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his Church, does, forsooth, include both “ Bishops, Presbyters, and People.” The sermon was ordered by Parliament to be printed. Another sermon of his, forming the third of the volume, preached in St. Paul's Church, London, before the Lord Mayor, Lord General (Mank), Aldermen, &c.,28th February, 1659, was ordered by the Common Council to be printed.
The fourth sermon of the volume is particularly worthy of attention, having been preached before the Parliament of England at St. Margaret's Church in Westminster, on Wednesday, 15th April, 1660-Being the first day of their assemblyby Edward Reynolds, D.D., Dean of Christ Church, Oxon. He was one of the Assembly of the Divines, and we shall find he afterwards accepted the Bishopric of Norwich. He took for his subject “The author and subject of Healing in the Church.” He shews his preference for Bishops over Presbyters, and denounces in no measured terms those Separists who had sequestered the livings of the clergy under the Commonwealth. Another sermon by Dr. Reynolds is given, preached before the House of Peers in "Westminster Abby," 30th April, 1660. Its conclusion is, “ The way therefore unto Healing is to endeavour to bring us all home to be God's people, and as his people to be compacted within ourselves, to lay aside all dividing, distinguishing, invidious Titles and with fraternal affections to coalesce, as far as may be in judgment,” &c. Another sermon was printed, which was preached before the House of Peers in the Abbey Church, Westminster, on Thursday, 10th May, 1660, by James Buck, B.D., Vicar of Shad. brook, in Suffolk and Domestick, Chaplain to the Right Honorable Theophilus Earl of Lincoln.
RICHARD BAXTER'S SERMONS. The last two sermons of the volume were preached by the celebrated Richard Baxter, before the King entered London. One is entitled, “Right REJOICING," or the Nature and Order of Rational and Warrantable Joy. Discovered in a sermon preached at St. Paul's, before the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and the several Companies of the City of London, on 10th May, 1660, appointed by both Houses of Parliament, to be a day of solemn thanksgiving for God's raising up and succeeding his excellency, and other instruments, in order to his Majestie's restoration, and the settlement of these Nations." The other sermon, “A sermon of Repentence, preached before the Honourable House of Commons, assembled in Parliament at Westminster, at their late solemn fast for the settling of these nations, 30 April, 1660, was, though preached 30th April, printed in the volume. It contains the following significant passage towards
the close, Our calamities began in differences about religion, and still that's the wound that most needs closing : and if that were done, how easily (I dare confidently speak it) would the generality of sober, godly people be agreed in things civill, and become the strength and glory of the Sovereign (under God). And though with grief and shame we see this work so long undone (may we hope that God hath reserved it to this season), yet I have the confidence to profess, that as the exalting of one party by the ejection and persecuting of the rest, in the sinful way to your dishonour and our ruine, so the terms on which the differing parties most considerable among us, may safely, easily, and suddenly unite, are very obvious, and our concord a very easie thing, if the prudent and moderate might be the guides, and selfish interests and passion did not set us at a further distance than our principles have done. And to shew you the facility of such an agreement, were it not that such personal matters are much liable to misinterpretations, I should tell you, that the late Reverend Primate of Ireland consented in less than half an hour's debate) to five or six propositions which I offered him, as sufficient for the concord of the moderate episcopall and Presbyterians, without forsaking the principles of their parties.” Yes, but how were these principles to be reconciled ? When the King was received amid the acclamations of the people in 1660, the chief matter to be determined was whether there could be effected a Reconciliation between the moderate Episcopal and the Presbyterian parties. Of the Presbyterian clergy the following were made the King's Chaplains in ordinary :-Mr. Calamy, Dr. Reynolds, Mr. Baxter, Mr. Ash, Dr. Spinston, Dr. Walles, Dr. Bates, Dr. Manton, Mr. Case, &c. By the appointments they had easy access to his Majesty, and they recommended to him “The Union of his subjects in religious matters." The King declared himself highly pleased with their inclinations to agreement, but told them that this agreement could not be expected to be compassed by bringing one party over to the other, but by abating something on both sides, and meeting in the midway. And he desired these clergy to set down the most that they could yield to. They on their part desired that the brethren on the other side might bring in theirs, and the King promised it should be so.
CAN THE PRESBYTERIAN AND EPISCOPAL PARTIES UNITE ?
The Presbyterian ministers met and proposed that suffragan bishops should be chosen by the respective Synods, that ministers be under no promises of obedience to the Bishops, that the Bishops govern according to Rules, Canons and Constitutions established by Parliament, that a complete new Liturgy, or Reform of the old, be made, that the ceremonies of kneeling at the sacrament, the use of the surplice, the cross in baptism, and the bowing at the name of Jesus, rather than Christ or Emmanuel, might be abolished. The Church Divines on the other side made their conditions only too stringent. They were for a godly minister in each parish. Regarding church government, they declared for the former Hierarchy without any alteration. As to the Liturgy, they applaud it as unexceptionable, and think it can't be said to be too rigorously imposed, when ministers are not denied the exercise of their gifts in praying before and after sermon, and as for the ceremonies they could not part with one. The King had a declaration drawn up, and invited both sides to raise their respective objections to it, and in the end some compromise appeared for concord and peace. Several of the ministers were offered preferments-Mr. Calamy, the Bishopric of Coventry and Litchfield ; Dr. Reynolds, the Bishopric of Norwich; Mr. Baxter, the Bishopric of Hereford ; Dr. Manton, the Deanery of Rochester ; Dr. Bates. the Deanery of Coventry and Litchfield ; and Mr. Edward Bowles, the Deanery of York ; but all refused except Dr. Reynolds, who said he accepted the Bishopric of Norwich only on the condition laid down in the declaration. Why did
not his Presbyterian brethren follow his example ? Had they done so, there might have been little cause for the after troubles of Nonconformists.
SAVOY MEETING. There followed a meeting at the Savoy, between the Episcopalians and the Presbyters. Doctor Sanderson presided. The Presbyters required that the Repetitions and Responsals of Clerk and people might be omitted; that the Litany might be cast into one solemn prayer ; that Saints' Days be omitted; that the gift of prayer be not excluded in any part of public worship; that the apocryphal lessons be omitted; that the minister be not required to rehearse the Liturgy at the Communion Table, that the word Priest and Curate be turned into that of minister; and Sunday into Lord's Day; that the phrase which supposes all in Communion to be regenerated (without the exercise of discipline) be reformed; that ceremonies might not be imposed by the Liturgy, but left at liberty, &c. Mr. Baxter was chiefly instrumental in formulating these conditions and his " Additions “ New Forms were styled the “Reformed Liturgy ” and approved by the ministers. On 8th May, 1661, the New Parliament and Convocation sat down, favourable to the Diocesan interest, and by order of Parliament the National Vow and Covenant was burnt in the street by the hands of the Common Hangman.
Whether the Bishops at all considered Mr. Baxter's reformed Liturgy is doubtful ; at any rate, the whole disputation ended in the episcopal party maintaining its own position, so that the Nonconformist representatives were entirely disappointed. Every effort was made by the leading Presbyterians and men of note to get the King's Declaration passed into law, but all attempts for Union and Peace were found useless, and at length Parliament passed the Act of Uniformity, giving all ministers who could not conform, no longer time than till Bartholomew's Day, 24th August, 1662.
Had the King been a man of strong principle and noble honour he would never have sanctioned the Act of Uniformity, considering his promise at Breda of liberty of conscience. The Nonconformists, however, had to reckon with lordly