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as if they should convert the property of others to their own use. Those who bestow on any one any favour, such as 5 may injure him whom they appear desirous of benefiting, 6 are not to be counted kind or liberal, but pernicious flatterers. This had happened to me beyond my expectation.

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Majores nostri semper in pace consuetudini, in bello utilitati paruerunt. Odia, invidiae, despicationes adversantur voluptatibus. Homo, naturae obediens, homini nocere non potest. Aequitas tollitur omnis, si habere suum cuique non licet. Ego pietate erga te ceteris satisfacio omnibus, mihi ipse nunquam satisfacio. Multi dubitabant quid optimum esset, multi quid sibi expediret, nonnulli etiam quid liceret. Animus corpori dicitur imperare, ut rex civibus suis aut parens liberis. Imperator tum incipiat aliis imperare, quum dedecori et turpitudini parere desierit. Dum his obediet, ne liber quidem habendus est. Homines hominum causa generati sunt, ut alii aliis prodessent. Magnitudine animi facile potest resisti fortunae. Si iis, qui imprudentes laeserunt, ignosci convenit, iis, qui necessario profuerunt, haberi gratiam non oportet. Iis, a quibus accusatus sum aut a quibus condemnatus, non succenseo, nisi quod mihi nocere se crediderunt. De Deiotaro laboro et de multis amplissimis viris, quibus semel esse ignotum a te oportet.

III. Converse with thyself, take thyself to counsel, listen to thyself, obey thyself. What citizen would not be well disposed to al king, whose whole life, he remembered, had been spent in the wars of the Roman people? Men envy an illustrious and flourishing fortune. Who could endure this—that indolent men should plot against the most active; the most foolish against the wisest? Demosthenes had such a defect in his speech, that he could not pronounce the first letter of that very art which he studied. Mithridates, in his flight, came upon Tigranes, the king of the Armenians, who revived his failing confidence. In such a cause, no one can be at a loss for words.3 You might perhaps have been able to remedy these misfortunes. There is a tradition,4 that Homer was blind. But we do not suppose that either Homer or any cultivated man at any time was destitute 5 of intellectual delight6 and pleasure. Those to whom orders had been given, slay Charidemus in the midst of these exclamations. The Stoics say, that envy is grief felt 8 on account of the prosperity of another, which (prosperity) does not at all injure the person envying. Even for those who are not yet born, 10 we must, for their own sakes, have regard. We shall call those just indeed, who strive to injure themselves that they may benefit others; but still we must necessarily consider them foolish. How was it possible 12 that men should learn to exercise good faith, and to hold by justice, and should become accustomed of their own will to obey others, unless men had been able to enforce by eloquence what they had invented by reason? The world is governed by the providence of the gods, who likewise 13 have regard to human affairs, and not only in general, but also in particular. Not only the race of men in general, but individuals also, are wont to be taken care of and provided for by the immortal gods. All these things have been managed by me in such a way that they appear to have been both executed and designed by the will and counsel of the immortal gods.

1 That king. For the subjunctive meminisset, see Gram., $ 360, 3.-2 Tigranes received Mithridates in his fight, and confirmed him, despairing of his affairs.. _3 Speech can be wanting to no one _4 It has been handed down,

5 That delight was wanting to Homer.-6 Delight of mind.-7 Exclaiming these things.-8 Conceived.-9 Which in nothing injures. For the subj., see Gram., § 361.-10 Who are one day about to be. It is necessary to.-12 How could it happen.-13 And the same (gods).

IV. Non placuit majoribus nostris astus. Est hujus seculi labes quaedam et macula virtuti invidere. Sapiens solus liber est, nec dominationi cujusquam parens, nec obediens cupiditati. Învident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus, quum se relictos sentiunt. Sed etiam superioribus invidetur saepe vehementer, et eo magis, si intolerantius se jactant. Regi, qui omnem aetatem in populi Romani bellis consumpsisset, ab omnibus civibus faveretur. Quam multi, quum a te nemini ignosci vellent, impedivissent clementiam tuam, quum etiam ii, quibus ignovisti, nolint te in alios esse misericordem? Vir bonus et sapiens et legibus parens utilitati omnium plus quam unius alicujus aut suae consulit. Thymodes impiger erat juvenis, cui praeceptum erat a rege, ut peregrinos milites a Pharnabazo acciperet. Nihil attinet repugnare naturae, nec quidquam sequi, quod assequi nequeas. Justitia, si alienis utilitatibus consulat, suas negligat, stultitia dicenda est. Fundamenta justitiae, primum ut ne cui noceatur, deinde ut communi utilitati serviatur. Stulti cruciantur, quum sero sentiunt, frustra se aut pecuniae studuisse aut imperiis aut gloriae. Aguntur bona multorum civium, quibus est a vobis et ipsorum et reipublicae causa consulendum. A diis immortalibus hominibus est provisum. Sit hoc persuasum hominibus, dominos esse omnium rerum ac moderatores deos. Credit iis, quae dicuntur, qui audit oratorem, vera putat, assentitur. Videndum est viro, ut · ratio illi parti animi imperet, quae obedire debet, ut servo dominus, ut imperator militi, ut parens filio. Nobis persuasum esse debet, si omnes deos hominesque celare possimus, nihil tamen injuste esse faciendum. Nemo unquam sapiens proditori credendum putavit. Non jubeo, sed, si me consulis, hoc tibi suadeo.


(Exercises, p. 23.)

The greatest splendour of virtue is in justice, from which men are called good. Two kings, Tigranes and Mithridates, are threatening all Asia. Emplatorius not only took part, but even took the lead, in these affairs. Access to Pompey is said to be so easy, that he, who excels the greatest men in dignity, appears to be on a level with the lowest in affability. There was a (suitable) place for the camp, and there were provisions for the army. I came to the help of the falling state, I raised my country from the depths of ruin. In mere appearance and false pretence,2 there can be neither dutifulness nor any other virtue.3 A false accusation easily sinks into the exasperated mind. The works of Caius Gracchus did not receive the finishing touch; many things were excellently begun by him, but not quite brought to perfection. The poets represent a stone as hanging 4 over Tantalus, in the infernal regions, on account of his crimes, and unbridled desires 5 and arrogance.6 Over all whose minds are at variance with reason, some vexation or terror7 always hangs. With what mark of domestic infamy has your life not been branded ?8 What disgrace in private relations does not cling to your reputation? If some poet of surpassing genius wished to represent one most base man, he would be able to find no disgrace which did not attach to Clodius, and he would (of necessity) pass over many deeply fixed and rooted in him. It may happen that, in a shipwreck, you may find some one exhausted, clinging to a board; or that, fleeing in a defeat, you may find some one wounded, holding on to a horse. When rash and daring men come to the rudder of the state, the greatest and most wretched shipwrecks take place. Kings, generals, magistrates, senates, peoples, so rule over the citizens and allies, as the mind over the body. The end of life is at hand to mortals. To those causes which have united us with each other 10 in affection, duties, length of time, there has been added the love of country; and this has brought it about, that I should prefer your life to my own. Many, in the weakest time of life, either following (the opinion of) some friend, or being taken with one speech of the first person they chance to hear, 11 judge concerning things of which they are ignorant; and to whatever school (of philosophy) they have been carried, as it were, by a storm, to that, as to a rock, they adhere. The Tuscan territory is adjacent to the Roman. 9 The governments of kings, &c., are over, &c.-10 Inter nos.-11 With one speech of some one, whom first they heard.

1 My country sunk. -_2 In the appearance of false pretence.-3 As the other virtues, so also dutifulness cannot be.—4 Make a stone to hang.–5 Want of restraint of mind.-6 Haughty speech.-7 Over some, vexation; over others, terror.—8 What mark of domestic infamy (infamy in domestic relations) has not been burnt into your life?

II. In ipsa dubitatione facinus inest. Asia facile omnibus terris antecellit multitudine earum rerum, quae exportantur. Ut magistratibus leges, ita populo praesunt magistratus. In summo imperatore quatuor has res inesse oportet, scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem. Arsanes, qui Ciliciae praeerat, reputans quod initio belli Memnon suasisset, quondam salubre consilium sero exsequi statuit. Cupido incessit animo (animum) Alexandri sortis ejus implendae. Vitio adhaerere magnum est dedecus. In formis aliis dignitas inest, aliis venustas. In animis doctissimi illi veteres inesse quiddam coeleste et divinum putaverunt. Petimus a vobis, judices, ut quam fortissime hominibus audacissimis resistatis. Cicero summo studio in salutem reipublicae incubuit. Incumbe in famam honesti viri. Tę non poenitebit ad litterarum studia incubuisse. Saepe nobis obrepunt vitia sub nomine virtutum. Pars militum munimentis adjacebant. Moenibus assidet hostis. In hoc judicio acquiescere non possum.


(Exercises, p. 25.)

1. Darius had a mild and yielding disposition. There is a kind of natural war between the kite and the raven.1 Cultivated men have never been at variance with the masses with respect to the merits of an orator.3 I contend with you 4 in defence of the altars and hearths, and in defence of the temples and shrines of the gods. There are two of these (men called) Titus Roscius, of whom the one is surnamed Capito, and this one, who is present, is called Magnus.

1 The kite has a kind of natural war with the raven.

Have never had a dispute.-3 Concerning a good orator or not good.—4 I have a contest with you.


Gordium nomen est urbi, quam Sangarius amnis interfluit. Antiocho regi duo erant elephanti, quorum alteri Patroclo nomen erat, alteri Ajaci. Omnibus est memoria et scientiae studium. Publio Scipioni cognomen erat Africanus. Non semper beati sunt ii, quibus sunt divitiae. Tribus oratoribus erat idem Isocratis nomen. Tarquinio cognomen Superbi datum est. Capta urbs Corioli Caio Marcio cognomen Coriolanum dedit.


(Exercises, p. 25.)

As a place where there is no harbourl cannot be safe for ships, so a mind without fidelity cannot be depended on by friends. That is untrue which is usually said by some who do not think rightly, that that is lawful which is useful for him who has the greater power. In all matters, loathing borders most closely on 3 the most intense pleasures. If any one, passing by the most honourable studies of reason and duty, devotes ali his exertions to the exercise of speaking, he will become4 unprofitable to himself and hurtful5 to his country; but he who so arms himself with eloquence that he may be able, not to attack the advantages of his country, but to fight in defence of them, will, I think, be 6 a citizen most useful and most friendly both to his own and to the public interests. To every virtue (some) vice will be found most nearly akin, either already called by a fixed name, as audacity, which is most nearly akin to boldness ; obstinacy, which is most nearly akin to perseverance; superstition, which is allied to religion; or without any fixed name. Catiline was an object of suspicion and dislike to his fellow-citizens. Actors do not choose the best plays, but

i Without a harbour.--2 Cannot be steadfast to friends. -3 Is most near to.4 He is trained.-5 A hurtful citizen._6 Seems to me to be about to be.

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