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GRAMMAR.-CHAPTER XLVI.

THE VOCATIVE.

(Exercises, p. 62.)

I urgentlyl entreat and call upon you, Ceres and Libera, who dwell amid these lakes and groves of Enna. O sweet name of liberty! Distinguished right of citizenship! Authority of the tribunes, intensely longed for, and at length restored to the Roman people! Have matters come to that pass, I pray, that a Roman citizen, in a town of the allies, should be tied up in the Forum and scourged with rods ?3 I implore and entreat thee (Jupiter) Capitolinus, whom the Roman people have named Optimus, on account of the benefits thou hast conferred on them; Maximus, on account of thy might; and thee, Queen Juno; and thee, Minerva, guardian of the city, who hast always assisted me in my deliberations, and witnessed my labours.

1 Again and again.—Fallen back._3 That a Roman citizen, tied up in the Forum, should be, &c.

II. O multo miserior Dolabella, quam ille, quem tu miserrimum esse voluisti! O frustra suscepti mei labores! O spes fallaces ! O cogitationes inanes meae! Pone tibi ante oculos, Marce Antoni, totius populi Romani laetitiam. Suscipe, quaeso, mi Attice, totum negotium.

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You ought to have regard to these men in their absence. Mithridates, when conquered, was able to effect what, when unconquered, he never ventured to hope for.3 Why, Catiline, do you wait for an express decree from those whose unexpressed will you perceive ?4 The river Marsyas flowed through the middle of the city. Which authors did you read first? Did he come alone to meet you? The ambassadors were addressed somewhat haughtily. The merchants were treated somewhat injuriously. Divitiacus embraced Caesar with many tears, and began to entreat that he would not punish his brother too severely.5 I am too great for fortune to be able to injure me. -Ovid, Metam. vi. 195. There was an almost innumerable crowd of horse and foot, that made a greater appearance than could have been expected from their (actual) numbers.-Curt. iii. 4. He who has been somewhat slow in taking revenge, is presently praised openly ; but he is most severely censured, who is too slow in returning favours. In private affairs, if any one had managed a matter committed (to him) not merely somewhat knavishly, for the sake of his own gain or advantage, but even somewhat negligently, our ancestors thought that he had incurred the greatest disgrace. The Helvetii resolved to buy up as great a number of beasts of burden and wagons as possible, and to sow as much corn as possible, that there might be a sufficient supply of corn on the march. Caesar hastens to set out from the city, and hurries into Further Gaul with as great marches as possible. This gate of fame has always been open to every one, in proportion to his merit. The better a man is, with the greater difficulty does he suspect others to be bad. The kindness of the great is the common refuge for all. The more difficult a case is, the better an advocate must be employed.

1 So much as.-2 Unimpaired.--3 To wish.

4 The decree of those speaking, the will of whom silent you perceive.—5 That he would not resolve on anything too severe against his brother.-6 To make as great sowings as possible.

II. Viris magnis magnus honor vivis raro contingit. Graeci Achillem invitum Trojam deduxerunt. Tibi absenti binas litteras scripsi. Me ignarum defendisti. Anapis et Amphinomus patrem per medias Aetnae flammas tulerunt. Hirundines et ciconiae primo vere apparent. Quid velim, in extrema oratione audies. Senectus saepe morosior est. Hic locus obscurior est. Proxima hiems saevior erat. Vis conscientiae est maxima. Homines facillime, quod sperant, credunt. Ut quisque est doctissimus, ita est modestissimus. Librum quam attentissime legi. Tibi quamprimum obviam veniemus.

GRAMMAR,CHAPTER XLVIII.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLAUSES, ETC.

(Exercises, p. 64.)

The Greeks know the force of the countenance, but have no name for it. This is not a written but a natural law-which we have not learned, or heard, or read, but have caught, have drawn, have derived from nature herself, which we have not been taught, but which is innate in us, to which we have not been trained, but which we have imbibed -- that if our life should be threatened by 2 snares, by violence, by the weapons of robbers or enemies, every method of securing our safety would be honourable. Our common country, beset with the brands and weapons of an impious conspiracy, stretches out its hands suppliantly to you; to you it commends itself, to you the life of all the citizens, the citadel and the Capitol, the altars of the Penates, the 3 perpetual and eternal fire of Vesta, all the temples and shrines of the gods, the walls and houses of the city. You must this day decide concerning your own lives, concerning the lives of your wives and children, concerning the fortunes of all, concerning your abodes and hearths.

I To which we have not been taught, but made; not instructed, but imbued. --2 Should have fallen into.-3 The well known.

II.

Magna est admiratio copiose sapienterque dicentis. Quem qui audiunt, intelligere etiam plus quam ceteros arbitrantur. Quae prima innocentis mihi defensio est oblata, suscepi. Eos et accusamus et justo odio dignissimos ducimus, qui, blanditiis praesentium voluptatum corrupti, quos dolores, quas molestias excepturi sint, occaecati cupiditate, non provident. Quem si vobis, si suis, si reipublicae conservatis, obstrictum vobis ac liberis vestris habebitis.

GRAMMAR. CHAPTER L.

THE INDICATIVE MOOD.

1. IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.

(Exercises, p. 65.)

If we have always considered taxes to be the sinews of the state, we shall be right in saying, that that order which farms them is the support of all the other orders. If you have acted rashly, and have paid too little regard to the state, these men are right in endeavouringi to rule your desires by their counsels. In my opinion, we ought not the less to devote ourselves to eloquence, although some perversely abuse it, both in public and private causes, but (we ought to devote ourselves to it) even the more intensely, lest bad men should have most influence, to the great loss of the good, and the common ruin of all. All things are wretched in civil wars, but nothing more wretched than the victory itself, which, although it falls to the better party, yet renders even them more cruel and violent; so that, even if they are 3 not such by nature, they are yet compelled (to be so) by necessity. If any suppose that they can obtain solid fame by pretence and empty show, by dissimulation not only of speech, but even of countenance, they are grievously mistaken.

1 We shall rightly say; they rightly endeavour.--2 The force of quidem (at least) is to make meo emphatic.-3 For the subj., see Gram. § 343.-4 By feigned not only speech, but even countenance.

II, Stulti, etsi adepti sunt, quod concupiverunt, nunquam se · tamen satis consecutos putant. Difficile est mutare animum, et, si quid est penitus insitum moribus, id subito evellere. Magna vis est in virtutibus ; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. Moderari animo et orationi, quum sis iratus, aut etiam tacere et tenere in sua potestate motum animi et dolorem, etsi non est perfectae sapientiae, tamen est non mediocris ingenii. Dives non felicior est quam cui victus est diurnus, nisi fortuna dedit ut divitiis ad finem fruatur. Sive tuo, sive amicorum uteris consilio, in hac re semper errabis.

II. THE INDICATIVE WHERE WE SAOULD EXPECT THE

SUBJUNCTIVE.

(Exercises, p. 66.)

1.

It would have been much more advantageous to have occupied the narrow entrance to Cilicial with a strong force. You yourself, Torquatus, ought to have been already satisfied with the miseries of this man. Although you had deprived Sulla of nothing else than the consulship, yet you ought to have been contented with this. If nature had constituted us so, that we should be able to behold and perceive herself, and, under her excellent guidance, 3 to complete the course of life, there would be no ground why any one should desire reason and instruction. Orgetorix, if condemned, was to have been burnt.4

1 The straits of the approach, which opens Cilicia. Had produced us such. -3 And the same excellent nature being our guide. It behoved this punishment to follow Orgetorix, being condemned, that he should be burnt with fire.

II. Ab iis non adjutus es, a quibus debuisti. Arsanes retro concessit, populator terrae, quam a populationibus vindicare debuerat. Haec res me fefellit, quae fortasse non debuit. Philosophi debuerunt intelligere inesse aliquem non solum habitatorem in hac coelesti ac divina domo, sed etiam rectorem et moderatorem tanti operis. Gravissimo supplicio affectum esse Catilinam jam pridem oportebat. Quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce vulnero. Agamemnoni melius fuit, non servare promissum.

III. THE INDICATIVE AFTER DOUBLED RELATIVES, ETC.

(Exercises, p. 67.)

Let whatever can be given without injury (to one's self), be granted even to an unknown person. Wherever it is well with us, there is our native land. What destruction was caused by Mark Antony's brother, who, from being a gladiator, became a general, wherever he trod! Mark Antony did these same things wherever he led his army. Deiotarus, as far as he

1 Mirmillo is a kind of gladiator.

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