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A SYSTEM

OF

SYNTHETIC PHILOSOPHY.

VOL. I.

PRINCIPLES

OF A

NEW SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY.

BY

HERBERT SPENCER,

AUTHOR OD
* LILUSTRATIONS OF UNIVERSAL PROGRE88," "ESSAYS, MORAL, TOLITICAL AND ESTILTIC-
" PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY," "PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY," "SOCIAL STATIC8,"

"EDUCATION," ETC., ETO.

SECOND EDITION.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
64 9 & 651 BROADWAY.

1872.

بلد

488573

WORKS BY HERBERT SPENCER.

PUBLISHED BY D. APPLETON & co.

Miscellaneous Writings. EDUCATION-INTELLECTUAL, MORAL, AND PHYSICAL.

1 vol., 12mo. 283 pages. Cloth. ILLUSTRATIONS OF UNIVERSAL PROGRESS. 1 vol., large

12mo. 470 pages. Cloth. ESSAYS_MORAL, POLITICAL, AND ASTHETIC. 1 vol.,

large 12mo. 418 pages. SOCIAL STATICS; or, the Conditions Essential to Human Happi

ness Specified, and the first of them Developed. 1 vol., large 12.o. 623

pages. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCIENCES : to which is added

Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of M. Comie. A pamphlet of 50 pages. Fine paper.

System of Philosophy. FIRST PRINCIPLES, IN Two Parts-1. The Unknowable; II.

Laws of the Knowable. 1 vol., large 12mo. 608 pages. Cloth. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY. Vol. I. large 12mo. 475 pages.

Vol. II. large 12mo. 566 pages.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in tbe year 1864,

By D. APPLETON & CO.,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the

Southern District of New York,

PREFACE

TO TIE AMERICAN EDITION.

The present volume is the first of a series designed to ua fold the principles of a new philosophy. It is divided into two parts: the aim of the first being to determine the true sphere of all rational investigation, and of the second, to elucidate those fundamental and universal principles which science has established within that sphere, and which are to constitute the basis of the system. The scheme of truth developed in these First Principles is complete in itself, and has its independent value ; but it is designed by the author to serve for guidanco and verification in the construction of the succeeding and larger portions of his philosophic plan.

Having presented in his introductory volume so much of the general principles of Physics as is essential to the development of his method, Mr. Spencer enters upon the subject of Organic nature. The second work of the series is to be the Principles of Biology-a systematic statement of the facts and laws which constitute the Science of Life. It is not to be an encyclopedic and exhaustive treatise upon this vast subject, but such a compendious presentation of its data and general principles as shall interpret the method of nature, afford a clear understanding of the questions involved, and prepare for further inquiries. This work is now published in quarterly numbers, of from 80 to 96 pages. Four of these parts have already appeared, and some idea of the course and character

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