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ego domum redii. Prima luce Pomponii domum venit. Rus ex urbe, tamquam ex vinculis, evolavi.

VI. ACCUSATIVE IN EXCLAMATIONS, AND THE MORE FREE

USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE.

(Exercises, p. 16.)

O the great folly of fear, so to beware of that which you fear, that, when you might perhaps have been able to avoid it, you, of your own accord, invite and attract it! O unhappy times, (and) our foolish contentions! Happy men that we are! Fortunate state! O the distinguished praise of my consulship! O admirable clemency, (and) worthy to be honoured with all praise and celebration, in writings and monuments! O your unhappy watchings, Plancius! O mournful vigils! O miserable nights! O the deceitful hope and frail fortune of men! The South Wind flies forth with moist wings, having his countenance covered with pitchy darkness.- Ovid, Metam. i. 264. (There) stood icy Winter, rough with hoary hairs.-- Ovid, Metam. ii. 30. The hero, in ignorance,2 takes and puts on his shoulders the poison of the Lernaean monster.--Ovid, Metam. ix. 157. Hannibal, in approaching 3 the wall without sufficient caution, fell wounded with a dart in the front of the thigh.Livy, xxi. 7. The reign of Tullius, (though) excellent in other respects, had not been sufficiently successful in one point, for the religious ceremonies had either been 4 neglected or improperly performed.--Livy, i. 32. I had already told many distinguished men beforehand, that these persons would come to me at that time.-Cicero, Cat. i. 4. Write something of that kind.-Cicero.

1 Covered as to his countenance.-2 Not knowing what had been done to the robe. _3 While he approaches.-4 The religious ceremonies having either been.

II. Stultum senem! O nos miseros! O miseram illorum temporum conditionem! O fortunatos agricolas! Heu turpem nuntium! O terram illam beatam, quae hunc virum exceperit, hanc ingratam, si ejecerit, miseram, si amiserit! Fortem et a vobis conservandum virum! Nuntia Junonis, varios induta colores, Iris erat.-Ovid, Metam. i. 270. Hannibal femur graviter ictus est. Jam id aetatis es, ut hoc intelligere possis. Id genus virtus est.–Cicero.

GRAMMAR. CHAPTER XLIII.

THE DATIVE.

I. THE DATIVE IN GENERAL-AS REMOTER OBJECT.

(Exercises, p. 17.)

There is no greater theatre for virtue than conscience. I address myself tol virtue, not to inactivity, to dignity, not to pleasure: to those who think that they were born for their country, for their fellow-citizens, for honour, for glory; not to those who think that they were born for sleep, for feasting, for pleasure. I allow something to your anger; I concede something to your youth; I yield something to our friendship ; I grant something to your father. Now I commit and intrust to you my whole case 2 and myself altogether. What gratitude 3 is due to him from whom you have received nothing, or what 4 can be due to him who has no merit ?5 So write to me concerning all matters-great, small, 6 and indifferent, as to a true friend. It is the object of a letter, 8 that he to whom it is written should be informed of those things of which he is ignorant. When geometers wish to shew anything, if to that thing belongs 9 aught of those things which they have formerly shewn, this they take for granted and proved). I shall humour you, and, as far as I shall be able, explain those things which you wish. I was sorry to hear 10 that saying of yours, that you had lived long enough both for nature and for glory.11 Long enough perhaps, if you choose, for nature; I (shall) add also, if you please, for glory; but, which is of the greatest importance, certainly not long enough for your country.

1 My whole speech is with.-2 The whole matter and case.—3 Dutifulness.4 What at all.-5 Of whom there is no merit. The force of these subjunctives is explained afterwards, Gram., § 360, 3.–6 Least, greatest.-7 As to a very friendly man.--8 It belongs to a letter. Is necessary.-10 I heard unwillingly.

11 That is, as long as nature requires, as long as glory requires.

II. Darius tradit Pharnabazo imperium, quod ante Memnoni dederat. Nihil sapientia praestabilius homini datum est a Deo. Nostris acerbissimis doloribus alia nulla potuit inveniri levatio. Bestiis sensum et motum natura dedit; homini hoc amplius, quod addidit rationem. Qui reipublicae est hostis, is civis esse nullo modo potest. Non dubitat agricola, quamvis senex, quaerenti cui serat, respondere: Diis immortalibus, qui me non accipere modo haec a majoribus voluerunt, sed etiam posteris prodere. Docto homini atque erudito cogitare est vivere. Ut gubernatori cursus secundus, medico salus, imperatori victoria, sic moderatori reipublicae beata civium vita proposita est. Majores nostri in legibus scribendis nihil sibi aliud nisi salutem atque utilitatem reipublicae proposuerunt. Praemia proposita sunt virtutibus et supplicia vitiis. Agitur salus sociorum atque amicorum pro qua multa majores vestri et gravia bella gesserunt. Perniciosis etiam rebus non modo nomen deorum tributum est, sed etiam sacra constituta. In hanc exercitationem (huic exercitationi) studiose operam dedimus. Quis taetrior hostis Catilina civitati fuit? ' Rempublicam vigilanti homini, non timido, diligenti, non ignavo, commisistis.

II. THE DATIVE AFTER TRANSITIVE VERBS COMPOUNDED

WITH THE PREPOSITIONS

(Exercises, p. 18.)

I rejoice that this case has been put into my hands. What I have said has neither deprived Lucullus of just praise, nor conferred on him unjust praise. Alexander sealed the letter with his ring, and placed it under the pillow on which he was reclining 2 Character is not formed in men so much by the race from which they spring, as from those circumstances which are supplied by the nature of the place and the habits of life, in the midst of which we are brought up and live. The ruinous walls of Corinth, which I suddenly beheld, had moved me more than the Corinthians themselves, whose minds had been rendered insensible by long familiarity.3 I exhort all who can (do it), to snatch 4 from Greece, which is now inactive, and to carry to this city, the glory of philosophy also.5 Nature has implanted in man, without instruction, slight ideas of the most important matters. You miss the most distinguished citizens : Antony has deprived you of them. It is not unjust for each

I Neither just praise has been withdrawn from Lucullus by my speech, nor unjust added to him.--2 Alexander placed under the pillow, &c. the letter, impressed with the seal of his ring.-3 Over whose minds long thought had drawn the callum vetustatis. Callum is properly thick skin; hence, insensibility. Callum vetustatis is insensibility arising from length of time.--4 That they snatch. - Also; that is, as well as glory in other provinces.

one to seek for himself in life that which is necessary for his use; to take it from his neighbour is not lawful. I was able to snatch their firebrands and wrest their swords from their hands.

II.

Bellum periculosum vestris vectigalibus atque sociis a duobus potentissimis regibus infertur. Equitibus Romanis, honestissimis viris, afferuntur ex Asia quotidie litterae. Alexander querebatur tantam victoriam eripi sibi e manibus. Hoc modo agmen pervenit ad urbem Tarson, cui tum Persae subjiciebant ignem, ne opulentum oppidum hostis invaderet. Natura cupiditatem veri inveniendi homini ingenuit. Quaecunque rebus iis, de quibus hic sermo est, nomina imponis, memoriae trado. Multi veterum nihil percipi, nihil sciri posse dixerunt; angustos sensus, imbecillos animos, brevia curricula vitae; in profundo veritatem esse demersam, omnia tenebris esse circumfusa. Insidiatori et latroni quae potest afferri injusta nex? Vos in tantis tenebris erroris et inscitiae clarissimum lumen praetulistis menti meae.

III. The earth is surrounded on all sides by that substance, necessary for life and breath, which is called air. Thou, Brutus, hadst joined every honour of virtue to the highest glory of eloquence. Nature itself has impressed an idea of the gods on the minds of all. It would be your duty to yield something even more important, to one with whom either inclination had associated you, or fortune had united you. Let frequent practice, which excels the precepts of all masters, be joined to that learning which each one has acquired by his own study.-Cicero de Orat. i. 4. Aristotle, incited 2 by the glory of the rhetorician Isocrates, began to speak 3 also, to teach the youth, and to unite wisdom with eloquence. Epicurus thought that the wise man would always enjoy uninterrupted pleasures, 4 when to the expectation of pleasures hoped for was joined the memory of pleasures (already) enjoyed. I have attained a certain pre-eminent and immortal glory, coupled with odium and the enmity of many. If all of every age who have had a knowledge of law in this city, were brought into one place, they are not worthy to be compared with Sulpicius.

1 Animabilis, vivifying. Spirabilis, which can be breathed.-2 When he had been moved. -3 As an orator.--4 That perpetual pleasures would be in the wise

man.

IV. Animo vincula injici nulla possunt. Nec continentia nec pietate nec ullo genere virtutis quemquam ejusdem aetatis cum Pisone conferendum puto. Hominum duo sunt genera: alterum indoctum et agreste, quod antefert semper utilitatem honestati; alterum expolitum, quod rebus omnibus dignitatem anteponit. Mihi quod potuit vis et injuria et sceleratorum hominum furor detrahere, ereptum est; quod viro forti adimi non potest, manet et permanebit. Natura insculpsit in mentibus ut deos aeternos et beatos haberemus. Sunt multi qui eripiunt ab aliis, quod aliis largiantur. Se alii ad philosophiam, alii ad jus civile, alii ad eloquentiam applicant. Quidam ad eas laudes, quas a patribus acceperunt, addunt aliquam suam, ut Africanus eloquentia cumulavit bellicam gloriam. Quod idem fecit Timotheus, Cononis filius, qui quum belli laude non inferior fuisset quam pater, ad eam laudem doctrinae et ingenii gloriam adjecit.

III. THE DATIVE WITH VERBS WHICH DENOTE BENEFITING,

PLEASING, INJURING, ETC.

(Exercises, p. 20.)

Not only did his countrymen assent to the wishes of Pompey, not only did the allies comply with them and enemies obey them, but even the winds and tempests conformed to them. Men do most good and injury to men. It is for the advantage of our country itself to have citizens dutiful to their parents. Punishment can befall none but the guilty. Quintus Servilius Ahala slew with (his own) hand Spurius Maelius, who was aiming at a revolution. I should think myself wicked, if I had failed my friend; cruel, if I had failed the unhappy; haughty, if I had failed the consul. Neither was the cause of Publius Sulla contrary to my nature, nor was the man (himself), nor the matter, repugnant to my compassion. The accuser threatens to put the slaves to the torture. When King Lysimachus was threatening Theodorus with the cross, he replied: Threaten, 2 I pray, these courtiers of yours with such terrible matters. We must see to it, that we are liberal in such a way as to 3 benefit our friends and injure nobody. Those who injure some that they may be liberal to others, are guilty of 4 the same injustice

1 The accuser threatens us with examinations and tortures of the slaves.2 Threatens, says he.-3 That we use that liberality, which may.-4 Are in.

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