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nch like: to what other end be these deceitful translations, but to con- th«p. xxi.
ceal and obscure the name of the church and dignities thereof, mentioned UOQ
in the holy scriptures; to dissemble the word "schism" (as they do
•bo "heresy" and "heretic*") for fear of disgracing their schisms and °«'-.T:
heresies; to say of "matrimony," neither "sacrament," which is theipor. xi.
Latin, nor "mystery," which is the Greek, but to go as far as they
can possibly from the common usual and ecclesiastical words, saying,
"This is a great secret," in favour of their heresy, that matrimony is no Kph. v. at.
Absurd translations of the English bibles, you say, Fl-lke, 2. are "congregation" for "church," "elder" for "priest," "image" for "idol," and such like. The word "church" being ambiguously taken of the people for the place of assembly, and the assembly itself, it was as lawful for us to call congregation, as for you to call it assembly. Acts vii. This word "priest" commonly taken for a sacrificer and the same that sacerdos, and so by you translated, there was good occasion to use the word elder, for which you use senior, or ancient, in your translation, which is a name of authority, as overseer is of diligence, minister of service, pastor of feeding; all which names set forth a true bishop, pastor, and elder, and if you will needs have it, of a true priest. Of "image" for idol is said enough in the next chapter before. "Schism" I know not how Englishmen should understand, except it were Englished by dissension, division, rending, or some such like. Of "general" for catholic, we shall speak anon. "Secret" for sacrament we use, because we would retain the ecclesiastical use of this word sacrament, which is to signify the seals of God's pro
Q oixoorao-uu, alptirds. Gal. v. 20. "Dissensiones, sectse," Vulg. "Dissensions, sects," Wielif, Rhemish. "Sedition, sects," Tyndale, Cranmer. "Sedition, heresies," Geneva, Authorised.
kipfniAv avdpumov. Tit. iii. 10. "Htcreticum hominem," Vulg. "A man heretic," Wielif. "A man that is given to heresy," Tyndale. "A man that is an author of sects," Cranmer 1639, 1662. "Him that is an heretic," Geneva. "A man that is an heretic," Bishops' bible 1584, Hheims, Authorised.
Sei yap Kai atptVfis ev vjiiv total. 1 Cor. xi. 19. "Nam oportet et hcreses esse," Vulg. "For it behoveth heresies to be," Wielif. "For there must be sects among you," Tyndale, Cranmer 1539, 1662. "For there must be even heresies among you," Geneva. ** For there must be heresies also," Kheims. "For there must be also heresies," Bishops', Authorised.]
mises, and not confound it with every holy or unholy secret thing. The Greek word "mystery,1" which you would enjoin us to use, was in the time of the first translation more unknown, than that we could well have used it, except we would have followed your vein in vanity and novelty of terms, prepuce, neophyte, gratis, depositum, fyc., or else made general and common the proper use of this ecclesiastical term "sacrament" to every mystery, and called the sacrament of preaching, of publisliing the gospel to the gentiles, of the seven stars, as you do, and yet in the sacrament of the whore of Babylon you leave it and call it mystery, Rev. xvii. 7, as you should be enforced to do, if you would translate the Old Testament out of Latin, Dan. ii., divers times, except you would call Nabuchadonozor's dream a sacrament, and Dan. iv., where the king saith, that to Daniel no secret is impossible, meaning unknown or not understood, you would say no sacrament, and Tob. xii., you would translate sacramentum regis abscondere lonum eat, "It is a good thing to hide the king's sacrament," where you should say secret, and where the English phrase would hardly bear you to say the king's mystery. Of the other terms, in the places by you quoted it shall be sufficient to speak. But I have rendered reasonable causes of these terms hitherto, so that no man, but mad with malice, would think we conceal the name of church and dignities thereof in hatred of them, or do dissemble the names of schism and heresy in favour of those abominations, which are as well set forth to their detestation in the terms of dissension and sects. As for the name sacrament, we find [it] not in the Greek; but mysterium we translate "a secret" or "a mystery," as the word signifieth, which nothing favoureth the pretended sacrament of matrimony.
Martin, 3. Martin. St Paul saith as plain as he can speak1, "I beseech you, i Cor. i. in. brethren, that you all siy one thing, and that there be no schisms amoDg
you." They translate for "schisms" "dissensions;" which may be in
profane and worldly things, as well as in matters of religion. But
Echisms are those that divide the unity of the church, whereof they
know themselves guilty. St Paul saith as plainly as is possible, "A "'" jjj'l(tii/
man that is an heretic, avoid after the first and second admonition:" „,'11,,,,,K ,„..
they translated in their bible of the year 1562, "A man that is an author
of sects." And where the Greek is " heresy," reckoned among damnable alpiatit.
gins, they say "sects;" favouring that name for their own sakes, and
dissembling it, as though the holy scriptures spake not against "heresy"
or "heretics," "schism" or "schismatics."
Fulke. St Paul indeed speaketh plainly in Greek; but Fulke, 3. if you speak English and say schisms, forty thousand of the people in England will swear they understand you not. But schisms (you say) are those "that divide the unity of the church: dissensions may be in profane and worldly things.1" Verily, all schisms divide not the church, for they were not all the church, of whom it is said in St John ii., "There was a schism among them:" for I think the best of the Pharisees were scarce good members of the church. Again, where StPaul doth say, "lest there should be a schism in the body," 1 Cor. xii., he speaketh of the natural body, whereunto he compareth the church. St Paul also saith, as plainly as he can speak in Greek, 1 Cor. xi. 18., "I hear that there be schisms among you:" yet your vulgar Latin translator is bold to say scissuras, cuttings or rendings, where you are bold to go from your Latin text and call them schisms. And for explicating the Greek name of heresy by sects, why should we be more blamed, than the vulgar Latin translator, who commonly translateth it sectas, and namely Gal. y., 2 Pet. ii., Acts xxiv. divers times, xxvi. and xxviii., in all which places you yourselves translate "sects'"? Is it because ho or you favour heresies and heretics? Will you never leave this foolish wrangling, which always turneth you to the greater discredit?
Martin. As also they suppress the very name "catholic," when it MA«TiK,4. is expressly in the Greek, for malice toward catholics and catholic religion, because they know, themselves never shall be called or known by that name. And therefore their two English bibles, accustomed to be An. 1562. read in their church, (therefore by like most authentic,) leave it clean 1577'
yon," Tyndale, Cranmer 1639, 1562, Geneva, Bishops' 1584. "And that there be no divisions among you," Authorised Version.]
Euieb. lib. h. out in the title of all those epistles, which have been known by the c»p. zs. in name of Catholica; Epiitolee ever since the apostles' time: and their later ane'i579. English bible (dealing somewhat more honestly) hath turned the word "catholic" into "general," saying, "The General Epistle of James, of Peter," &c. As if a man should say in his creed, "I believe the general church," because he would not say, "the catholic church;" as the Lutheran catechisms say for that purpose, "I believe the Christian church."
uunt!n DU" ^ tnat ^ this rule' wnen St Au&ustine telleth that the manner was in cities where there was liberty of religion, to ask, Qua itur ad cathoKcam? we must translate it, "Which is the way to the general?" And when St Jerome saith, "If we agree in faith with the bishop of Rome," ergo catholici sumus; we must translate it, "Then we are generals." Is not this good stuff? Are they not ashamed thus to invert and pervert all words against common sense, and use, and reason? Catholic and general or universal (we know) is by the original property of the word all one: but according to the use of both, as it is ridiculous to say, "A catholic council," for "A general council;" so is it ridiculous and impious to say "general" for "catholic," in derogation thereof, and for to hide it under a bushel.
Fclm, 4. Fulke. I do not know where the name of " catholic" is once expressed in the text of the bible, that it might be suppressed by us, which are not like to bear malice to the catholic church or religion, seeing we teach even our young children to believe "the holy catholic church." But not finding the word catholic in the text, you run to the title of the seven epistles, called as commonly canonical as catholic or general. But Eusebius belike testifieth that they have been so called ever since the apostles' time, lib. n. cap. 22.' I marvel you are not ashamed to avouch such an untruth. Eusebius, speaking of his own time, saith they are so called; but that they have been so called ever since the apostles' time, he saith not. And so far off he is from saying so, that he pronounceth the epistle of St James in the same place to be a bastard, and speaketh doubtfully of the epistle of St Jude2. But whereas in one translation we use the
Q See the passage quoted before, p. 16.]
[* Jacobus, qui appellatur frater Domini, cognomento Justus, nt nonnulli existimant, Joseph! ex alia uxore, ut autem mihi videtnr, Marie sororis matris Domini, cujus Johannes in libro suo meminit, filius, post passionem Domini statim ab apostolis Jerosolymorum episcopus ordinatus, unam tantum scripsit epistolam, quee de septem catholicis est; qua et ipsa ab alio quodam sub nomine ejus edits asseritur. Hieronymi Catal. Scrip. Eccles. n. Opera, Vol. iv. p. 101.
word "general" for catholic, you make a great maygame of it, shewing your wit and your honesty both at once. For these five of James, two of Peter, one of Jude, and the first of John, which are properly and rightly so entitled, have that title, because they are not sent to any particular church or persons, but to all in general, as the Greek scholiast truly noteth. CEcumenius before the epistle of St James saith expressly, CatJiolicce, id est, universales dicuntur hat, #e*. "These epistles are called catholic, that is to say, universal or general, because not distinctly to one nation or city (as St Paul to the Romans, or Corinthians) this company of our Lord's disciples doth dedicate these epistles, but generally to the faithful, or to the Jews that were dispersed, as also Peter, or else to all Christians living under the same faith." For otherwise, if they should be called catholic in respect of the soundness of the doctrine contained in them, what reason were there more to call them so, than to call all the epistles of St Paul? Wherefore in this title, which yet is no part of the holy scripture, it is rightly translated "general." The other translators, seeing seven to be called general, where only five are so in deed, and seeing them also called canonical, which should seem to be a controlling of St Paul's epistles, left out that title altogether, as being no part of the text and word of God, but an addition of the stationers or writers.
Martin, Is it because they would follow the Greek, that they turn Mabtin, 5. tafoXuo) "general"? Even as just as when they turn fi6ta\ov "image," Catholic*. Ta/xi&xriv "instruction," 8«aio>pa "ordinance," vyivt"1 "dissension," alptatr "sect," fiuemjptoi' "secret," and such like; where they go as far from the Greek as they can, and will be glad to pretend for answer
Jacobus, Petrns, Johannes, Judas, Apostoli, septem epistolas edidernnt tarn mysticas quam succinctas, et breves pariter et longas: breves in verbis, longas in sententiis, ut rarus sit qui non in earum lectione csecutiat. Hieron. Epist. II. ad Paulinum. Opera, Vol. rv. p. 674. See answer to preface, p. 33.]
[/ KafloXticai Xeyoirat avrat, otovct eyKVK\wt. ov yap acpwpttr/itvtas m ff jroXft, (car & 6etos IlaCXos Tols 'Paifiaiois 17 Kopivdiois) njxxrfyivti ravras ras fVtcrroXar o raw roiovTtav Tov Kvpiov na(h)Tu>v Biairos, dXXo KadoKov roit jrtoToir, Sjtoi 'lovStuW Toit «• rrj Biatrrropa, ft't cat ii ll-Tjini, fj ical TTi'iiri Toii inri> Ttjv avTi/v nicrriv \pumavols Tf\ovaa>. (Ecuraenii Argument. Cathol. Jncobi Epist. Opera, Vol. n. p. 439. Edit. Lutet. Paris. 1631.]