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Thanksgiving Sermon in Durham, 359 Zechariah, New Translation of,
ERRATA in Vol. XXVIII.
Page 89. 1. 26. for reliav read rgilalas; and 1. 27. for vocati ri
1oo. note + for κύκωψ read κύκλωψ
272. 1. 17. dele the word line after ' metre'
490. l.22 for 1:24 + read :: 1:221 +
572. P. 8. for vary then read vary; then,
ART. I. A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the World; in which the Coast of North-West America has been carefully examined and accurately surveyed. Undertaken by his Majesty's Command, principally with a View to ascertain the Existence of any navigable Communication between the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans; and performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795, in the Discovery Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham, under the Command of Captain George Vancouver. 4to. 3 Vols. 61. 6 s. Boards. Robinsons. 1798.
HE advantages of a Fur trade with China from the western coasts of North America, though for a considerable length of time known to the Russians, were very little understood and wholly unattempted by other European nations, before the voyage of Captain Cook to those parts. The information obtained by that excellent navigator not only encouraged mercantile expeditions from most maritime countries, but revived the expectations of those who were advocates for the supposed existence of a N. W. passage through America; and these expectations were strengthened by subsequent discoveries, attributed to some of the late enterprising adventurers. To examine into the truth of these as well as of the more early accounts, and to complete a survey of the western coast of North America from the latitude of 30° N. to 60° north, with the additional purpose of executing the articles of the convention made between the British and the Spanish courts respecting Nootka Sound, were the proposed objects of the expedition of which the narrative is now before us. The voyage had been planned, and preparations for it had been made, some time before these disputes between the courts of London and Madrid arose, and was suspended till the adjustment of them was to take place.
The ill health of the late Captain Vancouver, for some time previously to his decease, is assigned as the cause of the pubB
lication being so long delayed after the return of the ships. His brother, Mr. John Vancouver, has performed the office of editor; and he lays before the public, in an advertisement prefixed to the first volume, the state of the work when the indisposition of his brother rendered him incapable of continuing his attention to it. From this advertisement, it appears that the first and second volumes, (the introduction excepted,) and as far as the 288th page of the third volume, were then printed, and had undergone his examination. He had also prepared the introduction, and a farther part of his journal, to page 408 of the last volume; which comprehended the whole of his geographical discoveries.
In the introduction is given an account of the equipment, and a copy of the Admiralty instructions, dated March 8th, 1791, under which Captain Vancouver sailed. By these orders, he was directed to proceed immediately to the Sandwich Islands in the North Pacific Ocean, there to remain during the ensuing winter; in the course of which it was intended that he should be joined by a vessel, to be dispatched from England, conveying to him the King's orders respecting the possessions on the coast of America that were to be restored to his Majesty's subjects, agreeably to the convention abovementioned: but, (say the instructions,)" if no such orders should be received by you previous to the end of January 1792, you are not to wait for them at the Sandwich Islands, but to proceed, in such course as you may judge most expedient for the examination of the coast abovementioned," &c.
The language of the instructions evinces that strong hopes were entertained of a communication being discovered, between the Atlantic ocean and the sea, west of America; as appears by the following extract :
"You are therefore hereby required and directed to pay a parti cular attention to the examination of the supposed straits of Juan de Fuca, said to be situated between 48° and 49° north latitude, and to lead to an opening through which the sloop Washington is reported to have passed in 1789, and to have come out again to the northward of Nootka. The discovery of a near communication between any such sea or strait, and any river running into, or from the lake of the woods, would be particularly useful.
"If you should fail of discovering any such inlet, as is above mentioned, to the southward of Cook's river, there is the greatest probability that it will be found that the said river rises in some of the lakes already known to the Canadian traders, and to the servants of the Hudson's bay company; which point it would, in that case, be material to ascertain; and you are, therefore, to endeavour to ascertain accordingly," &c.
The most liberal conduct and the greatest openness of communication were directed to be observed towards any vessels which might be met, belonging to other nations. It was calculated that the proposed survey would occupy two summers on the coast of America; and in the return, which was ordered to be by Cape Horn, it was recommended, if practicable, to examine the western coast of South America, beginning at the south point of the island of Chiloe, in latitude 44° south. That no cause of discontent nor of complaint might be given to the Spaniards, the Commander was strictly charged that, in the execution of his instructions, he should not on any account (distress excepted) touch at any port on the continent of America between the latitudes of 30° north and 44° south.
The vessels appointed for the expedition were named the Discovery and the Chatham.-The former was a ship of 340 tons burthen, commanded by Captain George Vancouver, carrying 10 guns, with a complement of 100 men :-The other was a brig, commanded by Lieutenant (now Captain) W. R. Broughton, carrying 4 guns and 45 men. A native of the Sandwich Islands, named Towereroo, who had been brought thence by one of our trading vessels in July 1789, was sent on board by the Admiralty, with orders to Captain Vancouver to convey him to his native land. This man, he says,
while in England, lived in great obscurity, and did not seem in the least to have benefited by his residence in this country.'
On the 1st of April 1791 they sailed from Falmouth; on the 10th of July they arrived at the Cape of Good Hope; which place they left August 17th; and on the 26th of September they made the south-west coast of New Holland, in latitude 35° south, and longitude 116° east. Having sailed 35 leagues along the coast, which in this part was but very imperfectly known before, they discovered a harbour to which was given the name of King George the Third's Sound; where they remained. nearly a fortnight. They met with none of the natives, but found deserted huts. The most remarkable objects that they saw were black swans, of which the following account is given: As we proceeded to the upper part of the harbour, our attention was directed to several large black swans in very stately attitudes swimming on the water, and, when flying, discovering the under part of their wings and breasts to be white: this is all the description we were enabled to give of them, since they were excessively shy, and we very indifferent marksmen.' We might appear too sceptical, perhaps, should we venture to suppose that these black swans might have been B 2 cygnets.