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(Exercises, p. 1.)

I. THE recollection of past pain, without present concern, is delightful.2 Every Helvetian state is divided into four communities. The consciousness of right intention is the greatest comfort in3 misfortunes. Consistency 4 through the whole life, and an unvarying countenance,5 are excellent. Bulls contend with the utmost force and violence against lions in defence of their calves. There are distinct classes of offences and different punishments. Daily intercourse and conversation with 6 this most excellent and prudent man are a great relief to me. As a field without cultivation, though (naturally) fertile, cannot be (actually) fruitful, so the mind without instruction: thus each is impotent without the other. What life is long, or what has man at all that is long ?7 Demosthenes was possessed of 8 such zeal and activity, that he overcame the obstacles of nature by diligence and industry. Friends have the same inclinations and wishes. Affection and good-will being taken away, all sweetness is taken out of life.

I Literally, the unconcerned recollection._? Has delight.-3 Of.-4 Uniformity (of character and conduct).-5 Always the same countenance and forehead.--. Of.-7 What is there long to man. -8 In Demosthenes were.-9 In friends are.

Officia non eadem disparibus aetatibus tribuuntur; aliaque sunt juvenum, alia seniorum. Inter fines Helvetiorum et


Allobrogum Rhodanus fluit, isque nonnullis locis vado transitur. Mago cum classe sua copiisque in Hispaniam mittitur. Quid quaeque nox aut dies ferat, incertum est. Divitias et prudentiam non semper vides conjunctas. Iram et metum a sapiente alienuml judico. In pugna navali multae naves et multi milites capti sunt. Major alacritas Studiumque pugnandi majus exercitui injectum est. Proelium uno animo et voce una poscunt. Summa? et doctoris auctoritas et urbis ; quorum alter te scientia augere potest, altera exemplis. Lucius et Spurius Mummii mediocres erant oratores. Celer et Nepos Metelli non indocti erant. i We might also have aliena; see Gram., § 240 (6).- Very great. Supply est.


(Exercises, p. 2.)


The moon, which is, as the mathematicians shew, larger than half of the earth, throws upon the earth that light which it receives from the sun, and is itself subject tol various changes of light. A definition is a short and summary2 exposition of those things which are peculiar to that which we wish to define. Concord is in the state, what the musicians call3 harmony in singing. There were in all two ways by which the Helvetii could go out from home. In the camp of the Helvetii lists made out in Greek characters were found and brought to Caesar, in which an account had been drawn up under distinct heads, what number of those who could bear arms had gone out from home. The violent spirit of Catiline was harassed by poverty 4 and by the consciousness of his crimes, both of which 5 he had increased by those practices which I have mentioned above.-Sall. Cat. 5. Socrates seems to me a thing on which all are agreed-to have been the first to withdraw 6 philosophy from hidden things, and to apply it to common life. I have often heard-and 7 they say that this statement was left by Democritus and Plato in their writings—that no good poet could arise without a kindling of the soul, and without a kind 2 of mad enthusiasm 8 as it were. Concerning Pompey you have --and this is the chief source of influence 9- delivered many honourable judgments.

1 Is subject to; has.—2 Quidam implies here that the word to which it is attached does not express the precise sense of the writer. It may therefore be rendered by: a kind of, a sort of.-3 What is called by musicians.-4 Want of fortune.-5 The relative is here in the neuter plural, although the two substantives to which it refers are both feminine. See Gram., § 232, 1, note 1.-6 To have first withdrawn-applied.—7 That which they say was left. -8 Inspiration of madness

9 That which most of all makes influence.


Nos in his linguis, quas non intelligimus, quae sunt innumerabiles, surdi sumus. Optimus est orator, qui dicendo animos audientium et docet et delectat et permovet. Mummius delevit Corinthum, quae urbs tum amplissima Graeciae erat. Caesar oppida vicosque, quos incenderant, Helvetios restituere jussit. Animum et corpus, quae duae partes hominis sunt, non eodem pretio aestimamus. Divitias et honorem, quae plurimi cupiunt, nonnulli contemnunt. Helvetii diem dicunt, qua die 'ad ripam Rhodani omnes conveniant. Darii uxor et filius, qui in castris relicti erant, capiuntur. Ne mulieribus et pueris quidem, qui in oppido reperti sunt, victor pepercit. Quid tam planum videtur quam mare ? ex quo etiam aequor illud poetae vocant. Sapientia nos quum multas res alias, tum, quod est difficillimum, docuit ut nosmetipsos nosceremus.

1 Quum-tum, both-and; but the clause introduced by tum is the more important, so that tum may often be translated and especially.

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Thosel (capacities or abilities) which are good may be made better by instruction, and those which are not very good may still be in some measure sharpened and corrected. That nobleness 2 which we seek from a lofty and great mind, is produced by the powers of the mind, not of the body. That which is called the countenance indicates the character. He who has paid money, immediately has not that which he has returned ; he again who owes money, retains what belongs to another.2 (On the other hand) hel who has paid (a debt of) gratitude, has it, and he who has (feels) it, has paid it. Our thoughts are free and look upon those things which they wish, as we behold those things which we see. Everything is praiseworthy that is good. Everything again is honourable that is praiseworthy. Therefore, that which is honourable is good. The animal that we call man, was created by the supreme God in a certain3 noble condition. Herodotus and Thucydides were very far from (making use of) those niceties, or rather absurdities of speech, which we call playing upon words. In ancient times, they

1 Et-et, both-and; but the former is often better omitted in English.--2 The neuter of the adjective, used substantively.-3 For the force of quidam, see note 2, Ex. i. under the Relative Pronoun.

surrounded with walls the assemblies of men, which were afterwards termed states, and the connected dwellings which we call cities.-Cig. Pro. Sest. 42. Men were created under this law, that they should look to that globe, which is called the earth; and the soul was given to them from those eternal fires, which you call constellations and stars : which, spherical and round, animated with divine intelligences, fulfil their circuits and orbits with wonderful swiftness.— Cic. de Rep. vi. 15.

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Haec, quae nuper acciderunt, non culpae imperatoris sed fortunae tribuo. Nihil bonum est, nisi quod honestum ; nihil malum, nisi quod turpe. Nihil praeclarum est, quod non idem arduum. Peripatetici dicti sunt, quia disputabant inambulantes in Lyceo. Illi autem, qui Platonis instituto in Academia, quod erat alterum gymnasium, coetus erant et sermones habere soliti, e loci vocabulo nomen habuerunt.-Cic. Acad. Post. i. 4. Oculi augent dolorem, qui ea, quae ceteri audiunt, intueri coguntur. Sempronio datae sunt legiones duae, quae quaterna milia erant peditum et treceni equites. Ariovistus voluit occupare Vesontionem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum. Omnis terra, quae colitur a vobis, parva quaedam insula est, circumfusa illo mari, quod Atlanticum, quod Magnum, quem Oceanum appellatis in terris.-Cic. de Rep. vi. 20. Carcer ille, quae lautumiae vocantur, a tyranno Dionysio factus est Syracusis.-Cic. in Verr. v. 55.

1 Soliti erant habere coetus et sermones.


(Exercises, p. 4.)

Lucius Sulla and Lucius Murena, two very brave men and excellent generals, triumphed over Mithridates. Not only warlike couragel is to be sought for in a great general, but there are many excellent acquirements, the handmaids and companions of this courage. Philip was given to Alexander, when a boy, as his companion, and to watch over his health. He loved him with singular affection, not as his king only, but also as his foster-child. The senses have been placed in the head as the interpreters and messengers of things. How

1 Courage in fighting.-? As his companion and guardian of his health.

convenient are the hands which nature has given to man, and for how many practical purposes are they serviceable !3 Vines take hold of props with their tendrils as if with hands, and raise themselves just as living creatures. Nature has not only furnished man with activity of mind, but has also added the senses as attendants and messengers. Fear, a master that does not long secure the performance of duty,4 made you good. All things that are feigned quickly fall off like blossoms, and nothing that is pretended can be lasting. You are to fight with those from whom you have already taken 5 Sicily and Sardinia as the prizes of war. The praise of the good, because it is for the most part the companion of right actions,6 is not to be repudiated by good men. But that popular fame, which pretends to imitate it,' which is rash and unadvised, and usually the commender of offences and faults, by assuming the appearance of what is really honourable,9 spoils its grace and beauty.

3 Literally : How convenient, and the servants of how many arts, has nature given hands to man !-4 A master of not lasting duty.-5 From whom taken you have (have possession of).-6 Things done rightly.-7 Fame with the mass of the people.—8 Which wishes itself to be the imitator of it.-9 By pretence of honour.

II. Alexander admovit exercitum ad urbem Celaenas. Duae res, quae languorem afferunt ceteris, Publium Scipionem acuebant, otium et solitudo. Marcellus fudit Hannibalem, Carthaginiensium ducem, apud Nolam, oppidum Campaniae. Civitatis mores pessima ac diversa inter se mala, luxuria atque avaritia vexabant. Vel imperatore vel milite me utimini. Hannibal Taurinorum unam urbem, caput gentis ejus, vi expugnarat. Gallos accolas Padi sibi jungere voluit. Praesto sit domina omnium et regina ratio. Conon, Athenis expulsus, amplissima Graeciae urbe, se contulit ad Pharnabazum, Persarum regis propinquum. Terram, altricem nostram, voluit Deus esse diei noctisque effectricem.

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