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summus deus, mente praeditus, qua omnia regantur.1 Circe ex Sole et Perse, Oceani filia, nata erat. Nonnullorum vita dolore conferta est. Quid tam temerarium tamque indignum sapientis gravitate atque constantia, quam aut falsum sentire aut, quod non satis cognitum sit, sine ulla dubitatione defendere? Tribuni, Tiberius et Caius Gracchi, multas res novas, gratia plebis freti, moliti sunt. Vestra intelligentia fretus, brevius dico, quam causa requirit. Asinus, onustus sarcinis, equum rogavit, ut aliqua parte oneris se levaret. Mercurius ex Maia, Atlantis filia, natus est. Consules Caesaris causae alieni erant. Ignoratio rerum aliena naturae deorum est. Helvia, Ciceronis mater, honesto et nobili genere nata erat. Et fraus et vis alienae ab homine sunt, sed fraus odio digna majore. Orpheus ex musa Calliope natus est.

1 For the subjunctive, see Gram., § 360.

XIII. THE ABLATIVE WITH THE COMPARATIVE.

(Exercises, p. 57.)

The sun is many times larger than the whole earth. The greater the force of eloquence is, the more ought it to be united with integrity and the greatest prudence. Epaminondas held the government four months longer than the people had commanded. I do not understand what is the object of avarice in an old man.2 For can anything be more absurd, than to seek the more provisions the nearer we are to the end of the journey ?3 If there is no man who would not rather die than be turned into the form 4 of a beast, although he were to retain 5 the mind of a man; how much more wretched is it to have the nature of a beast 6 in the form of a man! To me it seems as much more wretched as the mind is more excellent than the body. The more unworthily the recklessness and audacity of foolish and abandoned men profaned eloquence, a thing most honourable and right (in itself), to 8 the utmost detriment of the state, the more zealously ought we to have opposed them, and to have sought the advantage of the state. Nothing is better than reason. The Roman people consider Roscius a better man

i By many parts larger; by four months longer.2 What avarice in an old man means.--3 The less of way remains.--4 Into any form of beast.-5 Although about to have.-6 To be of a wild mind. Efferatus, made wild or savage, like a wild beast.-7 To me, indeed. The force of quidem is to make me emphatic.8 With,

than actor. Pompey has engaged with the enemy more frequently than any other man has contended with a private enemy, has carried on more wars than others have read of, has reduced to peace more provinces than others have coveted. What can be mentioned more contemptible than dulness and folly? There is no one who can 10 advise you more wisely than yourself. Nothing flies so swiftlyll as an evil speech; nothing is let loose more easily, nothing is taken up more quickly, nothing is disseminated more widely. He is more wretched who has committed a crime against himself than he who is compelled to submit to the misdeed of another. You seem to pour forth these (reproaches) against Clodius more gladly than truly. Of all sources of gain, none 12 is better than agriculture, none more productive, none more pleasant, none more worthy of a free man. Hamilcar, the son of Gisgo, the commander of the garrison, with a little less than two thousand soldiers, is delivered up to the consul on his approach.13 Not more than two hundred horse escaped.

9 Quisquam is here used, because there is a negative meaning implied: no other man has contended, &c., so often.--10 For the subj., see Gram., $ 360.-11 Nothing is so winged.-12 Of all things, from which something is gained, nothing is, &c. -13 Approaching.

II. Vita Proclis uno anno brevior erat, quam fratris Eurysthenis. Recte praecipere videntur, qui monent, ut quanto superiores simus, tanto nos summissius geramus. Alia sunt dolore miseriora. Nam quo major vis est animi quam corporis, hoc sunt graviora ea, quae concipiuntur animo, quam illa, quae corpore. Ignoratio futurorum malorum utilior est, quam scientia. Quid est, non dicam in homine, sed in omni coelo atque terra ratione divinius ? Nihil est virtute pulchrius, nihil amabilius. Quid est foedius avaritia, quid contemptius timiditate? Quid est optabilius sapientia, quid praestantius, quid homini melius, quid homine dignius ? Alteri qui melius consilium dare possit, quam tu, non facile inveniri potest; tibi vero ipsi certe nemo melius dabit. Luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia. Nihil est huic adolescenti republica carius, nihil vestra auctoritate gravius, nihil vera gloria dulcius. Majores nostri non modo armis plus, quam ceterae nationes, verum etiam consilio sapientiaque potuerunt. Hic locus minus trecentos passus ab urbe distat. Imperator venit cum haud minus decem hominibus.

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What innocence ought general to possess, what self-command in all things, what fidelity, what affability, what genius, what humanity! Among the Greeks, the celebrated Athenian, Themistocles, is said to have possessed an incredible degree ofi wisdom and genius. What genius, what force, what weight in speaking, did Caius Gracchus possess! Dumnoris was a man of the greatest boldness, of great influence with the people on account of his liberality, desirous of revolution. Those two men, Marcus Cato and Caius Caesar, were possessed of great excellence, but of different characters. Passion indicates the same weakness in desiring as joy in enjoying.

1 A certain incredible greatness of.

II. Telum erat splendenti lancea ferro. Crassus, non sum tanto ego, inquit, ingenio, quanto Themistocles fuit, ut oblivionis artem quam memoriae malim. Quali fide, quali pietate existimatis esse eos, qui etiam deos immortales arbitrentur hominum scelere et sanguine posse placari? Hector erat heros insigni virtute. Macedones prioribus temporibus tanta erant fama, quanta posterioribus Romani. Bono animo nos esse oportet. Sine hac spe nemo quieto animo esse potest. Cato amisit filium summo ingenio, summa virtute.

XV. THE ABLATIVE OF PLACE AND TIME.

(Exercises, p. 60.)

Pontinius, cmbarking, returns from Ephesus to Laodicea. Our ancestors ordained that the defendant in a capital case should speak last. We have thus learned from our ancestors, that the praetor should be in the room ofi a parent to his quaestor. "The pirates roam scattered over the whole sea. Some trees are always green, others are bare in winter; and,

1 We might also have in parentis loco, as in Cic. pro Planc. II.

under the influence of warmth, put forth leaves in the spring 2 Pompey, at the end of boyhood, was a soldier under3 a (very) great general, and in early youth 4 was himself general of a (very) great army. Shew yourselves such to the Roman people, in time to come, as you have shewn yourselves to me this day, in a great assembly, in behalf of your own welfare. At the end of winter, Cneius Pompey made preparations for a war so great, so protracted, spread over so larg'e a surface,5 in the beginning of spring he entered upon it; in the middle of summer he finished it. Catiline hurried from the city a few days before, and left behind him the accomplices of his guilt, and the most violent leaders of this nefarious war. Lentulus and others proposed that the slaughter should take place, and the city be set on fire, on the Saturnalia ; Cethegus thought that too long. It is established, that Alexander was born of Olympias on the same night on which the temple of the Ephesian Diana was burnt. Caesar sent succours to the townsmen in the middle of the night. No misdeed has been committed for some years back, except through your instrumentality, no crime without you. As swallows are at hand in summer, but are driven away by the cold, 6 so false friends are at hand in the sunshine7 of life, but, as soon as they see the winter of fortune, all fly away. Aristotle says, that on the banks of the river Hypanis certain insects are born, which live 9 one day : of these, therefore, one which dies 10 at the eighth hour, dies 10 at an advanced age; one, again, which dies at sunset, dies in a decrepit old age, and the more so if it also happens to be the longest day 11°

2 Others, being bared in winter, put forth leaves, being warmed, in the springtime.-3 Of.-4 In commencing youth.-5 So far and wide dispersed. Retire, being driven away by the cold.-7 In the calm, tranquil time.-8 Shall have seen. _9 For the subj., see Gram., § 361,-10 Has died.-11 If, also, it dies) on the longest day.

II.

Caurus ventus in his locis? flare consuevit. Eo tempore summa erat tota urbe perturbatio. Fugitivus terra marique quaesitus est. Cicero Tarso in Asiam profectus est. Totis castris summa erat perturbatio. Ab urbe Roma legatos venisse nuntiatum est. Rure jam redieramus. Tribus ante diebus domo profecti eramus. Pythagoras fuit in Italia temporibus iisdem, quibus Brutus patriam liberavit. Oportet et eum, qui paret, sperare, se aliquo tempore imperaturum, et illum, qui imperat, cogitare, brevi tempore sibi esse parendum. Helvetii

1 So in Cacsar; but we might also have his locis, according to the rule.

repentino Caesaris adventu commoti, quum id, quod ipsi diebus viginti aegerrime confecerant, ut flumen transirent, illum uno die fecisse intelligerent, legatos ad eum mittunt. Homerus multis annis ante Hesiodum fuisse dicitur. Virgilius multis annis post Ennium fuit. Septimo die domum noctu venimus, ubi dies viginti duos morati sumus.

XVI. THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE.

(Exercises, p. 61.)

Nothing is becomingly done when Minerva is unwilling, as they say that is, in opposition and resistance to nature. Laying aside subtle disputations, we may, in a manner, behold with our eyes the beauty of those things which, we say, have been established by Divine Providence. Your ancestors often carried on wars, because merchants and shipmasters had been rather injuriously treated : what, I pray, ought to be your feelings, when so many thousands of Roman citizens have been murdered at one time? All animals, under the guidance of nature itself, defend their own interests. Pythagoras having come into Italy in the reign of (Tarquinius) Superbus, established the honour of his school, and the authority of his teaching, in the well known Magna Graecia ;2 and for many generations after, the name of Pythagoras was held in such esteem, that no others were accounted learned.

Subtlety of disputing being removed.—2 Held the well-known Magna Graecia, both with the honour of his school and with his authority.

Medici, causa morbi inventa, curationem esse inventam putant. Perditis rebus omnibus tamen ipsa virtus se sustentare posse videtur. Horatius, occisis tribus Curiatiis, duobus amissis fratribus, domum se victor recepit. Regis medicus, epistola perlecta, plus indignationis quam pavoris ostendit. Hac epistola accepta, tamen quod dilueras 1 bibi. Saepe, aut cogitatione aut aliqua vi morbi impediti, apertis atque integris et oculis et auribus, nec videmus nec audimus.

1 What you had mixed.

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