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s London remits to Ireland 6511 145 11d. sterling ; how much Irish must London be credited, exchange at 12 per cent?

answer 7291 195 2d. 6

Philadelphia, 20th zmo. 1812. Exchange for 4521 ros 6d. sterling. Thirty days after sight of this my first of exchange, second and third of like tenor and date not paid, pay to Samuel Sims, or order, four hundred fifty-two pounds, ten shillings and six pence sterling, value received ; and place the same to account, as per advice from

Peter Simpson Samuel Pimm, Merchant,

London. What is the value of this bill in Pennsylvania currency, exchange at 775 per cent ?

answer 803l 4s 73.1 7 In a settlement between C of Philadelphia, and D of London, C is indebted 750l 25 4d. sterling; what sum Pennsylvania currency is equivalent, exchange at 78 per cent?

answer 13351 45 2d. 8 How much sterling is equal to 13411 98 4d. Pennsylvania currency, exchange at 674 per cent ?

answer 800l 175 60.5 9 What sum sterling will be equal to 260l 8s 6d. Virginia currency, exchange at 44 per cent? answer 1802 175.

10 Purchased in Ireland effects to the value of 4001 175 od. of that place ; what sum, Pennsylvania currency, will discharge the debt, exchange at 515 per cent ?

answer 6071 6s sod

Philadelphia, 2d zmo. 1812, Exchange for 4226 livres, 12 sols. 8 deniers. Thirty days after sight of this ray second of Exchange, first of the same tenor and date not paid, pay to Thomas Broker, or order, four thousand two hundred and twentysix livres, twelve sols, and eight deniers, value received ; and place the same to account, as per advice from

Silas Stroud. To Thomas Lamott, Merchant, London,



How much sterling is the above bill, at 10d. per livre? And what sum in Pennsylvania corrency, at 17d. per livre?

d. $ 184 18 31 Sterling.

1 308 3 10 Currency. 12 A Connecticut merchant imported goods from France, amounting, per invoice, to 49008 livres ; how much currency of that state, at 15ch per livre, will they amount to;. and how much sterling will discharge the debt, exchange being at par?

£ d. S 3063 0 o Currency,

2297 5 o Sterling. 13 A merchant in Holland being desirous to turn 4376 florins currency into banco, the agio at 4 per cent. how many pounds Flemish banco must he receive

answer 7011. If. 13sti. 13pen. 14 P, of Philadelphia, receives of A, of Amsterdam, an invoice of goods, amounting to 10235fio. 17sti. Spen. how much Pennsylvania currency must be remitted, to discharge the bill, at 35d. per forin? And what is the sum in sterling; exchange at 38s 6d. Flemish per f. sterling?:



$ 1503 7 104 Currency..

886 4 51 Sterling. 15 A bill for 2524 pezos, 7 ria. 33 marv. being remit. ted to Cadiz: what sum, Pennsylvania currency, is equal thereto, at 75 6d. per pezo? answer 9461 175 5d.

16 A Virginia merchant sent goods to Norway, worth 17431 16s. Virginia currency; how many rix dollars, at 6s. each, must he receive ?

answer 5812 dols. 45, 17. A merchant of North Carolina shipped a quantity of flour, which, when disposed of, amounted to 11 86 millreas, 500 reas : and received in return 17 pipes of wine ; what was it per pipe, a millrea reckoned at 7s 6d.

answer 261 35 5d. 18 In 2714 guilders, 15 stivers, how many pounds sterling; exchange at 356 6d. Flemish per t. sterling ?

answer-2542 18s id. 19 In 290! us ied. sterling, how many pounds Flemish; exchange at 33: iod. Flemish per for sterling, and agio at 41 per ceata

Taswer 5131 145 do

20 London

20 London is indebted to Genoa in 17108 165 4d.; for how many pezos may Genoa draw on London, the exchange at 47d. 1 per pezo?

'answer 8644+ 21 How many millreas will 1566/ 6s 8d. amount to, exchange at 64d. per millrea? answer 5873 millreas, 750 reas.

22 A merchant in Rotterdam remits 5641 ios 6d. Flemish, to be paid in London ; how much sterling money must he draw for, exchange at 345 4d per £. sterling?

answer 3281. 16s 11d. 23 Amsterdam changes on London

345 3d per £. sterling, andson Lisbon, at 52d. Flemish, for 400 reas ; how then ought the exchange to go between London and Lisbon ?

answer 75d. sterling, nearly, per millrea, 24. A, at Paris, draws on B, of London, for 1200 crowns, at 55d. sterling per crown ; for the value whereof, B draws again on A, at 56d. sterling per crown; besides commission 4 per cent. what did A gain or lose by this transaction ?

answer A gained 15 1 + crowns.


VULGAR FRACTION is a, part, or parts of an

A , ,

eighths. The upper number is ealled the numerator, and shews the part, or parts, expressed by the fraction; the lower number is called the denominator, and degotes the number of such parts contained in a unit.

Vulgar fractions are either proper, improper, compound, or mixt.

A proper fraction is one of which the numerator is less than the denomidator ; thus, , the

An improper fraction is one of which the numerator is equal to, or greater than, the denominator ; thus, s, $.

A compound fraction is, a fraction of a fraction ? as, of of Ź, &c.

A mixt number consists of a whole number and a fraction; as, 75.

A mixt fraction has a fraction annexed either to its numerator or denominator ; as, to or



To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.

RULE. Divide the greater term by the less, and that divisor by the remainder, till nothing be left : the last divisor will be the common measure ; by which divide both terms, for the fraction required.: Or,

Take the aliquot parts of both terms continually, till in their lowest terms. Note. If the common meafure be 1, the fraction is already in its lowest terms. Ciphers to the right hand of both terms may be rejecteds thus, 300=.

EXAMPLE s. 1 Reduce to its lowest terms.

Or, 2) 4) 48)56/1 8)=faliti == facit. 48

Com, measure 8)4876


84 T70 60 TII

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9.376 88884

2 Reduce 77 to its lowest terms

facit * 3

Reduce to its lowest terme..

to its lowest terms,
5 Reduce is to its lowest terms.
6. Reduce to its lowest tering,

CASE 2. To reduce several fractions to others, retaining the same value, and to have one common denominator ;

RULE. Reduce the given fractions to their lowest terms: then multiply each numerator into all the denominators but its own, for its respective numerator; and all the denominator: into each other, for a common denominator. Note. This case, and cafe I, prove each other.


EXAMPLE S. 1 Reduce }, and H to a common denominator. 7 X 10 X 12=840) 9 X 8 X12=864 Numerators. II X 8 X 10=880

8229 8 40

60 270 3 5.4 1618 TOJ 5919 39

8X10X12=960 Denominator.

854, and 880 2 Reduce , and to a common denominator

facit 138, 16, 17, and 448 3 Reduce 112 and to a common denominator.

facit ਠ ਠਾ ਤੇ ਉ and ਓ 4 Reduce , 3; } and }, to a common denominator,

facit o, ***, 63 and 141 5 Reduce , h, and ĝ, to a common denominator.

facit 177, 178, 1.8 and

140 CASE 3, To reduce a mixt number to an improper fraction;


To the product of the whole number, with the denominator, add the numerator, for a new numerator, under which place the given denominator.

Reduce 12*s to an improper fraction.

12 X 17+15= facit. % Reduce 191 to an improper fraction. 3 Reduce 1617. to an improper fraction. 4 Reduce ido to an improper fraction. 5 Reduce 5141to an improper fra&tion. 6 Reduce 473446 to an improper fraction'.

197948 820



To reduce an improper fraction to a whole or mixt nema



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