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ask, why should the isle of Samos be formly unglazed; for the fine material supposed to produce a clay to which of the latter, like the French porcethere is nothing analogous in any lain, did not require glazing; while other part of the globe ? When I ex- the other, formed of native clay, was pressed an opinion that England and washed and glazed with salt and a France were supplied with this article small portion of lead." "from Italy," I was not aware that

Yours, &c. E. B. Price. all three countries possessed accessible

P.S.-In justice to Count de Caylus, materials, amply sufficient both in I must remiud W. C. that the Count quality and quantity for the manu- did not found his opinion solely from facture of earthenware of precisely the the abundance of ancient specimens same character in colour, hardness, discovered at Nismes, but also from and texture, as the so-called “Samian.”

a careful examination of the native Since my communication to your pages clay of the neighbourhood. (Vide Meon the subject, I have, at the sugges- nard, Hist. de Nismes.) tion and with the valuable aid of my I observe W.C. doubts if any speci. friend Mr. Reid of Highgate, made mens of this so-called "Samian Ware" numerous experiments with the clays “have been discovered in Herculaneum at various depths in London and its

or Pompeii.” On this point I cannot vicinity. That the same material do better than avail myself of the kind abounds in all three countries there is permission of Mr. A. J. Kempe to ample evidence. Fabroni’s minute refer to his son-in-law Albin Martin, description of the Arezzo clay precisely esq. of Silton, Dorsetshire, who has accords with the characteristics of the recently returned from Naples. The vast stratum termed “the London following extract from a letter of Mrs. clay,” which I need scarcely remind Martin to her father will, I am sure, your readers is one of immense extent be deemed sufficient : and thickness. In Kent it is very

"lo answer to the questions which abundant near the surface, as Mr. Price asks, Mr. Martin can posiSheppey, Whitstable, &c. In Norfolk, tively say that vessels of Samian Ware Essex, and Middlesex, it also abounds.

have been found at Pompeii and HercuThe similarity between the clay de- laneum. The museum at Naples con. posits of England and France is equally tains numerous specimens (some with remarkable. When we consider the elegant designs on them, scroll work, vast extent of these deposits in both &c.) of Tazza, Pateræ,” &c. similar to countries, we may fairly infer that the

the fragments you possess. At Puzzuoli same

schoolof artists could pro- I have myself picked up many small duce the same description of articles, fragments of the ware lying about the whether in England or France. The tombs and in the road.” results of very many experiments with

Thus it appears that, if this article the“ plastic clay,” the "blue, or London really was imported, there is clay,'' and the fine brown clay imme. great improbability in supposing it diately above the latter, are nearly si

came from Campania. But if W. C. 'milar, and are sufficient to convince will try half a dozen experiments with me of the correctness of my opinion. the clays I have mentioned, in a comIt is that brilliant coralline glaze which

mon crucible, I think he will come to constitutes the distinguishing feature the conclusion that we need not travel of this ware, and which alone forms

to either Samos or Campania in quest as yet the desideratum; although, of materials. It will, perhaps, be from experiments now in progress, I found, on investigation, that the mabelieve it to be a combination of some

terial is most accessible in those disof the oxides of lead and iron. On tricts where the discoveries have been this point Mr. Shortt (Antiq. Exeter, most abundant.

E. B. P. p. 112) gives the following extract from the Archæologia, vol. xxv. p. 19:- MR. URBAN, “ There is this difference between the

IN a south chapel of the church at red pottery and the real Samian ; that Stavelo, in Belgium, is a very curious the one is glazed, and the other uni- shrine or sarcophagus, known as the

Chasse de St. Remacle.It has Vide Penny Cyclopædia, art. “Clay.” hitherto escaped the notice of tourists,

no

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those, at least, who have given pub- All these figures are stated by the lication to their memoranda, and is sacristan to be of silver gilt, and the consequently not to be met with in that whole of the shrine is very richly deincomparable fellow traveller, “ Mur- corated with mosaics and precious ray's Hand Book.”

stones, and relievos recording different It is stated to have been made events in sacred history. In one comin the reign of the Emperor Henry partment where the Resurrection is the Fourth, that is, about 400 years exhibited, the sleeping guard is resubsequent to the decease of St. Re- presented in chain mail, with a square macle, and that originally there was a helmet, and a long surcoat. His small figure of the emperor, carved in

shield (but whether the device on it is agate, surmounting the shrine. The really intended to be heraldic may be saint in whose honour, and to inclose questionable,) is charged with two whose remains this splendid coffin was bars. St. Poppo, a subsequent abbot, made, is not mentioned by Butler in

restored the church of Stavelo, as ap. his Lives ; but, from the Actus Sanc- pears from the Actus Sanctorum in torum, he appears to have been born 1040, and from this circumstance the some time between 612 and 624, and

tradition relative to the agate statue of to have been Abbot of Solignac, and the emperor, and the style of the work, subsequently Bishop of Tongres or its mosaics, its jewellery, its mailed of Maestricht. He founded the mo.

figure, and the letters of the inscription, nasteries of Malinedy and Stavelo, and we may, I think, assume that it was is supposed to have died between 667 placed in the church to receive the reand 671. In the words of the Actus; mains of St. Remacle soon after the

restorations effected by St. Poppo. It “Utriusque hujus monasterii constructor

deserves the attention of the antiquary, et primus abbas fuit S. Remaclus, Tungrorum episcopus, cujus sacræ reliquixe and is within an easy ride from Spa. in ecclesiâ Stabulensi requiescunt in pre

Yours, &c. L. tiosissimâ capsulâ venerationi populorum expositæ.”

Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 10. He is the favoured saint of the dis. trict, not excepting St. Hubert, and

THE quotation made by your Coris invariably represented accompanied respondent Mr. J. G. Nichols (Oct. by a wolf bearing a pair of panniers. p. 376,) respecting the Battle of BarThe popular legend is this: whilst net, having led me to a reperusal of

the volume entitled occupied in the construction of the

“ Warkworth's monastery a wolf seized and devoured Chronicle," I have been struck by a the ass which was carrying the build- very extraordinary mistake committed ing stones, whereupon the saint, by a

by the editor, and which I do not find

noticed in the review of the volume in very just retribution, condemned the

It said wolf to take the said ass's place. your. Magazine for Dec. 1839. Many miracles of this saint are re

consists in the misapplication to the corded in the Actus, but no mention

year 1470 of a document which beis made of this singular exercise of his longs to the year 1460. functions. The shrine is of considera

It will be found at p. 59 of Mr. ble size, and of copper gilt, or what is Halliwell's Notes, and relates to the usually called latten. On one side

accord made in Parliament on All

hallows eve appears St. Remacle with six of the

1460, for the peaceable apostles, three on either side ; and on

continuance of King Henry on the the opposite side St. Lambert similarly to Richard Duke of York and his

throne during his life, with succession accompanied. At one end are figures of the Virgin and Child, with an in

issue ; and settling a yearly pension

of ten thousand marks on the Duke of scription, but which from being close to the wall is rendered illegible. At York and his sons, that is to say, five the other end is a figure of the Father,

thousand on himself, three thousand and above is the following inscription sand on the Earl of Rutland.

on the Earl of March, and two thouin the characters of the lith or 12th centuries. SOLUS AB ÆTERNO CREO CUNCTA

* "On halmesse evyn," a misprint for CREATA GUBERNO.

" halwesse evyn."

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This document Mr. Halliwell has come Duke of Clarence, though not quoted as if it referred to the treaty actually the heir presumptive of the made in France in 1470, which was house, for his brother had sons, was so far similar that its first condition the present representative of its arrowas that King Henry should for his gance and ambition. Hence the similife remain in possession of his royal larity of the transaction which appears dignity, but which in every other re- to have misled Mr. Halliwell, whilst spect was totally different. The con- at the same time it is surprising he tracting parties on this latter occasion should not have perceived the great were Queen Margaret and Prince Ed- discrepancy in the designations of the ward her son of the one party, and the contracting parties. Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick In another document, which Mr. of the other. The succession of the Halliwell has printed at p. 61, I crowo was now settled in the first in notice this misreading, stance on the Lancastrian house, -" to the uttyrmoste destruccion of the namely on Prince Edward, then be- goode commenes of the seyde reme of trothed to Anne Neville the Earl of Englonde; yf yt so schulde contenne ffor Warwick's daughter (afterwards queen the refurmacion wherof”of Richard III.), with remainder to Read contenue. For, &c. In line 17 George Duke of Clarence and his the deficient word appears in the heirs, who had married the Earl's original (which is there torn, but not elder daughter.

entirely defaced,) to be suppresse. In Since the date of the former settle. line 20 for mail read maner. In p. 62, ment the heads of the house of York line 6, read defensabeli to attende; and named in it were wholly changed in in line 7, and the last line of p. 61, appellation and in circumstance. The read asthyst and restistens (for Duke of York was dead; his eldest sist” and “resistance,”) not aschyst son the Earl of March had reigned and rescistens. (In both cases the ten years as Edward the Fourth ; his writer doubled, by error, the st of the second son the Earl of Rutland was next syllable.). also dead; and his third son George, At p. 65 of the same notes dominibus having grown up to manhood, and be- is an error for domibus. Yours, &c. H,

as

THE FEMALE BIOGRAPHIES OF ENGLISH HISTORY.

BEFORE we commence this series of papers, it is requisite to give some explanation of the objects proposed.

Biography is admitted to be universally interesting; and its interest arises from an almost endless variety of causes. The life of a person of humble station and very ordinary talents may gratify us from the fullness of the narrative, the extraordinary nature of occasional incidents, or the similarity of his experience or pursuits to our own. It is only the biography of the very foremost of mankind, or at least the leaders in each particular walk of life, that can command the attention of every reader. All other biographies must fall into classes : men once acknowledged as supreme in their own domain, and unrivalled during their lifetime in no petty sphere of action, must rank in the scroll of history among the crowd of statesmen, divines, or philosophers. Their memoirs must be regarded as illustrative rather of the class than the individual ; and valuable rather as parts of the histories of their age or of their studies, than from any celebrity that may still attach itself to their names. Yet, if history is to be estimated by its use, no one will deny the value of such biographies. On the contrary, it will be agreed how desirable it is that biographies should be classed, both for the reciprocal light which they then throw on one another, and for the developement of such other branches of knowledge as are illustrated through them.

The biography of the Female Aristocracy of England is a field almost hitherto untrodden. So little pains have ever been taken to collect its materials, Gent. Mag. Vol. XXIII.

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that any one on first approaching the task would be led to imagine that they did not exist. Dugdale, in his Baronage, has given, indeed, the alliances of the peers, but in scarcely any instances more than the mere name and parentage of the lady. Any date relating to her is of the rarest occurrence. Neither the period of her birth, nor that of her marriage, nor, what is still more extraordinary, that of her death, appear to be known. If a nobleman had more than one wife, it is consequently often uncertain which was the mother of his children. Nor has such information been generally supplied in more modern works on the peerage. Genealogists have occasionally inserted a date in a pedigree, but that is all.

In Lodge's Portraits of Illustrious Personages, out of two hundred and forty memoirs, the subjects of only thirty-one are females, of whom twelve are Queens.

More recently the pens of several female writers have been employed on the memoirs of the most illustrious of their ser; and the public have favourably received Miss Halsted's Countess of Richmond and Derby, Miss Strickland's Queens of England, and Miss Costello's Lives of Eminent Englishwomen. But even the latter work, which might be thought to have anticipated our present purpose, comprises no very large number of characters, nor scarcely any before the close of the sixteenth century.

It is, therefore, our present intention to try what can be done towards the elucidation of history in this channel of investigation ; and if the characters or the adventures of the persons commemorated should not in some cases appear to be of such strong interest as to have merited the attempt to rescue them from oblivion, the reader must bear in mind the principal object of the collection, namely, the future improvement of our historical works on noble families, and the general illustration of history and manners, especially of the latter. Upon that point, indeed, it may be anticipated that the present inquiries will produce many valuable results. We cannot investigate the circumstances of the lives of those persons whose powerful influence has from time to time moulded and modified the usages of society, without bringing to light illustrations of manners both curious and instructive, but which authors of more general aim have allowed to pass into undeserved oblivion.

We shall commence the series with the two wives of a potent subject, the first a Princess by birth, and the second a more remote member of the Blood Royal. The former, which now follows, will introduce a contemporary nar. rative of the funeral of the widowed Queen of Edward the Fourth, now first printed in an entire form.

1

* The contents of Miss Costello's work are as follow :

Vol. I. Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury ; *Arabella Stuart; Catharine Grey; *Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke ; Penelope Lady Rich ; Magdalen Herbert ; *Frances Howard, Duchess of Richmond.

Vol. II. *Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia ; *Lucy Harrington, Countess of Bedford; Frances Howard, Countess of Somerset ; Elizabeth Countess of Essex ; Christian Countess of Devonshire; *Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset ; Mary Evelyn ; Lady Fanshawe.

Vol. III. Anastasia Venetia Stanley, Lady Digby; the Countess of Desmond ; Elizabeth Cromwell and her daughters ; Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson; *Frances Stuart, Duchess of Richmond ; * Dorothy Sidney, Countess of Sunderland ; Elizabeth Percy, Duchess of Somerset ; *Lady Rachel Russell ; Margaret Duchess of Newcastle"; Anne Countess of Winchelsea; Mrs. Katherine Philips; Jane Lane ; Anne Killigrew; Frances Jennings, Duchess of Tyrconnel; Mary Beale ; Anne Clarges, Duchess of Albemarle; Lady Mary Tudor; *Anne Hyde, Duchess of York; Anne Scott, Duchess of Monmouth; Stella and Vanessa ; Susannah Centlivre.

Vol. IV. *Sarah Duchess of Marlborough ; and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.

Of these thirty-seven subjects eleven of the most prominent (which we have marked *) were already treated of, by Lodge. Miss Costello's work, however, though somewhat unequally executed, is one of great merit and high interest.

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No. I.-ANNE LADY HOWARD. In the former case the contract was

THIS lady, the first wife of Thomas executed by the Duke Maximilian Howard, third Duke of Norfolk, did and the Princess Mary his wife, the not live to be Duchess of Norfolk, nor parents of the prince, at St. Omer's even Countess of Surrey. She was on the 18th July, and by King Edward the seventh child and fifth daughter* at Guildford on the 16th of August : of King Edward the Fourth, and his by which it was covenanted that Queen, Elizabeth Wodevile. She was neither party should contract any born at Westminster, on the 2nd day other marriage within three years.* In of November, 1475, and christened in the following year, on the 5th August, the abbey church there. In a will the treaty was concluded. The Prince made by her father a few months was then styled Count of Charolois. before, and bearing date the 20th June, It was agreed, 1. that matrimony is the following passage :

should be solemnized so soon as the “ Item, where we trust in God oure

parties were of suitable age; 2. that said wiff bee now with childe, if God King Edward should give a dowry of fortune it to bee a daughtre, then we wilthat

100,000 crowns (scutorum), which, she have also x.nl, marc' (66661. 138. 4d.) however, was remitted by an acquit. towards her mariage."*

tance granted by Maximilian and Mary

at Namur, on the 20th of the same Whilst King Edward was still reigning in prosperity, his female children montht; 3. that, when Anne should were contracted in marriage to several

arrive at the age of twelve, the Duke and foreign potentates : Elizabeth, the

Duchess of Austria should pay her an eldest, to the Dauphin of France;

annual pension of 6000 crowns of Mary, to the King of Denmark; and gold (coronarum auri) until her marCecily to the Prince of Scotland. To riage; 4. that she should have a these prospective alliances he added, brarum grossorum monetæ Flandriæ) of

dowry, if widowed, of 2000 pounds (liin the summer of the year 1479, contracts for the marriages of his daughter should be honourably conveyed to her

the nioney of Flanders ; 5. that she Anne to Prince Philip of Austria, and of Katharine to the Infant John, marriage at their expense; 6. that, heir apparent of Don Ferdinand, King should take place between the survivor

should either party die, a like alliance of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Sicily. and some other son or daughter of the

Duke and King, such party on the * The daughters of Edward IV. were Burgundian side being the Duke's altogether seven : 1. Elizabeth, afterwards heirs. Further, by subsequent letters Queen of Henry VII. ; 2. Mary, who

dated in both countries on the 7th died young; 3. Cecily, Viscountess Welles; August, it was covenanted that, on the 4. Margaret, who died young ; 5. Anne, Lady Howard ; 6. Katharine, Countess of

consummation of her marriage, the Devon ; and 7. Bridget, nun at Syon. Princess Anne should receive lordTheir order in Sandford's Genealogical ships, lands, and rents to the yearly History is incorrect : see the Gentleman's value of 8000 pounds of Artois ; but, Magazine, vol. C. i. 24; CII. ii. 200. if she retracted after attaining her

† Ms. Addit. Brit. Mus. No. 6113, twelfth year, that King Edward should f. 48 b.

then pay 40,000 pounds of Artois. Excerpta Historica, p. 369.

Finally, by a public act performed Ś This Philip (surnamed the Fair) in a certain high chamber within the was afterwards the husband of the heiress of Spain, father of the Emperor Charles V. * Rymer's Foedera, edit. 1711, tom. xii. and progenitor of the subsequent Kings p. 110. of that country, as well as the Emperors + Ibid. p. 134.-In consideration of the of Germany. The inheritance of her same, King Edward remitted the first father's dominions fell to his wife, Jane, yearly payment of a pension of 50,000 (the elder sister of our Queen Katharine crowns, which the Archduko had agreed to of Arragon,) in consequence of the death give, should Edward become involved in a in 1497 of her brother John, (also above war with France, and thus forfeit a like mentioned as the contemplated husband pension for which King Louis was engaged of Katharine of England,) who eventually to him. Ibid. p. 133. married Mary of Austria, sister to Philip, # Ibid. pp. 128, 130. but died without issue,

$ Ibid. pp. 129, 130,

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