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those which are most suitable for them. The poet is most nearly akin to the orator: a little more fettered in respect to rhythm ; in respect to verbal licence, again, more free; but allied to him and nearly on an equality with him in many kinds of ornament. Although I am sorry that you should suspect me of neglecting you,7 yet it was not so disagreeable to me to be accused by you of failing in my duty, as it was pleasant to me to find that you required it of me. It was even advantageous for Milo that Clodius should live; for Clodius (on the other hand) the death of Milo was most desirable, in order to the attainment of those ends on which he had set his heart. The services which your father rendered me 10 are most extensive, for no one can be said to be more friendly either to my safety or to my honour. How can 11 any one be the friend of him whose enemy he thinks 11 he may (one day) be? There are some animals in which there is something resembling virtueas in lions, in dogs, in horses. What is called the chief good by the Stoics, to live agreeably to nature, has, as I think, this meaning-that nature is always in harmony with virtue. He was bound by oath to the same war 12 as we.-Ovid Metam. xiii. 50.

7 That I am suspected by you on the ground of negligence disagreeable to me that my duty should be accused by you, as pleasant, that it should be required.-9 For those things.-10 The services of your father to me. -11 Shall be able-shall think.-12 Arms.

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Imminent duo reges toti Asiae, non solum vobis inimicissimi, sed etiam vestris sociis atque amicis. Accusatores Caesarem quum Deiotaro iratum, tum sibi amicum cognoverant. Est hominum naturae, quam sequi debemus, maxime inimica crudelitas. Nemini ego esse possum bene de republica merenti non amicus. Non juri quidquam tam inimicum quam vis, nec aequitati quidquam tam infestum est, quam convocati homines et armati. Aristides Themistocli aequalis fuit. Nullus Romanorum rex Romuli similior erat, quam Tullus Hostilius. Lucii Scipionis nepos vultu patri, vita omnibus perditis hominibus similis erat. . Liberalitate nihil est naturae hominis accomodatius. Ex hoc ille animus in proeliis paratus ad vulnera. Quaeris cur ei sim inimicus, cui populus Romanus infestus sit? Nihil est exitiosius civitatibus, nihil tam contrarium juri et legibus, quam, composita et constituta republica, quidquam agi per vim. Multas ad res perutiles Xenophontis libri sunt. Phrygia Troadi est confinis. Non solum corporis, qui ad naturam apti sunt, sed multo etiam magis animi motus probandi, qui ad naturam accomodati sunt.


(Exercises, p. 27.)

Alexander died at Babylon. The most honourable abode for the aged 1 was at Lacedaemon. Arms are of little avail abroad, 2 unless there is wisdom at home. The study of letters is a pleasure 3 at home, and no hinderance4 abroad. You, Cato, seem to me to teach philosophy in Latin, and to present it, as it were, with the citizenship, whereas hitherto 5 it seemed to be an alien at Rome. Cosanus began to speak at Messana, and to complain that he, a Roman citizen, had been cast into prison. The unhappy man did not understand that it made no difference whether he spoke thus 6 at Messana or in the presence of Verres himself in the praetorium.7 I learned Greek at Athens, not at Lily baeum ; I learned Latin at Rome, not in Sicily. Caesar was at Ravenna and (there) awaited answers to his most reasonable 8 demands. When Anaxagoras was dying at Lampsacus, and his friends inquired if he wished to be removed to Clazomenae in his native country, in case anything should happen, 10 he replied : 11 It is not at all necessary, for everywhere there is the same access 12 to the lower world. At Arpinum, a small free-town of Latium, Cicero and Marius were born.

i Of old age.--2 Foris may mean either out of doors or out of the city, according to the connection. In the first sentence, it has the latter meaning; in the second, the former.---3 Delights.—4 Does not hinder._5 Which (philosophy), indeed, hitherto.46 Said these things.—7 The governor's residence. Most gentle. -9 To.-10 If anything should have happened, a euphemism for if he should die.-1 To his friends inquiring if, &c., it is not at all necessary,' says he.--12 Just so much road.

II. Ephesi, in Asiae Minoris urbe, erat splendidum Dianae templum. Fuit Arganthonius quidam Gadibus, qui octoginta regnavit annos, centum et viginti vixit. Lex rectae rationis non alia erat Romae, alia Athenis, alia nunc, alia posthac. Pompeius remansit Brundisii cum cohortibus viginti. Tarquinius omnibus publicis privatisque consiliis, domi et militiae, interfuit. Venusiae, in parvo Apuliae oppido, natus est Horatius. Dionysius tyrannus, Syracusis expulsus, Corinthi pueros docebat. Tullus Hostilius corpora juvenum militiae saniora, quam domi esse arbitrabatur. Catullus Veronae natus est, Livius Patavii, Virgilius Andibus, in pago apud Mantuam. Multi negotiatores Romani morabantur Pergami, Smyrnae, Trallibus, Apameae, Adramyttii et in aliis Asiae Minoris oppidis.


(Exercises, p. 28.)

The blood of innocent men was not only a source of pleasure but also of gain to Verres. Thy voice and defence, Marcus Tullius, were of assistance to very many. A rapid stream of wordsl is pleasing to some, who make eloquence consist2 in fluency of speech. Others are delighted with distinct and well-divided intervals—pauses and rests. Concerning matters of such magnitude and atrocity, I am aware that I can neither speak with sufficient aptitude, nor complain with sufficient force, nor cry aloud with sufficient freedom. For the aptitude of my speech is prevented by the poorness of my abilities,4 the force by my age, the freedom by the times. The glory of their virtue and achievements is the best inheritance that can be handed down 5 by fathers to their children, and more excellent than every patrimony; and to prove a disgrace to this 6 must be considered unlawful and a crime. Arsanes lays Cilicia waste with fire and sword, in order that the enemy may find it a wilderness :7 whatever may be of use he destroys. What is the object of this dress? why is it that you are glad ? what do you want?

TA stream and rapidity of words.—2 Place eloquence.-3 Concerning these things, so great and so atrocious.--4 The poorness of my abilities is an obstacle to the aptitude, &c.--.5 The glory, &c., is handed down the best inheritance.6 To which to prove a disgrace.-7 That he may make a wilderness to the enemy.


Conjunctionem potestatis et sapientiae saluti censuit Plato civitatibus esse posse. Quod idem moestitiam meam reprehendit, idem jocum, magno argumento est, me in utroque fuisse moderatum. Pergite, ut facitis, atque in id studium, in quo estis, incumbite, ut et vobis honori, et amicis utilitati, et reipublicae emolumento esse possitis. Murena parenti suo magno adjumento in periculis, solatio in laboribus, gratulationi in victoria fuit. Binas 1 a te accepi litteras, quod ipsum argumento mihi fuit diligentiae tuae. Fabio Pictori Romae laudi non fuit, quod pinxit. Nec cuiquam salutem ac fortunas suas tantae curae fuisse unquam puto, quantae mihi fuerit honos Milonis. Valetudo tua maximae nobis curae est. Severitas multis odio esse solet. Quid sibi vult hic clamor? quid convocati homines ? 2 Quid mihi hae ineptiae?

1 Binas ; see Gram., $ 106, note 2.—2 Supply sibi volunt.


(Exercises, p. 29.)

I see that an eternal war has been entered on by me singly with all wicked men. Do you, citizens, defend your homes with guards and watches; I have taken care that the city be sufficiently protected, without fear on your part, and without any disturbance. I see that you singly can be of so much assistance to him, that there is nothing further to be desired by us. That stain must be blotted out by you. Excellence in oratory cannot exist, unless he who speaks understands those things concerning which he speaks.3 He who speaks so as to meet the approbation of the multitude, must necessarily meet the approbation of the cultivated likewise.4—Cicero. Epicurus places our judgments of things in the senses, by which if any. thing false has been once approved as true, he thinks that all discernment of the true and false is destroyed.—Cicero. I have to seek not so much copiousness as moderation 5 in speaking.

1 That the city have sufficient defence, has been taken care of, and provided for by me.-2 Without your fear.-3 Unless those things concerning which he speaks, have been understood by him who speaks._4 It is necessary that the same person who speaks, so that he is approved by the multitude, be approved also by the cultivated.-5 That is, to keep within limits.


Cui, qui modo populi Romani nomen audivit, Deiotari probitas, virtus, fides non est audita ? Interea pavidae nequicquam filia matri omnibus est terris, omni quaesita profundo. Germanis nullae urbes habitatae sunt. Amor tuus erga me mihi bene perceptus est. Pittheus misit me in arva, suo quondam regnata parenti.— Ovid, Metam. viii. 623. Quid nobis faciendum est ? Omnibus in hac causa laborandum est.



(Exercises, p. 30.)

Abundance of facts produces abundance of words. In the beasts there are some semblances of human virtues. Time destroys conjectures and fancies, 1 but confirms the judgments of nature Comedy is an imitation of life, the mirror of custom, the image of truth. The lineaments of the mind are more beautiful than those of the body. Lay aside the character of friend, when you assume that of judge. The consequences of opposites are opposite. Many use the name only of virtue, but are ignorant of what virtue means. The surest and greatest revenues of the Roman people are at stake, which being lost, you will look (in vain) both for the ornaments of peace and the succours necessary for war. This province must be defended by you, citizens, not only from calamity, but even from the fear of calamity, if you wish to maintain your advantages in war and your dignity in peace. The chariot consecrated to Jupiter was drawn by white horses; these were followed by a horse of remarkable size, which they called that of the Sun. Those objects which are perceived by the senses are all the same,2 and those things which affect the senses, affect in like manner the senses of all. When Simonides, or some other person, was offering to teach Themistocles the art of memory, he replied : I should prefer the art of forgetting ;3 for I remember even those things which I do not wish to remember, I cannot forget those things which I wish to forget. That hardened state of mind (as of the body, which, when it is burned, does not feel it), I should consider insensibility rather than virtue.

1 The fancies of opinions.-2 All the same things are perceived by the senses. -3 Themistocles, when Simonides or some other person was offering him the art of memory, says, I should, &c.-4 Hardness.

II. Saepe totius anni fructus uno rumore periculi atque uno belli terrore amittitur. Est animorum naturale quoddam pabulum consideratio contemplatioque naturae. Necessitatis inventa antiquiora sunt quam voluptatis. Nullo modo summum pecudum bonum et hominis idem mihi videri potest. Majores sunt

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