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and Scriptural principles. At first these Nonconformist stalwarts are stated to have met for a week-day lecture in a room of Mr. Langley's, in Ratten Row, on the west side of the church, now called Church Street. We may rest assured, host Clayton of the corner hosterly and proprietor Langley did their willing best to provide seats for the worshippers and make the place as suitable as the peculiar circumstances permitted.

After a time, when the numbers attending overtaxed that "upper room," the congregated company was fain to migrate to a larger apartment, probably a sort of warehouse, in Millgate. These Dissenters held well and worthily together after their banishment from their old and endeared Parish Church, where they, like their forefathers for generations, had worshipped in united, undivided Sabbath services. It must have been a great wrench, as well for the laity as the clergy, to have to abandon that grand sanctuary, with all its dear and sacred associations, for an upper room, or loft, or large warehouse. It is recorded when, after some years of the week-day“ lectures,” the services were conducted on Sundays, that the vicar, Mr. Mandeville, persuaded the owner of the Millgate premises to let the same to another party. Probably, indeed certainly, the numbers attending the Parish Church were considerably diminished by these largely attended Nonconformist services. However, vicar Mandeville gained nothing by his zealous interference, inasmuch as the Dissenting congregation secured a still larger room, in which three or four hundred could worship. The exact locations of these several rooms cannot now be ascertained. It is not difficult, however, to imagine the serious and fraternal character of the week-day and Sunday meetings of these Nonconformist worshippers, conducted now by a Master Shawe, now by a Luke Clayton, and from time to time by other ejected ministers, including Messrs. Fisher, Hancocks, Prime, Oliver Heywood, and others.

The Presbyterian Directory for public worship would provide the order of the week day lectures and Sunday services, including Prayer of Invocation, opening Psalm or Hymn, Confession of Sin, Old and New Testament Readings, Prayers, Praise, Sermon, Praise, Benediction. The " Psalm"

and Praise " would be found in “ The Booke of Psalmes," by Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, and others. The copy of 1639 furnishes the old “Psalmes ” and Metres of which an illustration or two may be given.

JUBILATE DEO OMNES.–Psal. C. "He exhorteth all men to serue the Lord, who hath made vs

to enter into his courts and assemblies, to prayse his name.'

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before him and rejoyce. The Lord ye know is God indeed,

without our aid he did vs make :
We are his flocke he doth vs feede,

And for his sheepe: he doth vs take.
O enter then his gates with praise,

approach with joy his courts vnto,
Praise, laud and blesse his name alwayes,

for it is seemely so to doe.
For why ? the Lord our God is good,

his mercy is for euer sure :
His trueth at all times firmely stood,

and shall from age to age endure. The “Old Hundred," to be felt thoroughly in all its unction and power, must be heard sung by a thousand united orthodox voices, as it resounded to heaven from the fanatically enthusiastic ranks of Cromwell's four thousand Ironsides. Not a few of those stalwart Puritan worshippers at Rotherham had sung that war Psalm cxliiij. at the outburst of bloody battle and in face of Royalist foes; and were willing enough to sing it again and again in their peaceful meetings :

Blest be the Lord my strength, that doth

instruct my hands to fight :
The Lord that doth my fingers frame

to battell by his might.
He is my goodnesse, fort, and tower,

deliverer and shield :
In him I trust, my people he

subdues to me to yeeld. Would not we ourselves, however, rather join with those old Parliamentarians in singing Psal. xcviij :

“ O sing ye now onto the Lord

A new and pleasant song :
For he hath wrought throughout the world,

his wonders great and strong.” But at these Rotherham meetings there would be no escaping that final hymn, a particular favorite of the collection, commencing :

Preserue vs Lord by thy deare word

from Pope and Turke, defend vs Lord Which both would thrust out of his throne,

Our Lord Jesus Christ thy deare sonne.' Under Charles II. the Conventicle Act of 1664, and the Five Miles Act of 1665, fell most severely on the Nonconformists, aiming at their utter destruction and extinction. Nearly all the ministers of this district suffered frequently under these monstrous enactments. Mr. Fisher and Mr. Jollie, of Sheffield, were sent to York Castle, and so were others. Luke Clayton was imprisoned six months together several times. But such persecution failed utterly in shaking the conscientious determination of these faithful servants of Christ. They would only re-enter the Church of England with freedom of worship and un ered belief accorded to them. Little, indeed, was the prospect of such concession ! Accordingly, Nonconformity continued to hold a firm and unflinching standing in Rotherham.

While Master Shawe and Mr. Clayton lived, there was no difficulty in providing for the lectures and Sunday ser

vices. As before stated, neighbouring ejected clergy would minister at times. In the year 1672, Charles II., partly influenced by his brother James, who was yoking himself to the Papacy, issued a Declaration of Indulgence suspending the penal laws against Nonconformists, while giving relief to the Catholics. Several of the ejected clergy took the benefit of this “ Indulgence." In the State Papers there is the following entry :-“ Licence to Luke Clayton, of Rotherham, Yorkshire, to be a G’rall Pr., that is, General Presbyterian Teacher, 30th April, [16]72." By this licence Mr. Clayton would become a legally recognised minister, and, probably, was thus able to give an official recognition to the meetings of his brethren in Rotherham.

In his application for licence to form a Presbyterian Meeting-house at Greasborough, he was not successful, as the following official notification shows :

Application not approved. Trinity House, in Greasbrook, Rotherham, York, belonging to the Earl of Strafford, for a Presbyterian

congregation.” Perhaps that was too much to expect on the Wentworth property !

The third Evangelist's name-sake might preach, as cften as he liked, in the old Chapel, but to start a Presbyterian Conventicle was quite another thing!

DEATH OF MASTER JOHN SHAWE. It was in this year, 1672, on the 19th April, that Master John Shawe died. The following is the English version of the epitaph copied by Ralph Thoresby from the brass, not now to be found, in Rotherham Church :

Here lie the Remains
Of the Rev. John Shaw, M.A. ;
He was educated at Christ College, Cambridge,
And was sometime Vicar of this Church ;

He was ever esteemed
For his eminent literature and piety,
And labour in word and doctrine,
Among the first divines of the age.
In administering divine consolation

He was a Barnabas
And in wielding divine thunders

He was a Boanerges.
He was translated to the celestial Mansions

April 19th, 1672, aged 65.

His coadjutor and personal friend, Mr. Luke Clayton, was destined to live to 15th June, 1674. A remarkable testimony to the esteem and confidence in which this local prophet was held, is seen in his appointment to the honourable office of Greave of the Feoffees, either alone or in association with some other, from 1659-1671. The position now occupied by the Mayor of Rotherham was, generations gone, and within the memory of those living, held by the Greave, who used to summon and preside over all public meetings and to take the responsible civil government of the town in conjunction with the magistrates.

MR. LUKE CLAYTON, GREAVE. Luke Clayton, “ clerk," appears for the first time at the meeting for passing the accounts, as customary in the church in 1656. For the year ending 1659 he appears as one of the out-going Greaves, and takes part on most public occasions afterwards. The year in which he entered on the duties of Greave, unusual poverty and destitution prevailed in the town. Demoralization followed on the excessive destitution, and the authorities found it absolutely necessary to adopt measures of a special kind, both of relief and correction. An official order of the justices, dated xij. of October, 1658, was issued to the following purport :-After acknowledging that the inhabitants had fallen into great decay and the poore had increased, it was recommended that some employment should be offered to those willing to earn a living. The Feoffees were commended on their providing material for promoting the trade of “making ffustions and other comodityes called Manchester ware. The justices themselves promised,—" as far as in us lyes we would concurr in the helping forward (according to the law of God and the land) this too good a worke.” The document has a decidedly religious character, and this is no doubt to be attributed to the issuing of the same under the Commonwealth of Lord Protector Cromwell. Sheffield was in similar distress, 725 of its 2207 people not being able to live without charity. Mr. Clayton took a personal interest in promoting the industrial enterprise in his native town. Mr. Henry Westby, who would be one of the Dissenting community, left a legacy of

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