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and to set up others in various parts of the kingdom upon the same plan, and under the same direction.
The fact, however, is that he has been so employed for some months past, and very recently he was at Bristol, where he preached or lectured upon the subject, to crowded audiences, and with considerable fuccess.
It should also be made known, that, among other engines made use of to carry on this project, a printing office has been established near the fchool, the property of the quaker and his friends, who turn it to a good account for their ina tereft, though what sort of wares issue from this manufactory may be easily guessed.
By an article of intelligence contained in the Monthly Magazine for September last, I find that a school of this kind has been just established, at Clewer near Windsor, under the auspices of persons of high rank, and it is added, that “ the school was opened and organized by two young men from Mr. Lancalter's Free School, in St. George's Fields."
This information is enough to excite alarm in the minds : of all who have a concern for the interests of our national church, or indeed for our common Christianity. What must i be the consequences of a mode of education of which religi. ous principles form no part, and wherein the positive ordi. nances of Jesus Christ are treated, at least with silent contempt, if not indeed as superstitious imaginations ? ..
Can it be supposed for a moment, that quakers will have such an uncommon liberality; as to bend from their stiffness, ; and teach that to others which they neither believe nor respect themselves ? It may perhaps be observed, and a misera. ble fubterfuge it is, that nothing is taught in these schools but those points on which all Christians are agreed. In plain terms, if this means any thing, it goes to the length of making indifference to religious truth the primary article of education. I am strongly inclined to think, if not fully per. suaded, that this is actually the design of many of the advocates of this scheme, as managed by the quaker and his disci. ples; and for what purpose is evident enough, even to raise up a generation of men, who, not having been early imbued with religious principles, may be naturally disposed to cooperate in any measure that shall have the present subjugation and final destruction of the national church for its obječt.
I am, Sir, Yours, Jan: 16, 1898.
ON THE WORD ZIZANIA OR TARES.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN's .
TN the works of Sir Thomas Browne, edition folio 1686, 1 I met with the following remarks on the word Zizania, translated in our yersion of the Scriptures Tares, which to my mind were curious and deserving of notice. I have therefore transcribed that learned writer's observations for inser. tion in your Magazine, if you agree with my opinion of them.
I am, Sir, Yours,
Matt. xiii. 24, 25. The kingdom of Heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good feed in his field, but while men slept, his enemy came and lowed Tares (or as the Greek, Zizania) among the wheat."
NOW, how to render Zizania, and to what species of plants to confine it, there is no slender doubt ; for the word is not mentioned in other parts of Scripture, nor in any ancient Greek writer : it is not to be found in Aristotle, Theophrase tus, or Dioscorides. Some Greek and Latin Fathers have made use of the same, as also Suidas and Phavorius; but probably they have all derived it from this text.
And therefore, this obscurity might easily occasion such variety in translations and expositions. For some retain the word Zizania, as the Vulgate, that of Beza, of Junius; and also the Italian and Spanish. The Low Dutch renders it Oncruidt, the German Oncrant or Herba mala, the French Yuroye or Lolium, and the English Tares.
Besides, this being conceived to be a Syriac word, it may Nill add unto the uncertainty of the sense. For though this Gospel were first written in Hebrew or Syriac, yet it is not
unquestionable unquestionable whether the true original be any where extant; and that Syriac.copy which we now have is conceived to be of far later time than St. Matthew. '
Expositions and annotations are also various. Hugo Gro. tius has passed the word Zizania without a note. Diodati, retaining the word Zizania, conceives that it was some peculiar herb growing among the corn of those countries, and not known in our fields. But Emanuel de Sa interprets it, plantas femini noxias, and fo accordingly some others.
Buxtorfius, in his Rabbinical Lexicon, gives divers inter. pretations, fometimes for degenerated corn, sometimes for the black seeds in wheat, but withal concludes, an hac fit eadem vox aut fpecies cum Zizánia apud Evangelistam, quærent alii.
But lexicons and di&tionaries by Zizania do almost gene. rally understand Lolium, which we call Darnel, and com. monly confine the signification to that plant. Notwithstanding, fince Lolium had a known and received name in Greek, some may be apt to doubt, why, if that plant were particular-, ly intended, the proper Greek word was not used in the text. For Theophrastus* named Lolium Aspe, and hath often men. tioned that plant; and in one place faith, that corn doth Sometimes loliescere or degenerate into Darnel. Dioscorides, who travelled over Judæa, gives it the same name, which is also to be found in Galen, Ætius and Ægineta; and Pliny hath sometimes latinized the word into Æra.
Besides, Lolium or Darnel shews itself in the winter, growing up with the wheat; and Theophrastus observed that it was no vernal plant, but came up in the winter, which will not well answer the expression of the text, “ And when the blade came up and brought forth fruit,” or gave evidence of its fruit, the Zizania appeared. And if the husbandry of the ancients were agreeable unto ours, they would not have been so earneft to weed away the Darnel; for our husbandmen do not commonly weed it in the field, but separate the seeds after threshing: and therefore Galen delivereth, that in an unseasonable year, and great scarcity of corn, when they neglected 19 separate the Darnel, the bread proved generally unwholesome, and had evil effects on the head.
Our old and later translation renders Zizania, Tares, which name our English botanists give unto Aracus, Cracca, Vicia fylveftris, calling them Tares, and straggling Tares. And our husbandmen by Tares understand some sorts of wild
• Hist. Plant. lib. viii.
fitches which grow amongst corn and clasp upon it, accord. ing to the Latin etymology, vicia à vinciendo. Now, in this uncertainty of the original, tares as well as some others, may make the sense, and be also more agreeable unto the circumstances of the parable. For they come up and apa, pear what they are, when the blade of the corn is come up, and also the stalk and fruit discoverable. They have like wise little spreading roots, which may intangle or rot the good roots; and they have also tendrils and claspers, which lay. hold of what grows near them, and so can hardly be weeded. without endangering the neighbour corn.
Howeyer, if by Zizania we understand “ Herbas seget noxias,” or “ vitia segetum," as some expositors have done, and take the word in a more general sense, comprehending several weeds and vegetables offensive unto corn, according as the Greek word in the plural number may imply, and as the learned Laurenbergius * hath expressed, “ Runcare, quod apud nostrales Weden dicitur, Zizanias inutiles est eyel. lere.” If, I say, it be thus taken, we shall not need be definis tive, or confine unto one particular plant, from a word which may comprehend divers. And this may also proye a safer sense, in such obscurity of the original.
And, therefore, since in this parable the lower of the Zizania is the devil, and the Zizania wicked persons; if any from this larger acceptation will take in thistles, darnel, cockle, wild ftraggling fitches, bindweed, tribulus, restharrow, and other “ vitia fegetum,” he may, both from the natural and symboli. cal qualities of these vegetables, have plenty of matter to il. lustrate the variety of his mischiefs, and of the wicked of this world.
L * De Horti Cultura.
To J.W.-On The Right of Burial.
SIR, T THANK you much for your very satisfactory answer to I a correspondent in the Orthodox Churchman's Magazine, who had requested information upon the subject of reading the burial seryice over the corpse of a Deift or Dislenter. In Vol. xiv.
that Chm. Mag. Jan, 1868.
that answer, however, you say that “every person, baptized or unbaptized, has a right to a burial place in the church yard of the parish in which he dies.” Now, Sir, you would oblige me much by the information on what this right is founded, and how it is to be asserted and exercised. Can it be enforced, and how, against the will of the minifter ? As you allow that the burial service of the church is not to be read over the unbaptized, is the interment of persons of that description to be attended with any other kind of burial ser. vice, according to their religious profession, be it what it may? If so, not only all kinds of Dissenters profesfing Christianity, but Jews, Turks, and Heathens, would be entitled to perform the funeral rites of their religion in a church yard.
I am, Sir, Dec. 10, 1807.
Your humble servant, ANOTHER CORRESPONDENT.
1. OF THE PRIMITIVE FAITH AND WORSHIP,
"THE great and solemn commiffion given by our Lord
1 to the eleven Apostles, after his resurrection, contains in it the principles of Christian belief, the rules of Christian practice, and an order for divine worship. “ Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the Name of the FATHER, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and lo I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.” (Matt. xxvii. 19.)
Such is the charter of the Christian church, expressed in that perspicuity of language which cannot possibly be mistaken or perverted without a wilful design to force a private sense upon a public declaration. The Apostles were commanded by their Lord, who by his sacrifice on the cross, andtriumph over death, was become the mediatorial head over all things, and the reconciler of Heaven and Earth, to gather men out of every nation into his church by the public