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voluptates et dolores animi quam corporis. Nova sunt rerum novarum facienda nomina. Alterius partis periculum depulsum est. Duae sunt artes, quae possunt locare homines in altissimo gradu dignitatis : una imperatoris, altera oratoris boni. Ab hoc enim pacis ornamenta retinentur; ab illo belli pericula repelluntur. Dissimilitudines sunt innumerabiles naturae morumque. Multa sunt tuae clementiae monumenta, sed maxime eorum incolumitates, quibus salutem dedisti. Injustitiae duo genera sunt: unum eorum qui inferunt, alterum eorum, qui ab iis, quibus infertur, non propulsant injuriam. Tigranes et ipse hostis fuit populi Romani et acerrimum hostem, Mithridatem, in regnum recepit.
II. THE OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE GENITIVE.
(Exercises, p. 31.)
The admiration entertained for one who speaks? copiously and wisely is great. The recollection of past evils 1 is pleasant. Every removal of pain has been rightly called pleasure. The very withdrawment of trouble produces the succession of pleasure. Those who are said excisse ex potestate3 (to be out of their mind), are said to be so for this reason-because they do not obey the intellect,4 to which the sovereignty over the whole souls has been assigned by nature. Pleasure is an allurement to baseness. Caesar delivers a speech to 6 the soldiers; he recounts all7 the injuries which his enemies had done him. If there is any fear of odium, is odium arising from strenuousness l and fortitude to be more intensely feared than that arising from indolence and inactivity ?8 A certain barbarian murdered Hasdrubal, from anger at his having slain 9 his master. Now being most severely wounded by fortune, 10 and being freed from the management of the state, I seek the remedy for my grief 1 in philosophy; and I consider it the most honourable delight for my timel of inactivity.11 Alexander did not seek so much a remedy against death, as one that should fit him for war.1
1 Objective genitive...2 Subjective genitive.--3 This Latin expression must be retained in the English, as the sentence is just an explanation of its meaning.4 They are not under the authority of the intellect.—5 The soul, including the passions, desires, &c._. In the presence of.-7 Literally, the injuries of all times; that is, not merely recent injuries.—8 Nequitia is more general in its meaning than inactivity; it denotes any kind of worthlessness.—-9 From anger of (arising from his master slain by him. This, like some others in the present exercise, is an objective genitive of the kind explained in Gram. § 273, 3.-10 Struck with the most severe wound of fortune - Otium, a time of inactivity.
Effectus eloquentiael est audientium 1 approbatio. Suavis laborum 2 est praeteritorum memoria. Doloris 2 amotio successionem efficit voluptatis.) Ne Lucio Flacco tantus amor in 3 omnes bonos, tantum in3 rempublicam studium, calamitati sit. Non supplicii2 metus, sed admonitio officii,2 optimum virtutis 2 incitamentum est. Á te non liberationem culpae,? sed errati 2 veniam, impetravimus. Patientia optima est medicina doloris.2 Maxima illecebra est peccandi 2 impunitatis 2 spes. Amoris magni erga 3 te mei pater tuus erat testis. Superioris vitae ? memoria multis perjucunda est. Fiducia virium 2 facit animum.
1 Subjective genitive.—2 Objective Genitive._3 See Gram., $ 273, 2.
III. THE EXPLICATIVE GENITIVE.
(Exercises, p. 32.)
The word invidia is ambiguous, since it is used not only of himl who envies, but also of him who is envied.2 Cato, in his old age, had already 3 the surname, as it were, of wise. There is in man, as it were buried, a certain divine fire of genius and intellect. No one who has acquired the fame of fortitude, has obtained (this) praise by deceit and wickedness. Tigranes obtained by entreaties the name of friendship and alliance, 4 which he had violated by arms. The punishment of guilt is sad, and, without reference to consequences, very great in itself.
1 Is said not only in the case of him._2 In the first case it may be translated envy; in the second, odium.-3 Already; that is, even before his death.-4 That is, the name of friend and ally of the Roman people.—5 Besides those effects which follow.
II. Is, qui studet omnium rerum divinarum atque humanarum vim, naturam causasque nosse, philosophi nomine appellatur. Animus paratus ad periculum, si sua cupiditate, non utilitate communi, impellitur, audaciae potius nomen habere debet, quam fortitudinis. Voluptatis verbo omnes, qui Latine sciunt, duas res subjiciunt, laetitiam in animo, commotionemque suavem jucunditatis in corpore. Magnopere te hortor, ut non solum orationes meas, sed hos etiam de philosophia libros legas. —Cic. de Off. i. 1. Hannibal Pyrenaeum transgreditur et ad oppidum Illiberis castra locat.--Livy, xxi. 24.
IV. THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE,
(Exercises, p. 33.)
Justice demands no reward, no price. If I have any influence, I shall use it among those who gave it to me. The other part had much more strength and force. Lucullus dismissed one part of the soldiers, and delivered the other to Glabrio. No evil can happen to any good man, whether in life or in death, nor will his affairs ever be neglected by the immortal gods. Carbo was wont to bestow much pains on exercises and studies. In this cause, so many things agitate me, that fear deprives me of ability, as much as my honour inspires me with inclination, to defend Deiotarus.2 My whole care is always (wont to be) occupied in this—that, if I can, I may effect some good by my oratory; but if not, that, at least, I may do no evil. Roscius 3 has in him more honesty than art, more truth than skill. Peducaeus is both learned and the best and most just man of all. How many would there be of the victors who would wish you to be cruel, when there are found some even of the vanquished ?--Cic. pro Ligar. 5. Was there any reason why you should refuse him this?
1 Neither living nor dead.-9 That how much inclination my honour brings to me to defend the safety of Deiotarus, so much ability fear takes away.-3 An actor at Rome.
II. In te satis esse animi perseverantiaeque arbitror. Hominum figura pulcherrima est omnium. Mithridates, fugiens, maximam vim auri atque argenti in Ponto reliquit. Satis opinor hoc esse laudis. Nihil novi faciendum putas contra exempla atque instituta majorum. Quid est sanctius, quam domus uniuscujusque civium ? Epicurus putat sapientem plus voluptatum quam dolorum semper habere. Melius est membrorum aliquod quam totum corpus interire. Fuge! satis hic lacrimarum et luctus etiam sine morte tua est. Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanum vicos possessionesque habebant, fuga se ad Caesarem recipiunt et demonstrant sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqui. Ariovistus dixit sibi mirum videri, quid in sua Gallia, quam bello vicisset, aut Caesari aut omnino populo Romano negotii esset.2 Amicitiam appellat Aristoteles gratissimam omnium humanarum societatum. Hephaestion longe omnium
1 Nihil reliqui esse sibi. - Quid negotii esset aut Caesari aut, &c.
amicorum carissimus Alexandro erat. Publii Cornelii Scipionis duo erant filii, quorum natu major Hannibalem apud Zamam, minor Antiochum ad Magnesiam fudit.
III. What wickedness or guilt can be imagined or conceived, which Catiline has not incurred ?1 Cluentius experienced no misfortune in life, ran no risk of death, feared no evil, which did not all originated with his mother. I learned more by the want than by the enjoyment, how much pleasure there was in friendship, in acquaintance, in connection with neighbours and clients; lastly, in games and holidays. It can scarcely be told how much pleasure there is in one's native country itself. There is, in truth, in my affairs, nothing new. Callidius was not an orator of the usual run, but stood almost alone among many.2Cic. de Clar. Orat. 79. I was seized with the desire to write the art of rhetoric.3 O immortal gods! where in the world are we? What state is this?4 In what city do we live? What would now be your feelings, unhappy one, if you had been rescued from destruction without me? Our army had taken a city of the kingdom of Tigranes.-Cic. pro Leg. Manil. 9.
I The reason of these subjunctives will be found, Gram., $ 360.--2 Callidius was not one orator out of many (equally good), but was among many almost unequalled.-3 This desire has come upon us, that we should write, &c.• What state have we?-5 Quid animi nunc foret tibi.
IV. Qui contentus est, satis habet divitiarum. Collatia et quidquid agri Collatiae erat, Sabinis ademptum est. Plus in metuendo saepe mali est, quam in illo ipso quod timetur. Aristides constituit quantum pecuniae quaeque civitas daret. Causa nostra eo jam loci erat, ut erigere oculos et vivere videretur. De litteris tuis loquor, quas multas accepi. Plures captivi erant, quam caesi. Plerique novistis parentes meos. Ubicunque terrarum homo est, ibi sub oculis Dei est. Epaminondas huc amoris erga veritatem progressus est, ut ne joco quidem mentiretur.
V. THE GENITIVE OF QUALITY.
(Exercises, p. 35.)
These precedents originated with Quintus Catulus, and other most honourable men of the same dignity.2-Cic. pro Leg. Manil. 21. The opinions and precepts of Zeno are of this kind : that a wise man is never influenced by liking (for any one), never forgives the offences of any, and that no one feels compassion but a foolish and weak person. There is a story that Hannibal, when about nine years of age, was bound by oath, that he would be an enemy to the Roman people. Hasdrubal was possessed of wonderful skill in gaining over nations, and annexing them to his government.
1 With the authority of Quintus Catulus, &c. - See Gram., § 276, note 4.3 Is compassionate.
II. Lucius Torquatus fuit vir maximi animi, summi consilii, singularis constantiae. Titus Imperator fuit tantae facilitatis et tantae liberalitatis, ut nemini quidquam denegaret. Bellum Peloponnesiacum triginta erat ferme annorum. Pyramidi Cheopis, Aegypti regis, altitudo erat pedum octogesimorum.
VI. THE GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.
(Exercises, p. 35.)
The mind shares three times ;1 but present things only are perceived by the body. Flaccus was a most consistent senator, a most upright judge, and a most patriotic2 citizen. You have always been desirous of glory and covetous of praise more than all other nations. Pythagoras said, that some were slaves to glory; others, to money; but that there were a few here and there who, attaching no value to all else,3 diligently studied the nature of things; that he called these lovers of wisdomthat is, philosophers. This man, destitute of refinement and ignorant of the common usages of society, read aloud the letter which he said that I had sent him. You are wont to be my colleague in public life, my confidant in all private affairs, and
1 Past, present, and future.—2 A citizen most loving of his country..-3 All other things being accounted as nothing.