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Fulke. The very nature of the Hebrew word Bisw Fulke,
is most properly to signify a “grave”, or receptacle of dead” bodies, as all that be learned in that tongue do know. About the Greek and Latin terms is not our question, and therefore you deal deceitfully to handle them all three together: although neither £3ms nor infernus are so proper for “hell,” but that they may be taken also sometimes “for the grave,” and so perhaps were meant by the Greek and Latin translators in divers places. You speak, therefore, as one void of all shame, to say they are as proper for “hell,” as panis for “bread.” Where you ask what is Hebrew, Greek, or Latin, for “hell,” you must understand, that if you speak of a proper word for those invisible places, wherein the souls departed are either in joy or torments; I answer, there is no proper word for those places, either in Hebrew, Greek, or Latin. For that which of all these tongues is translated “heaven,” is the proper word for the sensible sky, in which are the sun, moon, and stars; and by a figure is transferred to signify the place of God's glory, in which he reigneth with the blessed spirits of angels and men, above this sensible world. “Paradise” and “Abraham's bosom,” who is so childish not to acknowledge them to be borrowed words, and not proper? So for the receptacle of the reprobate souls, in the Hebrew tongue topheth or gehinnom, which properly are the names of an abominable place of idolatry, are used; and sheol sometimes figuratively may signify the same. In Greek and Latin, gehenna is used for the same, which is borrowed of the Hebrew. Sometimes also the word áēns, in Greek, is taken for the place of the damned and the kingdom of darkness. The Latin word infernus is any low place. Wherefore I cannot marvel sufficiently at your impudency, which affirm these three words, bisw, #öns and infernus, to be as proper for our English word “hell,” as panis is for “bread.” That there be other words beside these in all the three tongues to signify a “grave,” I marvel to what purpose you tell us, except you would have ignorant folk suppose that there cannot be two Hebrew, Greek, or Latin words for one thing.
Martin. Yea, note and consider diligently what we will say. Let Mantin, them shew me out of all the bible one place, where it is certain and “
agreed among all, that it must needs signify “grave"; let them shew'
me in any one such placc, that the holy scripture useth any of those former three words for “grave.” As when Abraham bought a place Gen. xlix. of burial, whether he bought “infernum ”; or when it is said the kings of Israel were buried in the monuments or sepulchres of their fathers, whether it say, in infernis patrum suorum. So that not only divines by this observation, but grammarians also and children may easily see, that the proper and natural signification of the said words is in English “hell,” and not “grave.”
Fulke, Fulke. We note well your foolish subtilty, that will 21. have us to shew you one place, where it is certain and agreed among all, that sheol must needs signify “grave.” I am persuaded that you and such as you are, that have sold yourselves to antichrist, to maintain his heresies with all impudency, will agree to nothing that shall be brought, though it be never so plain and certain that it must needs so signify. I have already shewed you three places, where the hoary head is said to go down into sheol, that is, into the “grave.” For whither should the hoary head go but into the grave? Nothing can be more plain to him that will agree to truth, that sheol in all such places is taken for the “grave.” But to omit those places, because I have spoken of them already, what say you to that place, Numb. xvi., where the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the rebels with their tents, and all their substance of cattle, and whatsoever they had 2 where the text saith, “They went down, and all that they had, alive, sheolah, into the pit or grave.” God made a great grave or hole in the earth, to receive them all. Where no man will say that either the bodies of these men, or their substance of tents, cattle, and stuff, went into “hell,” as it is sure their souls went into torment. And if authority do weigh more with you than good reason, hear what St Augustine writeth upon the same text, and how he taketh your inferos or infernum, which in the Hebrew is sheol, quaest. super Num. Lib. Iv. c. 29: Et descenderunt insi et omnia quacunque sunt eis viventes ad inferos. Notandum secundum locum terrenum dictos esse inferos, hoc est, &c. “And they themselves descended, and all that they had, alive unto inferos, the lower parts. It is to be noted, that inferi are spoken of an earthly place, that is, in the low parts of the earth. For diversely and under manifold understanding, even as the sense of things which are in hand. requireth, the name of inferi is put in the scriptures, and especially it is wont to be taken for the dead. But forasmuch as it is said that those descended alive ad inferos, and by the very narration it appeareth sufficiently what was done; it is manifest, as I said, that the lower parts of the earth are termed by this word inferi, in comparison of this upper part of the earth in which we live. Like as in comparison of the higher heaven, where the dwelling of the holy angels is, the scripture saith, that the sinful angels being thrust down into the darkness of this air, are reserved as it were in prisons of a lower part, or hell, to be punished.” St Augustine here doth not only understand this place of the grave, or receptacle of bodies; but also sheweth that the Latin word inferi or infernus doth not always signify “hell,” as you made it of late as proper for “hell,” as panis for “bread.” But because you shall not complain of the singularity of this example, although you require but one, I will add out of the Psalm coli., where the prophet saith, “Our bones are scattered at the very brink or mouth of sheol, ‘the grave’.” How can you understand him to speak of hell? For the grave, and not hell, is a place for dead men's bones: as he speaketh of the faithful, by the wicked counted as good as dead and rotten, consumed to the bones. By these and many other examples it is manifest, that the proper signification of sheol in English is a “grave,” and not “hell.”
Martin. And therefore Beza doth strangely abuse his reader more Mantin,
than in one place, saying that the Hebrew word doth properly signify”.
“grave,” being deduced of a verb that signifieth to crave or ask, be- Aoi. 3.27 cause it craveth always new corses. As though the grave craved more ov. 33. than hell doth, or swallowed more, or were more hardly satisfied and solo
filled than hell; for in all such places they translate “grave.” And
Rev. ix. 11.
Beza, before alleged.
in one such place they say, “The grave and destruction can never be full'." Whereas themselves a little before translate the very same words “hell and destruction”;” and therefore it might have pleased them to have said also, “hell and destruction can never be full,” as their pewfellows do in their translation: and again, “We shall swallow them up like hell.” “The devil,” we read, “goeth about continually like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour:” who is called in the Apocalypse “Abaddon,” that is, “destruction.” And so very aptly “hell” and “destruction” are joined together, and are truly said never to be filled. What madness and impudency is it then for Beza to write thus: “Who is ignorant that by the Hebrew word rather is signified a “grave,” for that it seemeth after a sort to crave always new carcases?”
Fulke. Beza doth not abuse his reader, to tell him that sheol is derived of a verb that signifieth “craving ” or “asking;” but you do unhonestly abuse Beza, as you do every man, when you take in hand to affirm that he standeth only upon the etymology of sheol, to prove that it signifieth “the grave.”
Martin. And again, concerning our Saviour Christ's descending into hell, and delivering the fathers from thence, “it is marvel,” saith Beza, “that the most part of the ancient fathers were in this error; whereas with the Hebrews the word sheol signifieth nothing else but ‘grave’.” Before, he pleaded upon the etymology or nature of the word; now also he pleadeth upon the authority of the Hebrews them
selves. If he were not known to be very impudent and obstinate, we
[' "A8ms kai droMeta oix durium Aavrai, Prov. xxvii. 20. “Infernus et perditio nunquam implentur,” Vulg. “The grave and destruction can never be full,” Geneva, 1560. “Hell and destruction are never full,” Cranmer, 1562. Bishops' bible, 1584. Authorised version.]
[* "Aöns Kai dróMeta, Prov. xv. 11. “Infernus et perditio,” Vulg. “Hell and destruction are before the Lord,” Bishops' bible, 1584. Geneva, 1560. Authorised version. “Hell and perdition are known unto the Lord,” Cranmer, 1562.]
[* Fateor tamen etiam de profundissimis illis subterraneis locis idem vocabulum interdum dici, quos alibi scriptura vocat abyssum, unde etiam porte inferorum nominantur, Matt. xvi. 18. et dives ille apud inferos collocatur in summo cruciatu, Luc. xviii. 23. et rogant daemones ne mittantur in abyssum, Luc. viii. 31. Sed quid quisque locus ferat, diligenter animadvertendum. ****** Dico igitur Sixw (scheol) hoc in loco (Act. ii. 27.) propria significatione accipiendum pro sepulchro, et “animam meam" vel loco pronominis me accipi, sicut vulgo dicimus ma personne, etc. Nov. Test. Edit. Beza, 1582, pp. 415, 416.] , would easily mistrust his skill in the Hebrew, saying that among the Hebrews the word signifieth “nothing else but grave.” Nihil aliud.
Fulke. Beza saith that the word sheol properly signi-Fulke, fieth nothing but “the grave:” nevertheless he saith it is 99. taken figuratively for “tribulation,” which is near to extreme destruction, yea, and sometime for the “bottomless pit of hell.”
Martin. I would gladly know what are those Hebrews. Doth not MARTIN, the Hebrew text of the holy scripture best tell us the use of this * word ž Do not themselves translate it “hell” very often? do not the Septuaginta always? If any Hebrew in the world were asked, how he would turn these words into Hebrew, Similes estis sepulchris dealbatis, “You are like to whited graves;” and, Sepulchrum ejus apud vos est, “His grave is among you”: would any Hebrew, I say, translate it by this Hebrew word which Beza saith among the Hebrews signifieth Sheolim. nothing else but “grave"? Ask your Hebrew readers in this case, heol. and see what they will answer.
Fulke. The best of the Hebrews, that either interpreted Fulke, scriptures, or made dictionaries, Jews or Christians, do ac- 24. knowledge that sheol doth properly signify “the grave.” That the Septuaginta do always translate it #3ns, it proveth not that it always signifieth “hell;” for £3ms signifieth not always “hell,” as in the place of Numb. xvi. As for the turning of Latin into Hebrew, is not our controversy, but of translating Hebrew into English: sheol may signify “the grave,” “the hole,” “the pit,” as fouea, though it be not all one with the Latin word sepulchrum. And yet rabbi Salomon, whom you boldly cite in the 27th section, saith logo. plainly, that the true and proper interpretation of sheol is xxxvii. keber, which you say is as proper for “grave,” as lac is for “milk.”
Martin. What are those Hebrews then that Beza speaketh of? For-Martin,
sooth, certain Jews or later rabbins, which, as they do falsely inter- #. rotes
pret all the holy scriptures against our Saviour Christ in other points tants in interof our belief, as against his incarnation, death, and resurrection; so do root they also falsely interpret the holy scriptures against his descending so into hell, which those Jewish rabbins deny, because they look for so another Messias that shall not die at all, and consequently shall not i.
after his death go down into hell, and deliver the fathers expecting his *. coming, as our Saviour Christ did. And therefore those Jewish rabbins hold, as the heretics do, that the fathers of the old testament were in