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of those words in an unchristian sense that is intended; as if a ranter should say, that himself is God, and his mate is Jesus Christ.

2. That there be a public establishment of the necessary liberty of the churches, to meet their officers and delegates on all just occasions, in assemblies smaller or greater, (even national, when it is necessary,) seeing, without associations and communion in assemblies, the unity and concord of the churches is not like to be maintained. I exclude not the magistrates' interest, or oversight, to see that they do not transgress their bounds. As you love Christ, and his church, and gospel, and men's souls, neglect not these unquestionable points of his interest, and make them your first and chiefest business, and let none be preferred before him until you know them to be of more authority over you, and better friends to you, than Christ is. Should there be any among you that cherish a secret root of infidelity, after such pretences to the purest Christianity, and are zealous of Christ lest he should over-top them, and do set up an interest inconsistent with his sovereignty, and thereupon grow jealous of the liberties and power of his ministers, and of the unity and strength of his church, and think it their best policy to keep under his ministers, by hindering them from the exercise of their office, and to foment divisions, and hinder our union, that they may have parties ready to serve their ends; I would not be in the case of such men, when God ariseth to judge them, for all the crowns and kingdoms on earth! If they stumble on this stone, it will break them in pieces, but if it fall upon them, it will grind them to powder. They may seem to prevail against him awhile, when their supposed success is but a prosperous self-destroying, but mark the end, when his wrath is kindled, yea, but a little, and when these, his enemies that would not he should reign over them, are brought forth and destroyed before him, then they will be convinced of the folly of their rebellion. In the mean time, let wisdom be justified of her children.

My lord, I had not troubled you with so many words, had I not judged it probable that many more whom they concern may

I remain,
Your Lordship's servant in the work of Christ,

RICHARD BAXTER. August 5, 1654.

peruse them.







1 CORINTHIANS vi. 19, 20.

And ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a price, therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's.

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FUNDAMENTALS in religion are the life of the superstructure. Like the vitals and naturals in the body, which are first necessary for themselves and you also, for the quickening and nourishing of the rest; there being no life or growth of the inferior parts, but what they do receive from the powers of these : it is but a dead discourse, which is not animated by these greater truths, whatever the bulk of its materials may consist of. The frequent repetition, therefore, of these is as excusable as frequent preaching: and they that nauseate it as loathsome hattology, do love novelty better than verity, and playing with words to please the fancy, rather than closing with Christ to save the soul. And as it is the chief part of the cure, in most external maladies, to corroborate the vital and natural powers, which then will do the work themselves, so it is the most effectual course for the cure of particular miscarriages in men's lives, to further the main work of grace upon their hearts. Could we make men better Christians, it would do much to make them better magistrates, counsellors, jurors, witnesses, subjects, neighbours, &c. And this must be done by the deeper impress of those vital truths and the good in them exhibited, which are adequate objects of our vital graces. Could we help you to wind up the spring of faith, and so move the first wheel of christian love, we should find it the readiest and surest means to move the inferior wheels of duty. The flaws and irregular motions without, do show . that something is amiss within, which, if we could rectify, we might the easier mend the rest. I shall suppose, therefore, that I need no more apology for choosing such a subject at such a season as this, than for bringing bread to a feast. And if I medicate the brain and heart, for the curing of senseless paralytic members, or the inordinate convulsive motions of any hearers, I have the warrant of the apostle's example in my text. Among other great enormities in the church of Corinth, he had these three to reprehend and heal: first, their sidings and divisions occasioned by some factious, self-seeking teachers. Secondly, their personal contentions by law-suits, and that before unbelieving judges. Thirdly, the foul sin of fornication, which some among them had fallen into. The great cure which he useth to all these, and more especially to the last, is the urging of these great foundation truths, whereof one is in the words before my text, viz., the right of the Holy Ghost; the other in the words of my text, which contains, first, a denial of any right of propriety in themselves. Secondly, an asserting of Christ's propriety in them. Thirdly, the proof of this from his purchase, which is his title. Fourthly, their duty concluded from the former premises, which is to glorify God, and that with the whole man, with the spirit, because God is a Spirit, and loathes hypocrisy; with the body, which is particularly mentioned, because it seems they were encouraged to fornication by such conceits, that it was but an act of the flesh, and not of the mind, and therefore, as they thought, the smaller sin. The apostle's words, from last to first, according to the order of intention, do express, first, man's duty to glorify God with soul and body, and not to serve our lusts. Secondly, the great fundamental obligation to this duty, God's dominion or propriety. Thirdly, the foundation of that dominion, Christ's purchase. According to the order of execution, from first to last, these three great fundamentals of our religion lie thus : First, Christ's purchase. Secondly, God's propriety thence arising. Thirdly, man's dutywholly to glorify God, arising from both. The argument lies thus : they that are not their own, but wholly God's, should wholly glorify God, and not serve their lusts; but you are not your own, but wholly God's: therefore you should wholly glorify God, and not serve your lusts. The major is clear by the

common light of nature. Every one should have the use of their own. The minor is proved thus : they that are bought with a price, are not their own, but his that bought them; but you are bought with a price: therefore, &c. For the meaning of the terms briefly; {avīūv, vestri, as the vulgar; vestri juris, as Beza, and others, is most fitly expressed by our English, your own : "ye are bought:” a synecdoche generis,” saith Piscator, for “ye are redeemed with a price.” There is no buying without a price. This, therefore, is an emphatical pleonasmus, as Beza, Piscator, and others; as to see with the eyes, to hear with the ears. Or else, “a price,” is put for “ a great price," as Calvin, Peter Martyr, and Piscator, rather think : and therefore the vulgate adds the epithet magno, and the Arabic pretioso, as Beza notes, as agreeing to that of i Peter i. 18. I see not but we may suppose the apostle to respect both the purchase and the greatness of the price, as Grotius and some others do. “Glorify God," that is, by using your bodies and souls wholly for him, and abstaining from those lusts which do dishonour him. The vulgate adds et portate, q.d. bear God about in your hearts, and let his Spirit dwell with you instead of lust. But this addition is contrary to all our Greek copies. Grotius thinks that some copies had aparèy ber, and thence some unskilful scribe did put äpz te: however, it seems that reading was very ancient, when not only Austin, but Cyprian and Tertullian followed it, as Beza noteth. The last words, "And in your spirit, which are God's," are out of all the old Latin translations, and therefore it is like out of the Greek, which they used : but they are in all the present Greek copies, except our manuscript, as also in the Syriac and Arabic version.

The rest of the explication shall follow the doctrines, which are these.

Doct. 2. Because we are so bought we are not our own, but his that bought us.

Doct. 3. Because we are not our own, but wholly God's, therefore we must not serve our lusts, but glorify him in the body and spirit. In these three conclusions is the substance of the text; which I shall first explain, and then make application of them in that order as the apostle here doth.

The points that need explication are these.

First. In what sense are we said to be bought with a price ? Who bought us? And of whom? And from what? And with what price?


Secondly. How we are God's own upon the title of this purchase.

Thirdly. How we are not our own.

Fourthly. What it is to glorify God in body and in spirit on this account.

Fifthly. Who they be that, on this ground, are or may be urged to this duty.

1. For the first of these, whether buying here be taken properly or metaphorically I will not now inquire.

First. Mankind by sin became guilty of death, liable to God's wrath, and a slave to Satan, and his own lusts. The sentence in part was past, and execution begun : the rest would have followed, if not prevented. This is the bondage from which we were redeemed.

Secondly. He that redeemed us is the Son of God-himself God and man, and the Father by the Son. “ He purchased us with his own blood.” (Acts xx. 28.)

Thirdly. The price was the whole humiliation of Christ; in the first act whereof, his incarnation, the Godhead was alone, which, by humbling itself, did suffer reputatively, which could not really. In the rest, the whole person was the sufferer, but still the human nature really, and the divine but reputatively. And why we may not add, as part of the price, the merit of that obedience, wherein his suffering did not consist, I yet see not. But from whom were we redeemed ?

Answer. From Satan, by rescue against his will; from God's wrath or vindictive justice, by his own procurement and consent. He substituted for us such a sacrifice, by which he could as fully attain the ends of his righteous government, in the demonstration of his justice and hatred of sin, as if the sinner had suffered himself: and in this sound sense it is far from being an absurdity, as the socinian dreameth, for God to satisfy his own justice, or to buy us of himself, or redeem us from himself.

2. Next let us consider how we are God's, upon the title of this purchase. By "God," here is meant both the Son, who being God, hath procured a right in us by his redemption, and also the Father, who sent his Son, and redeemed us by him, and to whom it was that the Son redeemed us. “ Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood.” (Rev. v. 9.) In one word, it is God as Redeemer, the manhood also of the second person included, that hath purchased this right. Here you must observe that God, as Creator, had a plenary right of propriety and

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