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THE ACCUSATIVE.

I. VERBS GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE.

(Exercises, p. 11.)

We are too much afraid of death, exile, poverty. We are chiefly disquieted by our own dishonesty and alarm (arising from it), we are tormented and maddened by our own guilt, we are terrified by our own wicked thoughts and evil conscience. The Romans overcame the Carthaginians in all naval engagements. The traveller is not always killed by the robber, sometimes also the robber is killed by the traveller. The Doryphori preceded the chariot of the king. Very great nations were subdued by Caesar. Caesar attacked that part of the Helvetii which had not yet crossed the river Arar. Cranes in crossing the sea,” form a triangle.3 We must take the greatest pains to excel men in the one thing in which chiefly men are superior to the beasts. You lament the loss of three armies 5 of the Roman people. When I heard the words of the fugitive slave accusing his master, I grieved at the fallen fortunes of the king. The Nile waters Egypt, and, when it has kept it submerged 6 the whole summer, then retires and leaves the fields softened and enriched 7 for sowing. Willingly undergo all labours. To sin is, as it were, to cross the (boundary) lines of right.8 Wisdom is always contented with that which is present, and is never dissatisfied with herself.

His own dishonesty and his own alarm disquiet every one, &c. Amentia afficere, to affect with madness, to madden. Conscientiae animi; literally, consciousnesses of the mind.--2 When they cross the seas.-3 Make the form of a triangle.-4 We must labour very much in this, that in what one thing men chiefly excel the beasts, in this we may excel men themselves. --5 Three armies destroyed.-6 Covered and filled.-7 Enriched, with alluvial deposit; literally, covered with mud.-8 Hence the force of the word transgress.

II. Spartiatas superavere Thebani, Thebanos Macedones vicerunt, Macedones Asiam subegerunt. Principes invidiam maledicorum non facile effugiunt. Socrates noluit e carcerel effugere, quod

1 See Gram., $ 250, note 4.

amici suaserunt. Carthaginienses omnibus navalibus pugnis a Romanis victi sunt. Mithridates a Sertorio adjutus est. Omnis Britanniae oras mare circumfluit. Multa antiquos fefellerunt, quae nunc vulgus non fallunt. Mors, exsilium, paupertas nimium a nobis timentur. Non pudendo, sed non faciendo id, quod non decet, impudentiae nomen effugere debemus. Athenienses a Lacedaemoniis contra communem hostem, Persas, adjuti sunt. Hannibal quum Alpes transisset, terror invasit Romanos. Sunt homines quos infamiae suae neque pudeat neque taedeat. Hamilcar Mare Medium cum classe transvectus est. Si talium civium vos taedet, ostendite. Exercitus diuturnam et acrem pugnam pugnaverunt. , Omnis sensus hominum multo antecellit sensibus bestiarum. Quantum natura hominis pecudibus reliquisque bestiis antecedit!

II. VERBS GOVERNING TWO ACCUSATIVES.

(Exercises, p. 12.)

The Helvetii conveyed three-fourthsl of their forces across the river Arar. Ariovistus conducted a great multitude of Germans across the Rhine. The Euphrates renders Mesopotamia fertile. The inhabitants call that district Pylae, a very narrow pass, resembling by its natural situation artificial fortifications.2 Pompey rendered all the seas safe from pirates. Let us neither ask our friends for anything disgraceful,3 nor do anything disgraceful when asked ourselves. Caesar kept demanding from the Aedui the corn which they had promised. Lucius Cotta being asked his opinion, said that nothing had been done in my case 5 lawfully, nothing according to the usage of our ancestors. I wish to give you this advice, 6 that you may consider yourself to be what? you are. He did not wish to keep you in ignorance of the arms, the sword, the plot.— Cic. pro Rege Deiot. vi. To what dost thou not urge on the desires of men, accursed thirst for gold ! 3

1 See Gram., $ 110.-2 Imitating by its natural situation the fortifications which we make with the hand.-3 Disgraceful things.-4 Nor, being asked, do them._5 Concerning me.—6 I wish you to be advised of this._7 Such as. -8 Mortal breasts.-9 Hunger of gold.

IT.

Hannibal exercitum Alpes traducit. Romani imperatorem Titum delicias humani generis appellaverunt. Attalus Romanos regni sui atque divitiarum heredes instituit. Multi alios docere

volunt, quae ipsi non satis didicerunt. Consules primi sententiam rogabantur. Jugurtha pacem Romanos rogavit. Fortuna, quibus favet, saepe caecos efficit. De hac re Alcibiades diutius celari non potuit. Multae gentes rem militarem a Romanis doctae sunt. Cur me hoc celasti? Cur me hoc non docuisti? Cur me hoc rogas? Cicero omnia edoctus est, quae Catilina moliebatur. A pelles picturae artem a Pamphilo doctus est.

* III. IN, SUB, SUPER, SUBTER.

(Exercises, p. 13.)

1.

Isocrates, speaking of the very ardent disposition of Theopompus and the very soft disposition of Ephorus, said that to the one he applied the spurs, to the other, the bridle. To speak Latin is to be held in great esteem, but not so much for its own sake (for the positive merit of doing so) as because it has been neglected by most people. How many innovations have been established in the case of this very Cneius Pompey, in whose case Quintus Catulus wishes that nothing new should be established ! The innovations 2 which have been established in the case of all (other) men within the remembrance of man, are not 80 many as those which we have seen in the case of this one man. They are wont to speak most copiously both for and against every proposition.3 Great is the power of conscience for happiness and misery.4 The numbers of the enemy increase daily. The atmosphere is visible and tangible. The meeting of the senate was more numerous than we thought it could be in the month of December, towards the holidays. No small deception lurks under this term. Plato placed anger in the breast, desire in the belly.5 The position of the sun is under the mid heavens.6 Demetrius did not wish anything to be placed over the mound of earth (his grave) but a small pillar.

1 In the case of.-2 New things.-3 Concerning everything proposed, on both sides.-4 In both directions.—5 Under the diaphragm.--. The sun holds its place under the middle region of the sky. This, of course, refers to notions which prevailed in ancient times.

II.

Antiqui alia in parte animi cupiditatem, alia rationem collocabant. Verba magistri non in aures tuas infundenda sed in animo inscribenda sunt. Alexander redegit urbem Gordium in suam ditionem. Socrates philosophiam devocavit e coelo et in urbibus collocavit et in domos etiam introduxit et coëgit de vita

et moribus rebusque bonis et malis quaerere. Omnium virtutum fundamenta vos in voluptate, tamquam in aqua, ponitis. Adventus vestrorum imperatorum in urbes non multum ab hostili occupatione differunt. Stante republica in agendo plus quam in scribendo operae ponebamus. Equites, pedites, levis armatura in maxime opportunis locis ab imperatore collocantur. Sub nomine pacis bellum latet. Omnia subter virtutem sunt. Super hac re satis dictum est. Sub idem tempus legati Romam redeunt. Milites sub initium veris redire jussi sunt.

IV. ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT OR DURATION.

(Exercises, p. 14.)

1. In the interval between the government of the father (Hamilcar) and the son1 (Hannibal), Hasdrubal held the chief power' for nearly eight years. Saguntum was by far the most wealthy city on the other side of the Ebro, being situated nearly a mile from the sea. Caesar draws a wall and a trench, nineteen miles long, from Lake Lemannus, which flows into the Rhône, to Mount Jura, which divides the territory of the Sequani from the Helvetii. He has reigned already twentytwo years - from that time. That district was distant fifty stadia from the entrance to Cilicia.3 We perceive, both from the offices which he held and from the actions which he performed, that the well-known Appius of old,4 who was blind for many years, in that misfortune of his 5 failed neither in 6 his private nor in his public duties. Dionysius was the tyrant of the Syracusans for thirty-eight years, having seized on the supreme power when twenty-five years of age. 7 Silanus thinks that it is not right for those who have endeavoured to destroy this empire, to enjoy life and this common air8 for a moment. 9 What place was so strongly defended 10 during these years as to be safe ?11 What murder has been committed during these years without (the agency of) Catiline ?

1 In the middle between father and son.-2 He reigns already the twentythird year.-3 From the approach by which we enter Cilicia.-4 That ancient Appius. Ille has in such cases the force of the celebrated, famous, well-known.5 In that his misfortune.-6 Failed in; was wanting to.-7 When he had seized on the supreme power, being twenty-five years old. -8 That is, the air which all breathe alike.-9 For a point of time.-10 Had so strong a defence.-ll That it was safe.

II. Hannibal paucis post diebus sex millia a Placentia castra communivit. Alexander, unum et viginti annos natus, patri in

imperio successit. Diodoto stoico, caeco, libri noctes et dies legebantur. Hamilcar ita se Africo bello per quinque annos, ita deinde novem annis in Hispania gessit, ut appareret majus eum agitare in animo bellum. Mortuus est Alcibiades, annos ferme quadraginta natus. Caesar duas fossas, quindenos pedes latas, circum Alesiam perduxit. Sulmonensium oppidum a Corfinio septem millium intervallo abest. Quam provinciam tenuistis a praedonibus liberam per hosce annos? Si Pompeius abhinc annos quingentos fuisset, si nunc id, quod is fecisset, contra foedus factum diceretur, quis audiret ? Servius Tullius quatuor et quadraginta annos regnavit, Tarquinius Superbus, quinque et viginti. Templum Dianae Ephesiae quadringentos quinquaginta pedes longum erat, ducentos viginti latum.

V. ACCUSATIVE OF MOTION TOWARDS.

(Exercises, p. 15.)

When Pompey had come to Rhodes, he wished to hear Posidonius. When Cosanus had been cast into prison by Verres, he fled secretly from the Lautumiael and came to Messana. Demaratus, the father of our King Tarquin, because he could not endure the tyrant Cypselus, fled from Corinth to Tarquinii, and settled there.2 Pompey, having learned what 3 had been done at 4 Corfinium, sets out for Canusium and thence for Brundisium. Catiline sent away Caius Mallius to Faesulae and to that part of Etruria, one Septimius of Camerinum to the territory of Picenum,5 Caius Julius to Apulia. Lucretia sends the same message to Rome to her father and to Ardea to her husband, that they should come each with one trusty friend. Venonius came to the house of Ventidius. I shall go to the country.

1 Lautumiae, a prison built by Dionysius.--2 Settled his fortunes.-3 Those things having been learned, which.-4 In the neighbourhood of.—5 Picenum is the accusative of the adjective Picenus, a, um, agreeing with agrum.

II. Cicero Athenas, inde Rhodum profectus est. Decies mille Graeci in Persiam profecti sunt, quos Xenophon in urbem Athenas reduxit. Quartum jam annum regnante Lucio Tarquinio Superbo, Sybarim et Crotonem et in eas Italiae partes Pythagoras venisse reperitur. Non omnes Graeci, qui Ilium profecti sunt, domum redierunt. Exsules Romani Rhodum, Mitylenen, Massiliam saepe se contulerunt. Lucius rus ivit,

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