lies obstacle against the assaults of the on Newmarket plain next under the Mercians. I have not yet had the vegetable mould ; the rampire was opportunity of comparing the condoubtless faced with green sods, and struction of the Fleam Dyke with that nature has continued the surface of of the Devil's Dyke ; it varies very little sward to this day.
in extent from the latter : it is called About seven miles to the westward, also, from the length of its course, the crossing the high road and running Seven-Mile Dyke. On the inner or nearly in a parallel line, is another eastern side of this work, near the ditch and rampart called The Fleam high road, is a considerable tumulus, Dyke, which may be rendered, from called in the maps Matlow Hill. the Saxon, the dyke of Alight or refuge I am strongly disposed to think that
Scale of Miles.
Wratting Park. the Devil's Dyke, and, perhaps, other at the time of the revolt of Boadicea lines of entrenchment of a similar at Camalodunum, Colchester, Veru. character in the neighbourhood, were lamium, St. Alban's, and Londinium constructed by the Roman legions at (London). The Trinovantes and Iceni an early period in Britain. Camden were perhaps the first British districts enumerates three military dykes in which received the Roman yoke. Cambridgeshire besides the Devil's It may here be remarked, that the Dyke, the strongest of them all. The covering a line of country by a long Roman forces, after obtaining their first extended vallum and ditch was a tacfooting in Britain, occupied and co. tical practice with the Romans. A lonized some eligible positions in Kent, few remarkable instances of securing Middlesex, and Essex ; we find them a district in this way against the in