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SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

1. WHEN THE PREDICATE IS A VERB.

(Exercises, p. 6.)

Man is possessed of judgment, reason, foresight. It was the will of nature that I should be compassionate, of my country that I should be stern, of neither my country nor nature that I should be cruel. An army of eight thousand foot3 and two hundred horse had come from the Caspian Sea. Caesar was possessed of4 genius, reason, memory, letters, care, thought, diligence. The sight of you, judges, here assembled, revives and refreshes my mind. Loftiness and greatness of mind, and likewise a regard for social rights, justice, liberality, are more (to be desired) according to nature than pleasure, than life, than riches. The recklessness and audacity of foolish and wicked men have sometimes profaned eloquence, a thing in itself) most honourable and right. The crowd, with their leader, raised their eyes. The camp of Alexander appeared to Darius to be enveloped in bright flames, 6 and a little after Alexander appeared to be led towards him in the same dress which he himself had worn;7 then, having ridden on horseback through Babylon, to be suddenly withdrawn from his sight along with the horse itself. The whole of the plebs, from the desire of change (revolution), favoured the designs of Catiline. There arose a shout of the people, wondering what was the matter. It is beyond belief how highly both I and my brother valued M. Laenius. Either you can assist me or I can perhaps assist you in something. The one class of men set before themselves (as their aim) praise, honour, glory, fidelity, justice, and every virtue; the other gain, profit, advantage. Concerning these things the philosophers dispute with the greatest diversity of opinions. We can neither argue without attempting to refute others, 9 nor can we argue rightly with anger or obstinacy. They rush to that extreme decree, to which recourse was never before had, except almost in the very conflagration of the city

1 There are in man.-2 Nature willed me to be.-3 A foot army of eight thousand men.-4 There were in Caesar._5 Your sight and assembly.-6. To shine with a great blaze of fire.-7.In which he himself had been. -8 It is disputed with the greatest disagreement of the philosophers.-_9 Without refuting.

and in despair of the safety of all. The most severe and harsh decrees are passed concerning the government of Caesar, and concerning the most honourable men, the tribunes of the plebs.

II. Ex eloquentia ad illos qui eam adepti sunt, laus, honor, dignitas confluit. Scio, judices, quid gravitas vestra, quid periculi magnitudo, quid illi conventus, quid aetas, quid honor meus postulet. Difficile dictu est, quantopere conciliet animos hominum comitas affabilitasque sermonis. Pudorem rubor, terrorem pallor et tremor et dentium crepitus consequitur. Syracusae et Italiae Inferioris pars a Graecis subacta est. Quid non modo nos, sed omnino vita hominum sine te fuisset? Societatis humanae vinculum est ratio et oratio, quae conciliat homines inter se. Quem discordiae, quem caedes civium, quem bellum civile delectat, is ex numero hominum ejiciendus est. In eadem re utilitas et turpitudo esse non potest. Ultimas terras lustrasse Pythagoras, Democritus, Plato dicuntur. Fuga et pavor Numidarum Romanis victoriam dedit. Ego et Cassius noster cras, ut cupis, apud te erimus. Neque tu neque soror tua invitati estis. Vivitur non cum perfectis hominibus pleneque sapientibus. Homerus et Hesiodus fuerunt ante Roman conditam. Mihi multa eximia divinaque videntur Athenae peperisse. Ego et tu sumus fratres. Justitia sine prudentia multum poterit; sine justitia nihil valebit prudentia. Xenophon et Plato clarissimi Socratis discipuli habiti sunt. Tu et pater tuus multa beneficia civitati praestitistis.

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No onel except the good man is happy, and all good men are happy. Pretence and concealment must be taken away from the whole life. In all matters, rashness in assenting and error are disgraceful. Both the advantage and the delight of studies are to be preferred to all pleasures. Malleolus and his mother and grandmother were brought forward by me. Jest and witticisms are pleasant and often extremely useful. That liberty which you have often desired, moreover riches, honour, glory, are placed before your eyes. Every foolish person is 2 unhappy. Duty is simple, and the cause of all good men is one. Pain, if

1 Neque quisquam-et, neither any oncand, equivalent to both no one-and.% No foolish person is not.

severe, is short; if long-continued, slight. What is there of long continuance in the life of man?

Catoni et Caesari genus, aetas, eloquentia prope aequalia fuere; magnitudo animi par, item gloria. Fundamentum perpetuae commendationis et famae est justitia, sine qua nihil potest esse laudabile. Injustitia et intemperantia sunt fugiendae. Jam pridem pater mihi et mater mortui sunt. Non omne laude dignum est, quod laudabile dicitur ab hominibus honestumque habetur. Catilinae ab adolescentia bella intestina, caedes, rapinae, discordia civilis grata fuere. Democritus affirmavit ex corpusculis quibusdam effectum esse coelum atque terras. Polycrates Samius appellabatur felix. Athenienses acutiores habebantur quam Thebani. Virtus fidesque vestra spectatal mihi sunt.Sall. Cat. 20.

1 See Gram., § 240 (a), note.

III. WHEN THE PREDICATE IS A SUBSTANTIVE.

(Exercises, p. 8.)

Taxes are the sinews of the commonwealth. Action is, as it were, the speech of the body. The body is, as it were, a vessel or (some) receptacle of the mind; whatever is done by your mind, that is done by you. The mind of a man is the man, not that figure which can be pointed to with the finger. The countenance is the image, the eyes are the indices,2 of the mind. Angor is an oppressive grief; luctus, grief (arising) from the bitter loss of one who has been 3 dear (to us); moeror, a tearful grief; aerumna, a toilsome grief; dolor, a torturing grief; lamentatio, a grief (accompanied) with wailing; sollicitudo, grief (accompanied) with thought, molestia, an abiding grief; afflictatio, grief (accompanied) with violent treatment of the body; desperatio, grief without any hope of improvement.5 Eloquence is the companion of peace and the associate of tranquillity, and, as it were, a kind of pupil of a state in which order has been established. The material of things, of which and in which all things consist, is all capable of being moulded and changed; it is Divine Providence, moreover, that fashions and directs the whole.7 Not every error is to be called folly. Wisdom is the mother of all good qualities (acquirements). Wisdom is the guardian and overseer of the whole man, the companion and assistant of nature. This entire universe is to be considered 8 one state common to gods and men. Cic. de Leg. i. 7. What is now called Eleusis,9 (this) was 8 the territory of the aged Celeus.-Ovid, Fast. iv. 507. Speech is the founder of human society. History is the witness of 10 events, the light of truth, the life of memory, the mistress of life, the messenger of 11 antiquity. Philosophy is the guide of life, searches out virtue and drives out vices, 12 is the inventress of laws, the mistress of morals and education. Friendships are not only the most faithful promoters, but also the authors of pleasures, as well to one's friends as to one's self. The one virtue of justice is the mistress and queen of all virtues. The sun is the leader and chief and ruler of the other luminaries.

1 The mind of every one, that is every one.—2 That is, they betray the real state of the mind.-3 The reason of the subjunctive fuerit is explained, Gram., § 360, 3.-4 Such as beating the breast.–5 Of better things.-6 Of an already wellsettled state.-7 Divine Providence is the fashioner and governor of the whole.-

8 Existimanda est, fuere, agreeing with the predicate; see Gram., $ 241, note.9 There are two forms, Eleusis and Eleusin.-10 Testis, one that gives information with regard to anything.-11 Nuntia, one that brings intelligence.-19 Is the searcher out of virtue and the expeller of vices.

II.

Oratio est interpres mentis. Sapientia est rerum divinarum et humanarum scientia. Sensus non comites solum virtutum sed etiam ministri sunt. Prudentia est rerum bonarum et malarum scientia. Partes ejus memoria, intelligentia, providentia. Memoria est, per quam animus repetit illa quae fuerunt. Intelligentia est, per quam ea perspicit quae sunt. Providentia est, per quam futurum aliquid videtur ante quam factum sit. Ea loca, quae Numidae possedere, Numidia vocatur. Virtus recte summum bonum existimatur, vitium summum malum. Philippi erant colonia Romanorum. Oraculum erat datum, si rex interfectus esset, victrices Athenas fore. Raro ii habemur, qui revera sumus. Brutus et Tarquinius Collatinus primi consules Romae creati sunt. Ex eloquentia ad rempublicam plurima commoda veniunt, si moderatrix omnium praesto est sapientia. Pecunia est effectrix multarum et magnarum voluptatum. Catilina et Mallius hostes a senatu judicati sunt. Doryphori vocabantur proximum his agmen, soliti vestem excipere regalem.-Curtius, iii. 7. Verri Messana adjutrix scelerum erat, furtorum receptrix, flagitiorum omnium socia. Legem esse oportet vitiorum emendatricem commendatricemque virtutum. Athenae erant inventrices multarum artium. Leges optimae civium patronae sunt.

IV. WHEN THE SUBJECT IS ACCOMPANIED BY AN APPOSITION,

AND WHEN THE SUBJECT CONSISTS OF A WHOLE CLAUSE.

(Exercises, p. 10.)

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Corinth, the ornament (light) of all Greece, was destroyed (extinguished) by the Romans. The light-armed troops, with their respective leaders, came (were) last. The city of Mitylenae is particularly famous, both for its natural situation and for the arrangement and beauty of its buildings; its territory 2 is pleasant and fertile. The city of Soli was taken by Alexander. To have the same desires and aversions, 3 that, indeed, is firm friendship. It is more difficult to make an end of speaking on this subject than to find a commencement. It is disgraceful not to have learned little, but to rest satisfied foolishly and long with 5 the little that we have learned. What is so royal,6 so noble, so generous, as to afford help to suppliants, to raise those who are cast down, to bestow safety, to free from dangers ?

1 Nature and situation.- Agri, lands, territory; supply sunt.--3 To wish the same thing, and not to wish the same thing.--4 To find the end than the begin. ning of this speech.-5 To rest satisfied with, to have persisted in.--6 Worthy of a king.

II. Veii, urbs Etruriae, quae multa cum Romanis bella gesserat, a Camillo diruta est. Milites, pro se quisque, precari coepere, ne festinatione periculum augeret. Susa, opulentissima urbs Persiae, ab Alexandro diruta est. Athenae, nobilissima urbs Graeciae, saepe diruta est. Apiolae, Latinorum oppidum, a Tarquinio rege captum est. Syracusae, Siciliae urbs, a Marco Marcello capta est. In fuga salutem sperare, quum arma, quibus corpus tegitur, ab hostibus averteris, ea vero dementia est. Ut majoribus vestris pulcherrimum fuit tantam vobis gloriam relinquere, sic vobis turpissimum est, id, quod accepistis, tueri et conservare non posse. Non tam praeclarum est scire Latine, quam turpe nescire,

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