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II.

Ejus mortis sedetis ultores, cujus vitam si putetis per vos restitui posse, nolitis. Si domum magnam pulchramque videris, non possis adduci, ut etiamsi dominum non videas, muribus illam et mustelis aedificatam putes. Si plus apud populum Romanum auctoritas tua, quam ipsius populi Romani salus et vera causa valuisset, hodie hanc gloriam atque hoc orbis terrae imperium teneremus? Rex in monumento aperto non quas speraverat divitias, sed haec verba exarata invenit: Nisi turpis lucri cupidus esses et te insatiabilis teneret avaritia, sepulchra mortuorum non violasses. Nisi Themistocles Miltiadis aemulus fuisset, Graecia in barbarorum ditione fuisset, et nomina Salarninis et Artemisii, victoriis nobilitata, non audita essent.

III.

If delight alone were sought from the studies of polite letters, still we should consider this pursuit the most refined and liberal. If the gods, says he, had left it in your own hands, Philip, in what way you should wish (most of all) to test my feelings towards you, you would have wished assuredly to do so in another way, but a surer method you could not even have desired. When Archytas was 2 somewhat angry at his steward, he said: How should I have met you, if I had not been angry? The memory is weakened, if you do not exercise it, or even if you are rather slow by nature. Darius had a mild and yielding disposition, were not nature usually spoiled by good-fortune.- Curt. iii. 5. I should have fallen 3 further, had I not restrained myself. If you accuse 4 any thief or rapacious person, you will have always to avoid all suspicion of avarice. If a good man were 4 selling a house on account of any defects which he was aware of, but all others were ignorant of 5; suppose that it was unhealthy, and was considered healthy ; suppose it was built of bad materials and ruinous, but that no one knew this besides the proprietor; I ask, if the seller should not inform the buyers of this, and should sell the house at a much higher price than he thought he would, should he act justly or wickedlý?—Cic. de Off. ii. 13.

1 You could not even have desired to do so in a surer way than you have tested them. To expertus supply es.-2 Had become. -3 I was falling, see Gram., § 346.—4 See Gram., § 346, 2, note 2.—5 For the subjunctive, see Gram., § 361.

IV. Honestum dicimus, etiamsi a nullo laudetur, laudabile esse natura. Sunt ingeniis nostris semina innata virtutum ; quae si adolescere liceret, ipsa nos ad beatam vitam natura perduceret. Si nullum aliud mihi praemium a senatu populoque Romano, nisi honestum otium postularem, quis non concederet? Si, sublato Catilina, depelli a vobis omne periculum judicarem, jam pridem ego illum, non modo invidiae meae, verum etiam vitae periculo, sustulissem. Contra, si quis aciem Macedonum intueretur, dispar facies erat.1--Curt. iii. 8. Ex urbe profecturus eram, nisi advenisses. Milites cessuri erant, nisi consul cum exercitu subvenisset.

1 See Gram., § 346.

II. THE POTENTIAL, OPTATIVE, AND CONCESSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.

(Exercises, p. 74.)

I would not easily mention a man who excelled i Caius Piso, my son-in-law, even in genius. Who would call him a man, who saysl that those things take place by chance, when, with all our wisdom, we cannot comprehend with what wisdom they are conducted ?2 Stones and deserts answer to the voice; wild beasts are often moved by song, and stand still: should we, who have received the highest instruction,3 not be moved by the voice of the poets ? Should I decide against the fidelity of my physician ? should I then suffer myself to be crushed in my tent? Perhaps some one may say: would not, then, the wise man, if he were perishing with hunger, take away food from another, from a man good for nothing ?-By no means. Who would forgive him, who has taken it upon him to correct the morals of others and to reprove their offences, if he should himself in anything swerve from the obligation of duty?

1 For the subj., see Gram., § 360.—2 That those things take place by chance, which with how great wisdom they are conducted, we can with no wisdom comprehend.-3 Instructed in the greatest matters.

II. Quis unquam arbitraretur hoc tantum bellum ab uno imperatore confici posse? Sum felix : quis enim neget hoc? felixque manebo : hoc quoque quis dubitet ? Nihil tam difficile sit, quin investigari possit. Quis vel eum jure reprehenderit, qui in ea voluptate veliti esse, quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum, qui dolorem eum fugiat, quo voluptas nulla pariatur?1 Quis me jure reprehenderit? Haud facile discerneres, utrum imperatori an exercitui carior esset Hannibal. Confecto proelio,

1 For the subjunctive, see Gram., § 260.

tum vero cerneres, quanta audacia quantaque vis animi fuisset in exercitu Catilinae. Velim (ut) definias, quae sit voluptas. In his regionibus multos senes videre licet : alio te seculo natum putes. Romani moesti in castra redierunt: victos putares. Utrumque est vitium: omnibus credere, et nulli. Alterum autem honestius, alterum tutius dixerim. Quis stupidum et tardum ad domum privatam, nedum ad civitatem administrandam, idoneum duxerit?

III. · Would, Pompey, that you had never entered into an alliance with Caesar, or never broken it off! I begin to hope that your arrival is drawing near; would that it may be a consolation to me! Farewell, says Mílo, farewell, my fellow-citizens ! May this illustrious city, my most dear native place, still stand secure, whatever it may have deserved at my hands 11 May my countrymen enjoy a peaceful state without me (since I may not enjoy it along with them), but still by means of me! Would that the state had continued in its pristine condition, and had not fallen into the hands of men desirous, not so much of changing, as of subverting, existing institutions !3 Would that I could restore the nations by my father's skill! I speak of those who have fallen. Grant that they have been ambitious, violent, obstinate; but let Pompey, let many others, be clear of the charge of crime, of madness, of parricide !4 Supposing that the other advantages were wanting, how great a matter is it to be the brother of Jupiter! Nothing is more pleasant to man than wisdom, which old age brings, granting that it takes away the other advantages.

I May this city, illustrious and the most dear native place to me, stand, in whatever way it shall have deserved of me._? In the condition, in which it began.-3 Things -4 Parricidium is not only the murder of parents and near relatives, but is frequently applied to crime against one's native country,

IV. Sibi habeant regna reges, divites divitias! Dii tibi haec gaudia, hanc famam conservent! Utinam civibus omnibus solvere nobis justa praemia liceret! Etiam in rebus secundis superbiam et arrogantiam vitemus. Si mihi haec conditio consulatus data est, ut omnes acerbitates omnesque dolores perferrem, feram non solum fortiter, sed etiam libenter, dummodo meis laboribus vobis populoque Romano dignitas salusque pariatur. Fuerit in errore, non perseveravit tamen in errore. Ut auxilio egeas, injusto non eges auxilio. Ut civitati profueris, omnes idem facere parati eramus. Ne sit summum malum, malum certe est.

III. THE SUBJUNCTIVE WITH THE CONJUNCTIONS UT, NE, ETC.

(Exercises, p. 76.)

I consider that many things have been composed by the poets, in order that we might see our own characters and everyday life represented in the persons of others. 1 Our ancestors (had thus) ordained, that if an offence had been 2 committed by many in military service, 3 a certain number should be punished, in order that, it is clear, fear might come upon all, punishment on a few. He had ordered the lightarmed Thracians to go on before, and examine the mountainpaths, lest the hidden enemy should rush out upon them as they came up. The (various) kinds of virtues and vices must be carefully distinguished, that we may not be deceived by those vices which seem to put on the appearance of virtue. We send men of such a kind into the provinces with the command, that their arrivals in the cities of the allies do not differ much from a hostile invasion. We have not been so created by nature that we seem formed for sport and jest, but rather for gravity and more serious and important studies. Should I persist in drinking (the medicine)? that, if poison has been administered, whatever happens may seem to have happened to me not even undeservedly. In the speech of Scaurus, a wise and upright man, there was the greatest seriousness, a kind of natural authority, so that, when he was speaking in behalf of the accused, you would have thought he 6 was not pleading a cause, but giving evidence.7 True and feigned love are not easily distinguished, unless some time of such a kind occurs, that, as gold is tried by fire,8 so sincere good-will be seen by some trial. So great is the force, so great the wisdom of this precept, that it was ascribed, not to any man, but to the Delphic god.

i That we might see our own characters represented in the persons of others, and the image of our everyday life delineated._2 For the subj., see Gram., 8 361.

3 An offence of military service.--4 Animadvertitur in me, I am punished.5 Taking by storm.-6 Supply eum as the accusative before the infinitive dicere. -7 Dicere causam, to plead a cause; dicere testimonium, to give evidence. _8 As if gold by fire.

II.

Nec ut emat melius nec ut vendat, quidquam simulabit aut dissimulabit. vir bonus. Legum ministri magistratus ; legum interpretes judices; legum idcirco omnes servi sumus, ut liberi esse possimus. Leges datae sunt, ut cives quiete beateque vivant. Taceo, ne dolorem augeam tuum. Adhuc ita vestri cum illo rege contenderunt imperatores, ut ab illo insignia victoriae, non victoriam reportarent. Alii philosophi tanta sunt levitate et jactatione, iis ut fuerit non didicisse melius; alii pecuniae cupidi, gloriae nonnulli ; multi libidinum servi, ut cum eorum vita mirabiliter pugnet oratio, quod quidem mihi videtur esse turpissimum. Magna est vis conscientiae in utramque partem, ut neque timeant, qui nihil commiserinti et poenam semper ante oculos versari putent, qui peccarint.1 Pompeius erat tanta temperantia, tanta mansuetudine, tanta humanitate, ut ii beatissimi esse viderentur, apud quos diutissime commorabatur.

1 For the subjunctive, see Gram., § 361.

III.

Publius Sulpicius had such weight, such brevity, such agreeableness in (public) speaking, that he could by his eloquence cause either the wise to err, or the good to be less well disposed. This is even of the greatest importance, to see the mind with the mind itself. And in truth this is the force of the precept of Apollo, in which he admonishes every one to know? himself. For he does not, I should think, bid us become acquainted with our limbs, or with our stature and figure. I exhort you to assign this place to virtue, without which friendship cannot exist, that, it being excepted, you should consider that there is nothing more excellent than friendship. Whatever that is which perceives, which judges, which wills, which lives, it is celestial and divine, and for this reason must necessarily be eternal. One man effected this, that we at length really appeared to govern all nations, by land and sea. The water of the river invited the king, who was covered at once with dust and perspiration, to bathe his still warm body. I shall not vex your mind with complaints. I exhort you to rule and direct all things by your wisdom, that the counsels of others may not carry you away. Call to mind the Acilian law, in consequence of which the Roman people has had the advantage of excellent trials, and most strict judges concerning extortion. What region, what district, what place in Greece, what appearance or form of battle, what army, what rowing, what motion of men or of beasts, has not been so depicted by Homer, that he has caused us to see what he himself did 3 not see? If any one chooses to call him a philosopher who gives us an abundance of matter and of words, he may do so for me. I entreat you most urgently,4 my Plancus, to

1 The weight of Sulpicius was so great.-_? To become acquainted with.3 For the subj., see Gram. & 361.--4 I entreat you and beg of you so that I cannot (do so) with greater concern, with greater desire.

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