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Sub-Rector of the college, and afterwards Rector. taking his degree of M.A. he was licensed to preach in his 29th year, and was presented to the Rectory of Boothby Pannell, Lincolnshire. Not long after he was made Prebend of Southwell. At Boothby Pannell the Rector and his parishioners lived comfortably together, partaking peacefully and profitably in the services of the church.

By the recommendation of Archbishop Laud, Sanderson was appointed a Royal Chaplain in 1631. King Charles I., was never absent from his sermons, and would usually say, “I carry my ears to hear other preachers, but I carry my conscience to hear Mr. Sanderson, and act accordingly." On a visit of the King to Oxford, Sanderson was created Doctor of Divinity. Dr. Sanderson was employed to make such modifications of the Prayer Book as might satisfy those who favoured the solemn League and covenant, though no compromise was arrived at.

Dr. Sanderson in his chair at Oxford, along with many other heads of the Colleges, objected to the taking of the Covenant. Soldiers and Presbyterian Divines appeared on the scene, and Dr. Sanderson and other Church professors were forced to pack-up and begone. This occurred in June, 1648, about six months prior to the execution of the King Isaac Walton relates, how in London all the Bishops' houses were turned to be prisons, and filled with Divines that would not take the Covenant or forbear reading Common Prayer. Old grey-headed Archbishop Laud was brought to the block on Tower Hill. Dr. Sanderson, in his retirement to Boothby Pannell, used the Book of Common Prayer with some modifications, as at first it had been torn from him by those separatists who demanded extempore prayer. But he was continually being disturbed. The garrison at Lincoln carried him off to the prison on one occasion. His influence, however, in all theological controversies of the time was considerable. His publications were of the utmost weight and importance. Anthony Wood, author of the “Athence Oxonienses, speaking of the eighth edition of Dr. Sanderson's sermons (London, 1686), comprises all that need be said, " Whether you consider him in his writings or conversations, from his first book of logic to his divinity lectures, sermons, and other excellent discourses, the vastness of his judgment, the variety of his learning, all laid out for public benefit, his unparalleled meekness, humility, and constancy, you cannot but confess that the Church of England could not lose a greater, fitter, a better man, and more accomplished divine." And yet because he could and would not lift his right hand to the Presbyterian Solemn League and Covenant, this so gifted and exalted a man was cast out of his professor's chair at Oxford and made subject to petty and insolent interferences in the faithful discharge of his pastoral services in his Lincolnshire parish. Dr. Sanderson is credited with the drawing up of the present preface to the Prayer Book, and even with the composition of that sublime and beautiful prayer—“A general thanksgiving”-introduced into the Prayer Book of 1662. It was left to the Restoration of Royality in 1660 and to Charles II. to render honourable acknowledgment of the worth of this distinguished Rotherham born dignitary by his appointment to the bishopric of Lincoln. In this high office he manifested considerate sympathy towards John Bunyan during his imprisonment in Bedford Gaol.

Rev. JOHN BIDDLE, M.A. THE FIRST ENGLISH UNITARIAN MINISTER. The second illustration of one who greatly suffered from the Presbyterian supremacy will appeal especially to those who share the tenets of the congregation worshipping in the Church of Our Father, Rotherham. And yet that congregation, in its historical relations, will be found to have had its original formation by Presbyterian clergy and laity who seceded in 1662 from the English Episcopal Church. John Biddle, who has been called “The father of English Unitarianism,” was born at Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, 14th January, 1615. At school he applied himself so vigorously to his studies as to surpass all his school fellows of his own standing. In 1634 he became a student of Magdalen Hall, Oxford. After taking his degree of B.A. and M.A., he was appointed by the magistrates of Gloucester master of the free school of that city. While in this capacity, and during the first three years he began to entertain doubts of the doctrine of the Trinity, As he spoke openly of his change of views to friends and neighbours, no wonder the magistrates were led to require “ a written statement of his belief.” He does not appear to have altogether satisfied the magisterial authorities. This was about the year 1645, when Parliamentary commissioners happened to be at Gloucester, whose attention was seriously called to the heretical views of the chief schoolmaster. Six months after, he was summoned to Westminster, when he confessed he did not believe in the Deity of the Holy Ghost, considering, as he did the Holy Spirit to be the principal spirit among the good angels, even the good spirit of God. He was kept prisoner, more or less, for 16 months, being delivered over to the tender mercies of the Assembly of Divines. He was frequently called up and examined by the Assembly. To bring matters to a determination he published a tract refuting the Deity of the Holy Spirit, which created a prodigious sensation, and was ordered by Parliament to be burnt by the hands of the Common Hangman. But the sale of it was so great that it went through a second edition within the year.

On the 2nd May, 1648, a severe ordinance was passed inflicting the punishment of death upon those who denied the doctrine of the Trinity. Mr. Biddle was not to be thus prohibited publishing his own views, as in that very same year he put forth-"A confession of faith touching the Holy Trinity according to Scripture.” In it he used great boldness of language, and even alleged that the terms used by Trinitarians for the purpose of explaining their doctrines were—“Fitter for conjurors than Christians.” Biddle was detained in prison, and none of that Assembly of Divines, so shocked at his blasphemes, visited him to convince him of his errors. Several gentlemen, however, visited him, partly with a view to concert measures for his enlargement. When set at liberty he wrote and published what he called—"A Twofold Catechism.” His theological foes br

ht this publication to the attention of the House of Commons, and the author was committed to the gatehouse and forbidden the use of pen and paper. The book was, of course, ordered to be burnt by the same uncanny personage, the Common Hangman. After a time he was again liberated, and he

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