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tullian's authority therefore doth you small pleasure, and less honesty, unless you did cite him more truly. But I am unwise to look for plain dealing and sincerity at your hands. Well, your limbus patrum, the very brim, or uppermost, or outmost part of hell, wherein all the patriarchs should rest, we have now found from whence it came, even from your old acquaintance, the mouse of Pontus, Marcion the abominable heretic. The other saying of Jerome, but that the opinion of the fathers in hell had by that time taken some strength, might be understood of the mortality whereunto they were subject, and never should have been raised, but by the resurrection of Christ; as it seemeth by that which he opposeth of all nations, since the passion and resurrection of Christ, acknowledged to speak like philosophers of the immortality of the soul, and rejoicing in the resurrection of the dead, as the fathers mourned at their death. Chrysostom's place is more apparent for your error, although he also may be understood to speak allegorically of the effect of Christ's death and resurrection, by which all the patriarchs were delivered from death, and hell was spoiled; not that they were in prison there, but that the justice of God had condemned them thither, if Christ's death had not redeemed them: but I will not stand to clear Chrysostom of this error, which it is sufficient for me to have found that Marcion the old heretic was the first author thereof, by Tertullian's confession; howsoever it came to pass, that many good men afterward, deceived by the words #3ns and infernus, did hold it.

Martin. Therefore did Jacob say, “I will go down to my son unto MARTIN, hell.” And again he saith: “If any misfortune happen to (Benjamin) #. xlviii. by the way, you shall bring my grey head with sorrow unto hell,” which is repeated again twice in the chap. xliv.; by which phrase the holy scripture will signify, not only death, but also the descending at that time of all sorts of souls into hell, both good and bad. And there- 1 Kings ii ".

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fore it is spoken of all sorts in the holy scripture, both of good and of bad. For all went then into hell; but some into a place there of rest, others into other places there of torments. And therefore St Jerome saith, speaking of hell, according to the old testament: “Hell is a place wherein souls are included; either in rest, or in pains, according to the quality of their deserts”.”

Fulke. Jacob said he would be joined to his son by death, as in the other text you bring it is more manifest than the sun at noon days. For Jacob, speaking of his grey head, must needs mean of his body, and therefore of the grave, and not of hell. So in the 3 Reg. 2, which you quote, David chargeth Salomon, that he suffereth not the grey head of Joab to go down to the grave in peace, and that he shall cause the hoar head of Shemei to go down to the grave with blood; which by no means can be understood of his soul going to hell, which goeth not with blood; although it is plain enough by the word “hoar head,” that he meaneth his body in age, or his old body. And this text Pagnine, in his dictionary, thought necessary to be understood of the grave, although he make the word sheol indifferent to signify “hell,” and the “grave.” That all went to hell, some to rest, and some to torments, it was first devised by Marcion the heretic. But St Jerome is once again cited in Osea, cap. xiii. where he saith, “that hell is a place wherein souls are included,” &c.: by which you see that he speaketh not of limbus, wherein souls were included before Christ, but of such a place wherein they are now included; taking the word infernus generally for any place that receiveth the souls of the departed, as he saith most plainly himself in the same place : Quicquid igitur separat fratres, infernus est appellandus. “Whatsoever doth separate brethren, is to be called hell.” Augustine is quoted to multiply a lie, and for nothing else, as I have shewed before. whom he receiveth to his mercy? or hath the grave any power over


to the grave with blood,” Edit. 1584. “Therefore thou shalt cause
his hoar head to go down to the grave with blood,” Geneva, 1560.
“But his hoar head bring thou down to the grave with blood,” Autho-
rised version.
Kai karégmorav airoi, kai dora éori airów Kovra eis $800. Numb.
xvi. 33. “Descenderuntgue vivi in infernum,” Vulg. “They, and
all that appertained to them, went down alive into the pit,” Authorised
[* Et descenderunt insi, et omnia quaecumque sunt eis, viventes ad
inferos. Notandum secundum locum terrenum dictos esse inferos, hoc
est in inferioribus terrae partibus. Varie quippe in scripturis et sub
intellectu multiplici, sicut rerum de quibus agitur sensus exigit, nomen
ponitur inferorum, et maxime in mortuis hoc accipi solet. Sed quoniam
istos wiventes dictum estad inferos descendisse, et ipsa narratione quid
factum fuerit satis apparet; manifestum est, ut dixi, inferiores partes
terrae inferorum vocabulo nuncupatas, in comparatione hujus superioris
terræ in cujus facie vivitur; sicut in comparatione coeli superioris, ubi
sanctorum demoratio est angelorum, peccantes angelos in hujus aeris
detrusos caliginem scriptura dicit tanquam carceribus inferi puniendos
reservari. Augustini Quaestiones in Numeros, c. xxix. Opera, Vol. III.
pp. 838,839. Edit. Bened. Paris. 1836.]
[* Inter mortem autem et inferos hoc interest: mors est, qua anima
separatur a corpore; infernus, locus in quo animae recluduntur, sive
in refrigerio, sive in poenis, pro qualitate meritorum. Comment. Hiero-
nymi in Osee. c. xiii. Opera, Vol. iii. p. 1329.]

Martin. And in this sense it is also often said in the holy scrip-Martin, tures, that such and such were gathered, or laid to their fathers, though 13. they were buried in divers places, and died not in the same state of to of salvation, or damnation. In that sense, Samuel being raised up to speak ..o. to Saul, said, “To-morrow thou and thy sons shall be with me?" that o' is, dead, and in hell, though not in the same place or state there: in this sense all such places of the holy scripture as have the word “inferi,” or “infernus,” correspondent both to the Greek and Hebrew, ought to be, and may be most conveniently translated by the word “hell.” As when it is said, “Thou hast delivered my soul from the lower hell,” Ab inferno Psal. lxxxviii. 13, that is, as St Augustine expoundeth it, “Thou hast”. preserved me from mortal sins, that would have brought me into the lower hell, which is for the damned.” Which place of holy scripture, and the like, when they translate “grave,” see how miserably it soundeth : “Thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest grave.” Which they Bib. 1579. would never say for very shame, but that they are afraid to say in any place; be the holy scriptures never so plain, that any soul was delivered or returned from hell, lest thereof it might follow by and by,

that the patriarchs, and our Saviour Christ, were in such a hell.

Fulke. That which is spoken indifferently of the elect Fulks, and reprobate, must needs be understood of that which is 18. common to both, that is, corporal death. How can it be verified of their souls, that they were laid to the fathers, when between the godly and the wicked there is an infinite distance? but the earth, the grave, or pit, is a common receptacle of all dead bodies. That Samuel, which being raised up spake to Saul, might truly say of his soul, though

not of all his sons, that he should be with him in hell, (for it was the spirit of Satan, and not of Samuel, although counterfeiting Samuel,) he might speak of the death of Saul and his sons. As for that verse of the eighty-fifth psalm', whereupon you do falsely so often allege St Augustine's resolution, what absurdity hath it, to translate it, “from the lowest grave,” or “from the bottom of the grave” 2 whereby David meaneth extreme danger of death that he was in by the malice of his persecuting enemies, Saul and his accomplices. But we “are afraid to say in any place, that any “soul was delivered and returned from hell.’” We say that the souls of all the faithful are delivered from hell; but of any which after death is condemned to hell, we acknowledge no return. And these words are spoken by David while he lived, and praised God for his deliverance; which might be not only from the “grave,” but also from “hell,” saving that he here speaketh of his preservation from death.

MARTIN, Martin. And that this is their fear, it is evident, because that in 14. all other places, where it is plain that the holy scriptures speak of the hell of the damned, from whence there is no return, they translate there the very same word “hell,” and not “grave.” As for example, Prov. xv. 24. “The way of life is on high to the prudent, to avoid from hell beneath”.” Lo, here that is translated “hell beneath,” which before was translated “ the lowest grave.” And again, “Hell and destruction are before the Lord : how much more the hearts of the sons of men?” But when in the holy scriptures there is mention of delivery of a soul from hell, Ho then thus they translate: “God shall deliver my soul from the power inferi. of the grave, for he will receive me.” Can you tell what they would say ? doth God deliver them from the grave, or from temporal death,

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the soul? Again, when they say, “What man liveth and shall not so exis

see death? shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?”

Fulke. I have shewed before divers times, that although Fulke,

the Hebrew word sheol do properly signify a receptacle o the bodies after death, yet when mention is of the wicked, by consequence it may signify “hell;” as the day signifieth light, the night darkness, fire heat, peace signifieth prosperity, and an hundred such like speeches. But where you say that Proverbs xv.24, that is translated “hell beneath,” which before was translated the “lowest grave,” Psalm lxxxv. 13, you say untruly; for although in both places there is the word sheol, yet in that psalm there is tachtijah, in the Proverbs mattah, for which if it were translated “the grave,” that declineth, or is downward, it were no inconvenience. In the other texts you trifle upon the word “soul;” whereas the Hebrew word signifieth not the reasonable soul, which is separable from the body, but the life, or the whole person of man, which may rightly be said to be delivered from the hand or power of the grave, as the verse 48° doth plainly declare, when in the latter part is repeated the sense of the former, as it is in many places of the Psalms.

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Martin. If they take “grave” properly, where man's body is buried, Martin, y grave properly

it is not true either that every soul, yea, or every body is buried in

beneath,” Cranmer, 1562. “The way of life is on high to the wise, that a man should beware of hell beneath,” Bishops’ bible, 1584.

'Ek xeipós 380y fivorouai, kai éx 6avárov Avrpooropal airot's moč # vikm orov, 6ávare; now kévrpov orov, #8m ; “De manu mortis liberabo eos, de morte redimam eos; ero mors tua, o mors, morsus tuus ero, inferne,” Vulg. “I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction,” Version 1611. Hosea xiii. 14.

IIow orov, 6ávare, kévrpov; not orov, #8m, vikos ; “Ubi est, mors, victoria tua 2 ubi est, mors, stimulus tuus?” Vulg. “Oh death, where is thy sting? oh grave, where is thy victory?" Authorised version, 1611. 1 Cor. xv. 55.]

[* forerai rāv Vovkov airoß & xelpos #800; Psal. lxxxvii. 48. “Eruet animam suam de manu inferi ?” Vulg. lxxxix. 48. “And shall he deliver his soul from the hand of hell?” Bishops' bible, 1584; Cranmer, 1562. “Shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the grave?” Geneva, 1560; Authorised version.]

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